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The  Transactions  of  the  Folk-Lore  Society 

Amd  Incorporating  The  ARCHiEOLOGiCAL  Review  and 
The  Folk-Lore  Journal 

VOL.  XIX.— 1908 

Alt«r.«t  Idem 



DAVID    NUTT,    SS— 57,    LONG    ACRE 


6LA100W  :  paurrso  at  tnb  imtrsxtmr  pbcm 
WW  ■osurr  maclsnobs  amo  co.  tm. 

Members.  iii 

1905.  Bridge,  G.  F.,  Esq.,  45  South  Hill  Park,  London,  N.W. 
1878.  Britten,  James,  Esq.,  41  Boston  Road,  Brentford. 

1894.  Brix,  M.  Camille  de,  36  Rue  des  Chanoines,  Caen,  Calvados,  France. 

1902.  Broadbent,  N.  M.,  Esq. 

1892.  Broadwood,  Miss  Lucy  E.,  84  Carlisle  Mansions,  S.W. 

1890.  Brooke,  Rev.  Stopford  A.,  I  Manchester  Square,  W. 

1903.  Brown,  James,  Esq.,  Netherby,  Galashiels. 

1889.  Browne,  John,  Esq.,  Chertsey  House,  Park  Hill  Rise,  Croydon. 

1883.  Bume,  Miss  C.  S.,  5  Ivema  Gardens,  Kensington,  W.  {Vice-President), 

1907,  Cadbury,  George,  Esq.,  Jun.,  Boumville,  Birmingham. 

i88a  Caddick,  E.,  Esq.,  Willington  Road,  Edgbaston,  Birmingham. 

1907.  Calderon,  G.,  Esq.,  33  Buckingham  Mansions,  West  End  Lane,  N.W. 

1908.  Cameron,  Miss  M.  Lovett,  Villa  Dante,  Borgo  Alia  CoUina,  Casentino, 


1894.  Campbell,  Lord  Archibald,  Coombe  Hill  Farm,  Kingston-on-Thames. 

1906.  Campbell,  Miss  M.  C,  2  Cloverdale  Lawn,  Cheltenham. 

1898.  Campbell,  W.  J.  Douglas,  Esq.,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Innis  Chonain,  Loch  Awe, 


1894.  Carpenter,  Professor  J.  Estlin,  190  Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 

1903.  Cartwright,   Mrs.,  c/o  Major  H.    R.   Cartwright,   South  African  Con- 

stabulary, Heidelberg,  Transvaal. 

1899.  Chambers,  E.  K.,  Esq.,  Board  of  Education,  Whitehall,  S.W. 
1901.  Chase,  Charles  H.,  Esq.,  9  Upland  Rd.,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

1906.  Chater,  Arthur  G.,  Esq.,  41  Porchester  Square,  W. 

1 88 1.  Chorlton,  T.,  Esq.,  32  Brazennose  Street,  Manchester. 

1878.  Qodd,   Edward,   Esq.,   5   Princes  Street,   E.C,   and  Strafford  House, 
Aldeburgh  ( Vice-President), 

1904.  Cobb,  Dr.  C.  M.,  10  Nahant  Street,  Lynn,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 
1901.  Cobham,  Miss  E.  M.,  B.A.,  4  Woodville  Terrace,  Gravesend. 
1901.  Coleridge,  Miss  C.  R.,  Che3nie,  Torquay. 

1895.  Conybeare,  F.  C,  Esq.,  M.A.,  17  Bradmore  Rd.,  Oxford. 

1907.  Cook,  A.  B.,  Esq.,  19  Cranmer  Road,  Cambridge. 
1886.  Cosquin,  M.  Emanuel,  Vitry-le-Fran9ois,  Marne,  France. 

1888.  Cox,  Miss  Marian  Roalfe,  80  Carlisle  Mansions,  S.W.  {Hon,  Member). 
1904.  Crawford  Cree,  A.  T.,  Esq.,  Brodsworth,  Beckenham,  Kent. 

1889.  Crombie,  James  E.,  Esq.,  Park  Hill  House,  Dyce,  Aberdeen. 

1881.  Crooke,  W.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Langton  House,  Charlton  Kings,  Cheltenham. 

1905.    D'Acth,  F.  G.,  Esq.,  University  Settlement,  129  Park  St.,  Liverpool. 

1S92.    Dames,  M.  Longworth,  Esq.,  Alegria,  Enfield. 

i^S-    Dampier,  G.  R.,  Esq.,  c/o  Messrs.  Grindlay,  Groome  &  Co.,  Bombay, 

Partabjarh,  Oudh,  India. 
*90S.    Davies,  J.  C,  Esq.,  Dyffryn  Villa,  Llanilar,  Aberystwyth. 



iv  Contents. 

Collectanea  : — 

The  Lazy  Wife :  A  Manx  Folk-tale.     Sophia  Morrison 

Notes  on  some  Amulets  of  the  Three  Magi  Kings.     W.  L. 
HlLDBURGH   .  .  .  .  .  . 

Amulets  used  in  Lincolnshire.     Mabel  Peacock 

Sundry  Notes  from  West  Somerset  and  Devon.     C.  W.  Whistler 

Putting  Life  into  an  Idol.     G.  H.  Skipwith     . 

A  Pin-Offering.     G.  Montagu  Benton. 

Notes  on  Some  Customs  of  the  Bangala  Tribe,  Upper  Congo. 

J.  H.  Weeks  ..... 

The  "  Bitter  Withy  "  Ballad.     F.  Sidgwick 
Notes  on  some  Flemish  Amulets  and  Beliefs.  W.  L.  Hildburgh 
Notes  on  some   Contemporary  Portuguese  Amulets.     W.  L. 

Hildburgh  ...... 

Folk-tales  of  the  Aborigines  of  New  South  Wales.     Part  I. 

R.  H.  Mathews       ..... 
Specimens  of  Modern  Mascots  and  Ancient  Amulets  of  the 

British  Isles.    A.  R.  Wright,  E.  Lovett     . 
Folk-tales  of  the  Aborigines  of  New  South  Wales.     Part  XL 

R.  H.  Mathews        ..... 
Turks  Praying  for  Rain.     G.  E.  White 
A  Survival  of  Incubation?  (In  the   Abruzzi).     Marian   C. 

Harrison     ...... 

Irish    Folk-lore    from    Cavan,   Meath,    Kerry  and   Limerick. 

Bryan  H.  Jones       ..... 
Billy  Beg,  Tom  Beg  and  the  Fairies.     From  the  Manx.     Sophia 

Morrison     ...... 

Ghost  raising  in  Wales.     J.  Ceredig  Da  vies    . 

The  Use  of  a  Skull  in  a  Rain-making  Ceremony  in  Corsica. 


?-  The"Jass"atThun.    C.  J.  Billson  . 

Folk-lore  from  Tangier.     Miss  F.  Kirby  Green 

The  "Devil's  Door'*  in  Wroxhall  Abbey  Church.     Charlotte 

S.  BURNE       ..... 

The  Legend  of  Savaddan  Lake.     Isaac  C.  Hughes 

The  Feast  of  St  Wilfrid.     {Illustrated  London  News) 

Death-knock  in  the  Wapentake  of  Corringham,  Lincolnshire. 
Mabel  Peacock 


iSSa.  George,  C  W.,  Esq.,  51  Hampton  Road,  Clifton,  Bristol. 

1907.  Ghosal,  B.  B.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  C.M.S.  High  School,  Jubbalpore,  India. 

1908.  Gilbertson,  C,  Esq.,  16  Gloucester  Walk,  Campden  Hill,  W. 

1891.  Gollancz,  I.,  Esq.,  Litt.D.,  Tan-y-bryn,  Shoot-up-Hill,  N.W. 
1907.  Gomme,  A.  Allan,  Esq.,  10  Gt.  Ormond  St.,  Bloomsbury,  W.C. 
1878.  Gomme,  G.  Laurence,  Esq.,  24  Dorset  Square,  N.W.  {Vice-Presidtnt), 
1898.  Gomme,  Mrs.  G.  Laurence,  24  Dorset  Square,  N.W.  {Hon,  Member), 
1883.  Gosselin-Grimshawe,  Hillier,  Esq.,  Bengeo  Hall,  Hertford. 

1907.  Gouldsbury,  Henry  C,  Esq.,  Native  Department,  Sinosa,  Lomagondi, 
S.  Rhodesia. 

1892.  Gowland,  T.,  Esq.,  Pencraig,  DoUis  Park,  Finchley,  N. 

1890.  Green,  Frank  G.,  Esq.,  Waverley,  Carshalton  {Hon,  AufHtor), 

1891.  Gregory,  H.  E.,  Esq.,  Quintain  House,  Offham,  Mailing,  Kent 
1878.  Gutch,  Mrs.,  Holgate  Lodge,  York. 

C  1890.  Haddon,  A.  C,  Esq.,  D.Sc,  F.R.S.,  Inisfail,  Hills  Road,  Cambridge. 

c.  1903.  Hall,  Mrs.  H.  F.,  Oaklands,  Sheffield. 

1901.  Hamilton,  Miss  Katherine,  Fort  Wayne,  Indiana,  U.S.A. 

1901.  Hampton,  G.  H.,  Esq.,  22  Cleveland  Terrace,  Darlington. 

1878.  Hardy,  G.  F.,  Esq.,  Broad  Street  House,  Old  Broad  Street,  E.C. 

1878.  Hartland,    E.    Sidney,    Esq.,    F.S.A.,    Highgarth,    Gloucester    {Vice- 

1900.  Heather,  P.  J.,  Esq.,  25  Lambton  Road,  Wimbledon,  S.W. 

1897.  Henderson,  Miss  A.  B.,  Ormlie  Lodge,  Thurso. 

1905.  Henderson,  C.  A.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Chatrapur,  Ganjam  District,  Madras,  I.CS. 
1886.  Hervey,  Hon.  D.  F.  A.,  C.M.G.,  Westfields,  Aldeburgh-on-Sea,  Suflfolk. 

1890.  Hewitt,  J.  F.,  Esq.,  Holton  Cottage,  Wheatley,  Oxford. 

1891.  Higgens,  T.  W.  E.,  Esq.,  25  Finborough  Road,  Fulham  Road,  S.W. 

1906.  Hildburgh,  Walter  L.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Ph.D.,  St.  Ermin*s  Hotel,  St.  James* 

Park,  S.W. 

1895.  Hinuber,  Miss,  34  Linden  Road,  Bedford, 

c.  1883.  Hodgkin,  J.  H.,  Esq.,  F.L.S.,  F.I.C,   F.C.S.,  97  Hamlet  Gardens, 

Ravenscourt  Park,  W. 

1904.  Hodgson,  Miss  M.  L.,  The  Croft,  Betley,  via  Crewe. 

1901.  Holmes,  T.  V.,  Esq.,  F.G.S.,  28  Crooms  Hill,  Greenwich,  S.E. 
1878.  Howard,  David,  Esq.,  Devon  House,  Buckhurst  Hill,  Essex. 
190a  Howell,  G.  O.,  Esq.,  210  Eglinton  Road,  Plumstead,  Kent. 

1901.  Howitt,  Miss  Mary  E.  B.,  Eastwood,  Baimsdale,  Victoria,  Australia. 

1904.  Hughes,  G.  H.,  Esq.,  Turf  Club,  Cairo. 

1898.  Hull,  Miss  Eleanor,  14  Stanley  Gardens,  W. 

1906.  Hulst,  Mrs.  Henry,  88  Fountain  Street,  Grand  Rapids,  Michigan,  U.S.A. 

1898.  Hutchinson,  Rev.  H.  N.,  F.G.S.,  17  St.  John's  Wood  Park,  Finchley 
Road,  N.W. 

1900.  im  Thum,  Sir  E,  F.,  C.B.,  K.C.M.G.,  Governor  of  the  Fiji  Islands. 

vi  Conients. 

Sister  Nevediia  {Margaret  E.  Noble).     Cradle-Tales  of  Hindu- 
ism.   W.  Crooks     .  .  .  .  .  •     115 
Capt  W,  R  O'Connor.    Folk-Tales  from  Tibet.    A.  R.  Wright     i  16 
W./enkyn  Thomas.    The  Welsh  Fairy  Book.     Alfred  Nutt      119 
Popular  Handbooks  of  Religions. 

1.  /.  Abrahams.    Judaism. 

2.  E.  AnwyL     Celtic  Religion  in  Pre-Christian  Times. 

3.  C  Bailey.     Religion  of  Ancient  Rome. 

4.  L,  D.  Barnett.     Hinduism. 

5.  W,  A  Craigie.     Religion  of  Ancient  Scandinavia. 

6.  W.  M.  F.  Petrie.    Religion  of  Ancient  Egypt. 

7.  T.  G.  Pinches.     Religion  of  Babylon  and  Assyria. 

8.  C.  Squire.     Mythology  of  Ancient  Britain  and  Ireland. 

W.  Crooke       .  .  .  .  .  .124 

L.    Dietrich,      Volkskundliche    Zeitschriftenschau    fiir    1904. 

N.  W.  Thomas         .  .  .  .  -125 

Transactions  of  the  First  Annual  Congress  of  the  European 

Theosophical  Society.     W.  F.  Kirby  .  .  .126 

Orkney  and  Shetland  Old  Lore.  (Viking  Club.)  Editor  .  127 
Z.  R.  Farnell.    The  Cults  of  the  Greek  Sutes .  .  .236 

G*  Z.  Gomme.  Folk-Lore  as  an  Historical  Science.  A.  Lang  241 
Cambridge  History  of  English  Literature.     Vol.  L     Alfred 

Nutt  .......     247 

H.  A,  Rose.     Compendium  of  the  Punjab  Customary  Law. 

W.  Crooke  .  .  .  .  .  .  .251 

Dudley  Kidd.     Kafir  Socialism.     R.  R.  Marett  .  .252 

R.  Sutherland  Rattray.     Some  Folk-lore  Stories  and  Songs  in 

Chinyanja.  A.  Werner  .....  254 
Tareza  Stratilesco.     From  Carpathian  to  Pindus.     W.  H.  D. 

Rouse  .......    346 

J.    Hertel.     Ausgewahlte    Erzahlungen    aus    Hemachandra's 

ParisishUparvan.  C.  H.  Tawney  ....  347 
Gudmund  SchUtte.  Oldsagn  om  Godtyod.  Axel  Olrik  .  353 
W.  Dittmer.     Te  Tohunga.     G.  Calderon     .  -359 

Geo.  H.  Bratley.     The  Power  of  Gems  and  Charms.      W.  L. 

HiLDBURGH   .  .  .  .  .  .361 

W.  T,  Femie,    Precious  Stones.     W.  L.  Hildburgh  .  .     364 

Members.  vii 

1904.  Marsden,  Miss,  F.R.G.S.,  Chine  Side,  Shanklin,  Isle  of  Wight. 
1880.     Marston,  E.,  Esq.,  St.  Danstan's  House,  Fetter  Lane,  E.C. 

1892.     Masson,  Sir  D.  P.,  Managing  Director,  The  Punjab  Bank,  Lahore,  per 
H.  S.  King  &  Co.,  Comhill,  E.C. 

1905.  Matthew,   Rev.    H.    C,  The   Manse,    Barrabool,   by   Ceres,   Victoria, 


1889.  Matthews,  Miss  E.,  Raymead,  Park  Road,  Watford. 

1905.  Maylam,  P.,  Esq.,  32  Watling  Street,  Canterbury. 

1902.  Maxwell,  W.  G.,  Esq.,  Attorney  General,  Singapore,  Straits  Settlement. 

1892.  Merrick,  W.  P.,  Esq.,  Elvetham,  Shepperton. 

1891.  Milne,  F.  A.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  1 1  Old  Square,  Lincoln's  Inn,  W.C.  {Secretary). 
1902.  Milroy,  Mrs.  M.  E.,  The  Oast  House,  Farnham,  Surrey. 

1890.  Mond,  Mrs.  Frida,  20  Avenue  Road,  Regent's  Park,  N.W. 
1904.  Montague,  Mrs.  Amy,  Penton,  Crediton,  N.  Devon. 
1889.  Morison,  Theodore,  Esq.,  Aligarh,  N.W. P.,  India. 

1899.     Myers,   C.   S.,  Esq.,  M.A.,   M.D.,  Galewood  Tower,  Great  Shelford, 
c.  1897.     Myres,  J.  L.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  F.S.A.,  i  Wellington  Place,  Oxford. 

c.  1885.     Nesfield,  J.  P.,  Esq.,  Stratton  House,  2  Madley  Road,  Ealing. 
1878.     Nutt,  A.,  Esq.,  57  Long  Acre,  W.C.  {Vice-President), 

1902.  O'Brien,  Captain  A.  J.,  Deputy  Commissioner  Deri  Ghazi  Khan,  c/o  H.  S. 
King  &  Co.,  9  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1892.  Oldfield,  Lieut. -Col.  F.  H.,  R.E.,  Scottish  Conservative  Club,  Edinburgh. 
1892.     Olrik,  Dr.  Axel,  174  Gl.  Kongevej,  Copenhagen,  Denmark. 

1886.     Ordish,   T.   Fairman,  Esq.,    F.S.A.,   2   Melrose  Villa,   Ballards  Lane, 

Finchley,  N. 
189a     Owen,  Miss  Mary  A.,  306  North  Ninth  Street,  St.  Joseph's,  Missouri, 

U.S.A.  {Hon,  Member), 

1892.  Paton,  W.  R.,  Esq.,  Ph.D.,  Ker  Anna,  Pirros  Guirce,  C6tes-du-Nord, 
France  {per  Messrs.  Burnett  &  Reid,  12  Golden  Square,  Aberdeen). 

1878.  Peacock,  E.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Wickentree  House,  Kirton-in-Lindsey, 

1899.     Percy,  Lord  Algernon,  Guy's  Cliff,  Warwick. 

1907.     Peter,  Thurstan,  Esq.,  Redruth, 

1894.     Phipson,  Miss,  45  Cambridge  Street,  Edgware  Road,  W. 

1889.  Pineau,  M.  L^n,  Villa  Roche  Close,  Chamalieres,  Clermont,  Ferrand, 
Puy  de  D6me,  France. 

1906.  Pitman,  Miss  E.  B.,  Humshaugh  Vicarage,  Northumberland. 

1898.     Pitts,  J.  Linwood,  Esq.,  M.J.I.,  F.S.A.,  Curator,  Guille-All^s  Library, 

1889.     Pocklington-Coltman,  Mrs.,  Hagnaby  Priory,  Spilsby,  Lincolnshire. 



W.  T. 

y.  W.  Bruiner,     Das  deutsche  Volkslied 

H,  S,  Rehm.    Deutsche  Volksfeste  und  Volkssitten. 

Dudley  Kidd,     The  Bull  of  the  Kraal.     R.  R.  Marett 

Otto  Hellgren,    Sanglekar  fran  Naas.     M.  Longworth  Dames 



List  of  Plates: — 

I.  Map  of  the  Quantock  District  of  Somersetshire. 
II.  Guy  Fawkes  Celebration  in  Guernsey,  1903 

III.  Portuguese  Amulets 

IV.  Amulets  on  a  donkey  at  Lisbon 
V.  Mascots  and  Amulets  of  the  British  Isles 

VI.  Do.  do. 

VII.  Procession  of  the  Madonna  della  Libera, 
Pratola  Peligna 
VIII.  The  Burryman.     Front  View 
IX.  The  Burryman.     Back  View 
X.  Map  to  illustrate  the  Disposal  of  the  Dead 

in  Australia 
XI.  The  Jass  of  Thun  . 
XII.  The  Devil's  Door,  Wroxhall  Abbey 

XIII.  The  Feast  of  St.  Wilfrid     . 

XIV.  A  Street  in  Rhodes  (showing  charms  on  houses) 


page  50 







P.  59,  1.  %tfor  lason  read  lasion. 
P.  116,  1.  15,/^  Katilah  r^foaf  Kalilah. 
P.  129,  1.  \2ifor  Pownee  read  Pawnee. 
P.  161,  1.  24^  for  North  r^flflf  South. 
P.  177,  11.  18,  19,  delete  from  and  to  fiiscination. 
P.  213  note^  1.  Tifor  mecotl^  r^o^  recolt^s. 
P.  213  note^  1.  Tyfor  eu  read  tn, 
P.  213  note,  I.  ^Itfor  nats  readx2L\s, 
P.  278,  1.  2T,for  Bi-Thonga  read  Ba-Thonga. 
P.  319,  I.  ^jfor  with  r^oaf  without. 
P.  357,  last  line,  after  kingly  o^af  genealogy. 
P.  390,  I.  26, /?r  south  r^oaf  South. 
P«  399»  1*  6,  add,  to  complete  the  sentence,  does  not  appear  to  be 

found  elsewhere. 
P.  410,  1.  %jfor  Mpalalbala  rf^oaf  Mpalabala. 
P.  437,  at  end,  for  B.  M.  S.  Thysville,  Wathen  read  Wathen, 

B.  M.  S.  Thysville. 
P.  439,  1.  I,  for  Thun  read  Kyburg. 
P.  462,  1.  14,  for  town  read  smoke. 
P.  468,  before  That's  like  old  American  Johnny  insert  as  separate 

title  fcRUCIFYING  A  CrOW. 

Memb€rs.  ix 

1896.  Singer,  ProfeNor,  15  Nydecklaabe,  Benii  SwitierUnd. 

1907.    Singh,  H.  H.,  The  Raja  Sir  Bhori,  Cbamba,  via  Dalhoosie,  Punjab. 
190a    Skeat,  Walter  W.,  Esq.,  Romeland  Cottage,  St«  Albans. 

1888.  Skilbeck,  J.  H.,  Esq.,  6  Carlton  HiU,  N. W. 

1891.  Skipwith,  G.  H.,  Esq.,  Public  library,  Plumstead,  S.E. 
1899.    Sneddon,  G.  P.,  Esq.,  8  Merry  Street,  Motherwell,  N.B. 

1901.    Southam,  Lieut-Col.  H.  R.  H.,  V.D.,  F.S.A.,  Innellan,  Shrewsbury. 

1907.  Sparling,  HalUday,  Esq.,  15  Villa  Davonst,  Asnieres  (Seme),  France. 
189&     Speakman,  Mrs.  J.  G.,  Palazzo  PoUini,  Siena,  Italy. 

1898.  Speight,  Ernest  E.,  Esq.,  Slemdal,  Christiania,  Norway. 
1S93.  Spoer,  Fiau  Hans,  Box  104,  Austrian  P.O.,  Jerusalem,  Syria. 
1893.  Stanbery,  Miss  K.  S.,  433  Adair  Avenue,  Zanesville,  Ohio,  U.S.A. 

1899.  Starr,  Professor  Frederick,  University  of  Chicago,  Chicago,  U.S. A.  {.Hon. 

188a.    Stokes,  WhiUey,  Esq.,  C.S.I.,  CLE.,  D.C.L.,  LL.D.,  F.S.A.,    15 
GrenviUe  Place,  S.W. 

1897.  Stow,  Mrs.,  c/o  Bakewell,  Stow  &  Piper.  Cowra  Chambers,  GrenfeU 

Street,  Adelaide,  S.  Australia. 
1878.     Swainson,  Rev.  C,  The  Rectory,  Old  Charlton. 

1904.  Swanson,  A.  E.,  Esq.,  Erin,  13  Frognal  Mansions,  Hampstead,  N.W. 

1889.  Tabor,  C.  J.,  Esq.,  The  White  House,  Knotts  Green,  Leyton,  Essex. 
1885.    Temple,   Lieut-CoL  Sir  R.  C,  Bart.,  CLE.,  F.R.G.S.,  The  Nash, 


1896.  Thomas,  N.  W.,  Esq.,  M.A.,  7  Coptic  Street,  W.C  {Hon,  Auditor), 
i^aj.    Thomas,  P.  G.,  Esq.,  Bedford  Collie,  Baker  Street,  W. 

1892.  Thompson,  Miss  SkefHngton,  Glenelly,  Chiselhurst  Common,  Kent. 
1885.     Tolhurst,  J.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  Glenbrook,  Beckenham,  Kent. 

1905.  Torr,  Miss  Dona  R.,  Carlett  Park,  Eastham,  Cheshure. 

1897.  Townshend,  Mrs.  R.  B.,  Derry  Illawn,  Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 
1896.     Traheme,  L.  E.,  Esq.,  Coedriglan  Park,  Cardiff. 

1887.     Travancore,  H.H.  The  Maharajah  of,  Huzier,  Cutcherry,  Trevandrum, 

1908.  Tupper,  Sir  Lewis,  K.CLE.,  C.S.I.,  Crosswood  House,  East  Molesey, 

i838.    Tumbull,  A.  H.,  Esq.,  EUbank,  Wellington,  New  Zealand,  per  A.  L. 

Elder  &  Co.,  7  St.  Helen's  Place,  E.C 
1878.    Tylor,  Professor  E.  R,  LL.D.,  D.C.L.,  F.R.S.,  The  Museum  House, 

Oxford  ( Vice-President), 

1878.     Udal,  His  Honour  J.  S.,  Chief  Justice  of  the  Leeward  Islands,  Antigua, 
West  Indies. 

1899.    ^^^  Gennep,  Professor  A.,  56  Rue  de  Sevres,  Clamart,  Seine. 
1907.     Verhorff,  Miss  C,  The  Beaconsfield,  Brookline,  Mass.,  U.S.A.,  per  B.  F. 
Stevens  &  Brown,  4  Traf&lgar  Square,  S.W. 


1889.  Walhouse,  M.  J.,  Esq.,  28  Hamilton  Terrace,  St.  John's  Wood,  N.W. 
1879.    Walker,  Dr.  Robert,  Budleigh-Salterton,  Devon. 

1897.     Warner,  S.  G.,  Esq.,  Elmside,  Bolingbroke  Grove,  S.W. 

1906.     Westermarck,  F.,  Esq.,  Ph.D.,  8  Rockley  Rd.,  West  Kensington  Park,  W. 

1897.     Weston,  Miss  J.  L.,  Lyceum  Club,  Piccadilly,  W. 

1883.  Wheatley,  Henry  B.,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  2  Oppidans  Road,  Primrose  Hill,  N.W. 
1908.     Williams,  R.  James,  Esq.,  Stamford  Road,  Lydney,  Gloucestershire. 

1890.  Williamson,  Rev.  C.  A.,  Ashampstead  Vicarage,  Reading. 

1893.    Windle,  Professor  B.  C.  A.,  M.D.,  F.R.S.,  President's  House,  Queen's 

College,  Cork, 
c.  1893.     Wissendorff,  H.,  Esq.,  19  Nadeschkinskara,  St.  Petersburg,  Russia. 
1908.    Wolsey,   Rev.   M.,  1938  East  moth   Street,   Cleveland,   U.S.A.,   per 

G.  E.  Stechert. 
1893.     Wood,  Alexander,  Esq.,  Thomly,  Saltcoats,  Ayrshire. 
1890.    Wright,  A.  R.,  Esq.,  H.M.  Patent  Office,  25  Southampton  Buildings, 

Chancery  Lane,  W.C. 

1884.  Wright,  W.  Aldis,  Esq.,  LL.D.,  Trinity  College,  Cambridge. 
1897.     Wyndham,  the  Rt.  Hon.  G.,  M.P.,  House  of  Commons,  S.W. 

1902.     Zervos,  Gerasimos,  Esq.,  c/o  Ralli  Brothers,  Khamgaon,  Berar,  India. 

SUBSCRIBERS  (corrected  to  1908). 

1893.  Aberdeen  Public  Library,  per  G.  M.  Eraser,  Esq.,  M.A.,  Librarian. 

1894.  Aberdeen  University  Library,  per  P.  J.  Anderson,  Esq.,  Librarian. 
1902.     Adelaide   Public   Library,    South   Australia,    per   Kegan   Paul  &    Co., 

43  Gerrard  Street,  W. 

1899.  American  Geographical  Society,  New  York,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown, 
4  Trafalgar  Square,  S.W. 

1 891.  Amsterdam,  The  University  Library  of,  per  Kirberger  &  Kesper,  Book- 
sellers, Amsterdam. 

1879.  Antiquaries,  The  Society  of,  Burlington  House,  W. 

1905.  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal,  57  Park  Street,  Calcutta,  per  B.  Quaritch, 
15  Piccadilly,  London,  W. 

1 88 1.  Berlin  Royal  Library,  per  Asher  and  Co.,   13  Bedford  Street,  Covent 

Garden,  W.C. 

1880.  Bibliotheque  Nationale,  Paris,  per  Continental  Export  Company,  4  High 

Street,  Bloomsbury,  W.C. 
1884.     Birmingham  Free  Library,  Ratcliffe  Place,   Birmingham,  per  A.  Capel 
Shaw,  Esq. 

1882.  Birmingham  Library,  c/o  H.  Keeling,  Esq. ,  109  Colmore  Row,  Birmingham. 
1908.     Bishopsgate  Institute,  Bishopsgate  St.  Without,  E.C.,  per  C.  W.  F.  Goss, 

1899.     Bordeaux  University  Library,  per  A.  Schulz,  3  Place  de  la  Sorbonne,  Paris. 

Members.  xi 

1878.  Boston  Athenseum,  Boston,  U.S.A.,  per  Kegan  Paul  &  Co.,  43  Gerrard 

Street,  W. 
1881.     Boston  Public  Library,  Mass.,  U.S. A.,  per  G.  £.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard, 

Carey  Street,  W.C. 
1906.     Boysen,  C,  Hamburg,  per  Kegan  Paul  &  Co.,  43  Gerrard  Street,  W.C. 

1902.  Bradford  Free  Public  Library,  Darley  St.,  Bradford,  per  Butler  Wood,  Esq. 
1894.  Brighton  Free  Library,  per  H.  D.  Roberts,  Esq.,  Chief  Librarian,  Brighton. 
1906.     Bristol  Central  Library,  per  E.  R.  Norris  Mathews,  Esq.,  F.R.  Hist.  Soc. 

1905.     California  State  library,  Sacramento,  California,  per  B.   F.   Stevens  & 

Brown,  4  Trafalgar  Square,  W.C. 
1908.     California,  University  of,  Berkeley,  Cal.,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E.  Stechert. 

1903.  Cambridge  Free  Library,  per  W.  A.  Fenton,  Esq. 
1898.     Cardiff  Free  Libraries,  per  J.  Ballinger,  Esq. 

1898.     Carnegie  Free  Library,  Alleghany,   Pa.,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E.  Stechert, 
2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C. 

1904.  Carnegie  Library,  Pittsburg,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey 

Street,  W.C. 
1898.     Chelsea  Public  Library,  Manresa  Road,  S.W.,  per  J.  H.  Quinn,  Esq. 
189a     Chicago  Public  Library,  Illinois,  U.S.A.,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown, 

4  Trafelgar  Square,  W.C. 
1898.     Chicago  University  Library,  Illinois,  U.S.A.,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown, 

4  Tra£Edgar  Square,  W.C. 
1890.     Cincinnati  Public  Library,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4  Trafalgar 

Square,  W.C. 
1894.    Columbia  College,  New  York,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey 

Street,  W.C. 

1905.  Columbia,  Public  Library  of  District  of,  Washington,  D.C.,  per  G.  E. 

Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C. 

1879.  Congress,  The  Library  of,  Washington,  U.S.A.,  per  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son, 

14  Grape  St.,  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  W.C. 
189a     Cornell  University  Library,  per  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son,  14  Grape  Street, 
Shaftesbury  Avenue,  W.C. 

1890.     Detroit  Public  Library,  Michigan,  U.S.A.,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown, 
4  Trafalgar  Square,  W.C. 

1906.  Dundee  Free  Library,  per  A.  W.  Steven,  Esq. ,  95  Commercial  St ,  Dundee. 

1894.     Edinburgh  Public  Library,  per  Hew  Morrison,  Esq.,  City  Chambers, 

189a     Enoch  Pratt  Library,  Baltimore  City,  U.S.A.,  per  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son, 

14  Grape  St,  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  W.C. 
1893.     Erlangen  University  Library,  per  W.   Dawson  &   Sons,  St.   Dunstan's 

House,  Fetter  Lane,  E.C. 

1904.     Field  Museum  of  Natural  History,  Chicago,  Illinois,  U.S.A.,  per  Mutual 
Subscription  Agency,  Witherspoon  Bldg.,  Philadelphia,  Pa.,  U.S.A. 

xii  Members. 

1897.  Franklin  and  Marshall  College,  Lankaster,  Penn.,  U.S.A..  per  Lemcke 
&  Buechner,  ii  East  17th  Street,  New  York  (H.  Grevel  &  Co., 
33  King  Street,  Covent  Garden,  W.C). 

1905.  General  Theological  Seminary,  New  York  Qty,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E. 
Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C. 

1901.  Giessen  University  Library,  per  Hirschfeld  Brothers,  13  Fomival  St,  W.C 
1883.    Glasgow  University  Library,  per  J.  MacLefaose  &  Sons,  61  St.  Vincent 

Street,  Glasgow. 

1902.  Gloucester  Public  Library,  Gloucester,  per  Roland  Austin,  Esq. 

1878.     Gottingen  University  Library,   per  Asher  &  Co.,    18  Bedford  Street, 

Covent  Garden,  W.C. 
1905.     Grand  Rapids  Public  Library,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  W.C. 
1892.     Guildhall  Library,  E.C.,  per  E.  M.  Barrajo,  Esq.,  Librarian. 

1878.  Harvard  Collie  Library,  per  Kegan  Paul  &  Co.,  43  Gerrard  St.,  W.C. 
1904.     Helsingfors  University  Library,  per  Kegan  Paul  &  Co. ,  43  Gerrard  St. ,  W.  C 

1904.  Hiersemann,  K.,  3  Konigstrasse,  Leipzig. 

1902.     HoUiday  &  Co.,  Wellington,  New  Zealand,  per  Sampson,  Low  &  Co., 

Fetter  Lane,  E.C. 
1896.     Howard  Memorial  Library,  New  Orleans,  U.S.A.,  per  W.  Beer,  Esq. 
1902.     Hull  Public  Libraries,  per  W.  F.  Lawton,  Esq. 

1892.     Imperial  University  Library,  St.  Petersburg,  per  Voss  Sortiment  (Herr 

G.  W.  Sergenfray),  Leipzig. 
1895.     India  Office  Library,  Whitehall,  S.W.,  per  F.  W.  Thomas,  Esq.* 
190 1.    Institut  de  France,  per  Continental  Export  Company,  4  High  Street, 

Bloomsbury,  W.C. 
1907.     Institut  de   Sociologie  Solvay,   Brussels,   per  Kegan  Paul  &  Co.,   43 

Gerrard  Street,  W. 
1899.     Iowa  State  Library,  Des  Moines,  Iowa,  U.S.A.,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  & 

Brown,  4  Tra&lgar  Square,  W.C. 

1907.    Johannesburg  Public  Library,  per  J.  F.  Cadenhead,  Esq.,  Johannesbnig, 

S.  Africa, 
1895.    John  Ry lands  Library,  Deansgate,  Manchester. 

1879.  Johns  Hopkins  University  Library,  Baltimore,  per  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son, 

14  Grape  St.,  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  W.C. 

1905.  Kensington  Public  Libraries,  per  Farmer  &  Sons,  179  Kensington  High 

Street,  W. 
1882.     Kiev  University  Library,  per  F.  A.  Brockhaus,  48  Old  Bailey,  E.C. 

1892.  Leicester  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society,  per  G.  F.  Stevenson,  Esq., 
LL.B.,  II  New  Street,  Leicester. 

Members.  xiii 

1903.  Ldand  Stanford  Jnnior  Univenity  Lifanry,  Stanford  Univeiaity,  CkL, 

U.S.A.,  per  F.  A.  Brockhaus,  48  Old  Bailey»  E.C 
1885.    library  of  the  Sapreme  Council  of  the  30%  etc,  33  Golden  Sqnare,  W. 
1899.     Liverpool  Free  Public  Library,  per  Peter  Cowell,  Esq.,  Chief  Librarian, 

William  Brown  Street,  LiTerpooU 

1879.  London  Library,  St  James's  Square,  S.W. 

1904.  Los  Angeles  Poblic  Library,  California,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  ft  Brown,  4 

Tra£dgar  Square,  W.C. 

1878.    Biancbester  Free  Libfary,  King  Street,  Manchester. 

1897.  Max,  J.,  &  Co.,  21  Schweidnitzerstrasse,  Breslan. 

1902.     Meadville  Theological  School  Library,  Meadville,  Pa.,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E. 

Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C. 
1908.     Mercantile  Library  of  Philadelphia,  U.S.A.,  loth  St.  Above  Chestnut  St., 

Philadelphia,  U.S.A.,  per  T.  Wilson  Hadley,  Esq. 

1904.  Mercantile  Library  of  St  Louis,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard, 

Carey  Street,  W.C. 

1893.  Meyrick  Library,  Jesus  CoU^e,  Oxford,  per  E.  E.  Genner,  Esq.,  Librarian. 
190a.    Michigan  Sute  Library,  Lansing,  Michigan,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E.  Stechert, 

2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C 

1907.  Michigan  University  Library,  Ann  Arbor,  Michigan,  U.S. A. 
1881.     Middlesborough  Free  Libraiy,  per  Baker  Hudson,  Esq. 

1905.  Minneapolis  Public  Library,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  St, 


1894.  Minnesota,  University  of,  Minneapolis,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  £.  Stechert,  2 

Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C. 

1878.  Mitchell  library,  21  Miller  Street,  Glasgow,  c/o  F.  T.  Barrett,  Esq., 


1880.  Munich  Royal  Library,  per  Asher  &  Co.,  13  Bedford  Street,  W.C. 

1904.     Nancy,  University  de,  Nancy,  France,  per  M.  Paul  Perdrizet. 
1894.     National  Library  of  Ireland,  per  Hodges,  Figgis  &  Co.,  104  Grafton  St., 

1908.  Nebraska  University  Library,  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  U.S. A.,  per  Walter  K. 

Jewett,  Esq.,  Librarian. 
1892.     New  Philological  Society,  St  Petersburg,  per  Voss  Sortiment  (Herr  G. 
W.  Sergenfray),  Leipzig. 

1898.  Newark  Free  PubUc  Library,  New  Jersey,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E.  Stechert, 

2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C. 
1888.    Newberry  Library,  Chicago,   U.S. A.,  per  B.  F.   Stevens  &  Brown,  4 
Trafalgar  Square,  W.C. 

1879.  Newcastle  Literary  and  Philosophical  Society,  Newcastle-on-Tyne,  per 

H.  Richardson,  Esq. 
1898.    New  Jersey,  The  College  of,  Princeton,  N.J.,  U.S.A.,  per  H.  A.  Duffield, 
Esq.,  Treasurer. 

XIV  Members. 

1904.  New  Jersey  Free  Library,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street, 

1894.     New  York,  College  of  the  City  of,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey 
Street,  W.C. 

1898.  New  York  Public  Library  (Astor,  Lenox  and  Tilden  Foundation),  per 

B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4  TrafiOgar  Square,  W.C. 
1894.    New  York  State  Library,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street, 

1908.     North  Western  University  Library,  Evanston,  111.,  per  G.  E.  Stechert. 
1883.     Nottingham   Free  Public  Library,  per  J.  E.  Bryan,   Esq.,   St.    Peter's 

Churchside,  Nottingham. 

1894.     Oxford  and  Cambridge  Club,  per  Harrison  &  Sons,  45  Pall  Mall,  S.W. 

1881.     Peabody  Institute,  Baltimore,  U.S.A.,  per  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son,  14  Grape 

Street,  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  W.C. 
1894.     Peorio,  Public  Library  of,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street, 


1899.  Philadelphia,  Free  Library  of,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  &  Brown,  4  Tni&lgar 

Square,  W.C. 
1881.     Philadelphia,  The  Library  Company  of,  U.S.A.,  per  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son, 

14  Grape  St.,  Shaftesbury  Avenue,  W.C. 
1879.     Plymouth  Institution  and  Devon  and  Cornwall  Natural  History  Society, 

per  C.  S.  Jago,  Esq.,  Plymouth  Public  School. 
1 894.     Providence  Public  Library,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  St. ,  W.  C. 

1900.  Reading  Free  Public  Library,  per  W.  H.  Greenhough,  Esq.  ^ 
1894.  Rohrscheid  &  Ebbecke,  Buchhandlung,  Am  Hof,  28,  Bonn,  Germany. 
1908.  Royal  Dublin  Society,  per  Arthur  H.  Foord,  Esq.,  Leinster  Ho.,  Dublin. 
1894.  Royal  Irish  Academy,  per  Hodges,  Figgis  &  Co.,  104  Grafton  St.,  Dublin. 

1888.     St.  Helens  Corporation  Free  Library,  per  A.  Lancaster,  Esq.,  Librarian, 
Town  Hall,  St.  Helens. 

1898.  Salford  Public  Library,  Manchester. 

1908.     San  Francisco  Public  Library,  per  G.  E.  Stechert,  2  Star  Yard,  Carey 
St.,  W.C. 

1907.  Seattle  Public  Library,  Seattle,  Washington,  U.S.A.,  per  B.  F.  Stevens  & 

Brown,  4  Trafalgar  Square,  S.W. 

1899.  Sheffield  Free  Public  Library,  Surrey  Street,  Sheffield,  per  S.  Smith,  Esq. 

1908.  Sigma  Fraternity,  The,  per  Miss  K.  S.   Hazeltine,  203  College  Hall, 

Wellesley,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 
1898.     Signet  Library,  Edinburgh. 

1905.  Sion  College  Library,  Victoria  Embankment,  E.C.,  per  C.  H.  Limbrick, 

Esq.,  Sub- Librarian. 

Mtmbtrs.  xv 

\    StoddMilB,  Rofil  Uwuj  <rf,  pet  W,  H.  D&ttson  &  Satis,  St.  Dtmstan's 

fioas,  F«actr  Lyw,  E.C 
^    iiadwhgi  Mlk  Ubnry,  Boraugti  Rd.i  Stindcrland,  per  B.  R.  Hill,  Esq. 
^    SiVas  OMMBtf  OISc«  libcarr,  Washii^^aa,  D,C,  U.S.A.,  pei  Kegan 

Pis]  ife  C<x,  43  Gctnrd  Strc«t|  W. 

t    fliwilfcwiiiii  CoUcfc  libwr,  pev  E^  G.  Allen  &  Son,  14  Gmpe  St..  W.C. 
L    Bf^Bf  Frae  Ffetblk  Ubmy,  per  Trtislo^  &  Hahsod^  153  Oxford  Sc,  W. 

y    Twm  IMmmj^  Uniwii^  C^tep=«  UtctpooI,  ouc  of  J.  Sftinpson,  Esq. 
\    Tc3B«,  Ualmil^  of  Aatin,  Tesju,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E.  Scccben,  1  Star 

Tiid,  Cii^  Stfr«t«  W.C 
^    TQior  lniffi^?ir*i  dfocd,  pei  P&rkcf  &  Co.,  Broad  Street,  Oxford. 

V  TmuiliJ  PiMe  LIfararf  p  per  C  D.  CueoOTe  &  Son,  36  Hcniietu  Street, 

CftfiBl  Owlffit  ^«C# 
1^    TbRfliD  Ulifa^  Ubimrr,  per  C  DL  Cannove  &  Scm,  36  Henrietta  St., 
»  C9i«Bf  Ganlef).  W.C 

|t    T<W|i»y  HaCBil  Htftoty  Socktjr,  care  of  A.  Somo^rall,  E^. 

\    I^AIi  IMiUifcf  tiixBtft  pef  C.  J.  LandftTQiii,  UpsaU,  Sweden. 

V  Vad  Snyd^avtt  W.  r.  41  So&t  j6  Blutenhof,  Tbe  Hague,  HtiUuid. 

^    Vaaat  Cdliffr  Unu]rt    IVMieiilciecp»ie,  Kew  Vorkp   U.S.A.»   per   H. 

>  JgaAwM  h  Co^  MO  Sumd,  W«C 

%    'Vtoarti  ^ibSt  libnr^,  Ifelbomne*  per  A^ent-GenemJ   for  Victoria, 

142  Queen  Yictoria  Street,  E.C 
(.     Menoa  Imperial  UniTersity  Library,  per  Asfaer  &  Co. ,  1 3  Bedford  St. ,  W. C. 

X     WatidttftOQ  Library,  Hartford,  Connecticat,  U.S.A.,  per  E.  G.  Allen  &  Son, 

14  Grape  Sl,  Sbaftesbory  Avenue,  W.C 
L     Weimar  Grand  Docal  Library,  per  Dr.  P.  von  Bojanowsky. 
r.     Wcalcyan  Univenity,  Library  of,  Middletown,  Connecticut,  U.S.A. 
L     WiKoutn  State  Historical  Society,  per  H.  Sotheran  &  Co. ,  140  Strand,  W.C. 
L     Woolwicfa  Free  Library,  William  Sl,  Woolwich,  per  E.  B.  Baker,  Esq., 

^     Wovcester  Free  Public  Library,  Mass.,  U.S.A.,  per  Kegan  Paul  &  Co., 

43  Gcrrard  Street,  W. 

Tale  Unhrenity  Library,  New  Haven,  Connecticut,  U.S.A.,  per  G.  E. 
Sccckert  ft  Co..  2  Star  Yard,  Carey  Street,  W.C. 




Vol.  XIX.]  MARCH,  1908.  [No.  I. 

WEDNESDAY,  NOVEMSEB  20tli,   1907. 

The  President  (Dr.  Gaster)  in  the  Chair. 

The  minutes  of  the  last  Meeting  were  read  and 

The  election  of  the  following  new  members,  viz. : — Mr. 
Halliday  Sparling,  Major  M'Nair,  Mrs.  Rounthwaite,  The 
Lady  Edith  Campbell,  Mr.  C.  Gilbertson,  and  Mr.  R. 
James  Williams  was  announced. 

The  resignations  of  Dr.  H.  O.  Forbes,  Sir  J.  P.  Rodger, 
Mr.  F.  L.  Bickley,  and  Mr.  R.  H.  Marsh,  and  the  death 
of  Lord  Aldenham  were  also  announced. 

The  Secretary  exhibited  a  Lincolnshire  charm  sent  by 
Miss  M.  Peacock,  consisting  of  a  heart-shaped  piece  of 
bog  oak  i^  inches  long,  with  bow  for  suspension  to  the 
watch-chain,  and   read  a   note  by  Miss  Peacock  thereon 

[p  87]. 

The  Rev.  C.  W.  Whistler  read  a  paper  entitled, 
-Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks"  [p.  31],  and  in  the 
discussion    which    followed    Mr.   Calderon,   Mr.    Higgins, 

VOL.    XIX.  A 

Members.  iii 

905.  Bridge,  G.  F.,  Esq.,  45  Sooth  Hill  Pftrk,  London,  N.W. 
878.  Britten,  James,  Esq.,  41  Boston  Road,  Brentford 

894.  Brix,  M.  Camille  de,  36  Rue  des  Chanoines,  Caen,  Calvados,  France. 

902.  Broadbent,  N.  M.,  Esq. 

892.  Broadwood,  Miss  Locy  E.,  84  Carlisle  Mansions,  S.W. 

890.  Brooke,  Rev.  Stopford  A.,  i  Manchester  Square,  W. 

903.  Brown,  James,  Esq.,  Netherb)r,  Galashiels. 

889.  Browne,  John,  Esq.,  Chertsey  House,  Park  Hill  Rise,  Croydon. 

883.  Borne,  Miss  C.  S.,  5  Ivema  Gardens,  Kensington,  W.  {Via- President), 

^lOJ.  Cadbury,  George,  Esq.,  Jan.,  Boumville,  Birmingham. 

88a  Caddick,  E.,  Esq.,  Willington  Road,  Edgbaston,  Birmingham. 

907.  Calderon,  G.,  Esq.,  33  Buckingham  Mansions,  West  End  Lane,  N.W. 

908.  Cameron,  Miss  M.  Lovett,  Villa  Dante,  Borgo  Alia  Collina,  Casentino, 


894.  Campbell,  Lord  Archibald,  Coombe  Hill  Farm,  Kingston-on-Thames. 

906.  Campbell,  Miss  M.  C,  2  Qoverdale  Lawn,  Cheltenham. 

898.  Campbell,  W.  J.  Douglas,  Esq.,  F.S.A.  Scot.,  Innis  Chonain,  Loch  Awe, 

894.  Carpenter,  Professor  J.  Estlin,  190  Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 

903.  Cartwright,  Mrs.,  c/o  Major  H.   R.   Cartwright,   South  African  Con- 

stabulary, Heidelberg,  Transvaal. 

899.  Chambers,  E.  K.,  Esq.,  Board  of  Education,  Whitehall,  S.W. 

901.  Chsise,  Charles  H.,  Esq.,  9  Upland  Rd.,  Cambridge,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 

906.  Chater,  Arthur  G.,  Esq.,  41  Porchester  Square,  W. 
881.  Chorlton,  T.,  Esq.,  32  Brazennose  Street,  Manchester. 

878.  Qodd,   Edward,   Esq.,   5   Princes  Street,   E.C.,   and  Strafford  House, 
Aldeburgh  ( Vice-President), 

904.  Cobb,  Dr.  C.  M.,  10  Nahant  Street,  Lynn,  Mass.,  U.S.A. 
901.  Cobham,  Miss  E.  M.,  B.A.,  4  Woodville  Terrace,  Gravesend. 
901.  Coleridge,  Miss  C.  R.,  Cheyne,  Torquay, 

895.  Conybeare,  F.  C,  Esq.,  M.A.,  17  Bradmore  Rd.,  Oxford. 

907.  Cook,  A.  B.,  Elsq.,  19  Cranmer  Road,  Cambridge. 

886.  Cosquin,  M.  Emanuel,  Vitry-le-Fran9ois,  Mame,  France. 

888.  Cox,  Miss  Marian  Roalfe,  80  Carlisle  Mansions,  S.W.  (Hon,  Member). 

:904.  Crawford  Cree,  A.  T.,  Esq.,  Brodsworth,  Beckenham,  Kent 

9.  Crombie,  James  E.,  Esq.,  Park  Hill  House,  Dyce,  Aberdeen. 

881.  Crooke,  W.,  Esq.,  B.A.,  Langton  House,  Charlton  Kings,  Cheltenham. 

905.    D'Aeth,  F.  G.,  Esq.,  University  Settlement,  129  Park  St.,  Liverpool. 

892.     Dames,  M.  Longworth,  Esq.,  Alegria,  Enfield. 

895.     Dampier,  G.  R.,  Esq.,  c/o  Messrs.  Grindlay,  Groome  &  Co.,  Bombay, 

Partabjarh,  Oudh,  India. 
1905.    Davies,  J.  C,  Esq.,  Dyffryn  Villa,  Llanilar,  Aberystwyth. 

2  Minutes  of  Meetings. 

Mr.  Nutt,  Miss  Burne,  and  the  Chairman  took  part.  A 
hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  Mr.  Whistler  for 
his  paper. 

Mr.  W.  F.  Kirby  read  a  communication  he  had  received 
from  Dr.  Kaarle  Krohn  of  Helsingfors  on  the  progress  of 
folklore  in  Finland  [see  p.  98] ;  and  presented  to  the 
Society  two  copies  of  the  translation  of  the  Kalevala 
made  by  himself,  and  recently  published  in  the  Every 
Man's  Library  series. 

WEDNESDAY,  DECEMBER  18th,  1907. 
Mr.  Nutt  (Vice-President)  in  the  Chair. 

The  minutes  of  the  last  Meeting  were  read  and  confirmed. 

The  election  of  Miss  M.  Lovett  Cameron  as  a  member 
of  the  Society,  and  the  admission  of  the  Nebraska 
University  Library  as  a  subscriber  to  the  Society  were 
announced.  The  resignations  of  Major  Fink  and  Mr. 
W.  H.  Jewitt  were  also  announced. 

Dr.  Westermarck  read  a  paper  entitled  "  The  Principles 
of  Fasting"  [vol.  xviii.,  p.  391],  and  in  the  discussion 
which  followed  Mr.  G.  L.  Gomme,  Mr.  G.  Calderon, 
Mr.  N.  W.  Thomas,  Mr.  Major,  Mr.  Kirby,  and  the 
Chairman  took  part.  The  meeting  terminated  with  a 
hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  Dr.  Westermarck  for  his  paper. 

Mtnutes  of  Meetings, 



The  President  (Dr.  Gaster)  in  the  Chair. 

HE  Minutes  of  the  last  Annual  Meeting  were  read  and 

The  Annual  Report,  Statement  of  Accounts,  and 
dance  Sheet  for  the  year  1907  were  duly  presented, 
id  upon  the  motion  of  Dr.  Haddon,  seconded  by  Sir 
ihn  Rhys»  it  was  resolved  that  the  same  be  received 
k1  adopted. 

Balloting  papers  for  the  election  of  President,  Vice- 
nesident%  Council,  and  officers  having  been  distributed, 
X.  Tabor  and  Mr.  Thomas  were  nominated  by  the 
bairman  as  Scrutineers  for  the  ballot. 
The  Chairman  having  delivered  his  presidential  address, 
mounced  the  result  of  the  ballot,  and  the  following 
dies  and  gentlemen  were  declared  duly  elected,  viz. : — 
s  President,  Dr.  Gaster.  As  Vice-Presidents,  The  Hon. 
>hn  Abcrcromby,  The  Rt  Hon.  Lord  Avebury,  D.C.L., 
RS..  LI^D.,  Sir  E.  W.  Brabrook,  C.B.,  F.S.A.,  Miss 
S.  Bume.  E.  Clodd,  Esq.,  J.  G.  Frazer,  Esq.,  LL.D., 
itt-D.,  G.  Laurence  Gomme,  Esq.,  F.S.A.,  A.  C. 
addon.  Esq..  D.Sc.  F.R.S.,  E.  S.  Hartland,  Esq.,  F.S.A., 
ndrcw  Lang.  Esq.,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  Alfred  Nutt,  Esq., 
rofcssor  Sir  J.  Rhys,  M.A.,  LL.D.,  F.R.A.,  F.S.A.. 
r.  H.  D.  Rouse.  Esq.,  Litt.D.,  The  Rev.  Professor  A. 
.  Sayce.  M.A.,  LL.D.,  D.D.,  and  Professor  E.  B.  Tylor, 
LD^  F.R.S.  As  Members  of  Council,  G.  Calderon, 
sq,  A.   B.  Cook,   Esq.,   M.A,  W.   Crooke,   Esq.,    B.A., 

4  Minutes  of  Meetings. 

M.  Longworth  Dames,  Esq.,  Miss  E.  Hull,  The  Rev. 
H.  N.  Hutchinson,  A.  W.  Johnston,  Esq.,  F.S.A.  Scot., 
A.  F.  Major,  Esq.,  R.  R.  Marett,  Esq.,  M.A.,  C.  S. 
Myers,  Esq.,  M.A.,  M.D.,  T.  Fairman  Ordish,  Esq.,  F.S.A., 
W.  H.  R.  Rivers,  Esq.,  M.D.,  Walter  W.  Skeat,  Esq., 
M.A.,  C  G.  Seligmann,  Esq.,  M.D.,  C.  J.  Tabor,  Esq., 
N.  W.  Thomas,  Esq.,  M.A.,  E.  Westermarck,  Esq.,  Ph.D., 
and  A.  R.  Wright,  Esq.  As  Hon,  Treasurer,  Edward 
Clodd,  Esq.  As  Hon,  Auditors,  F.  G.  Green,  Esq.,  and 
N.  W.  Thomas,  Esq.  As  Secretary,  F.  A.  Milne,  Esq., 

Upon  the  motion  of  Mr.  Nutt,  seconded  by  Mr.  Clodd, 
a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  the  President 
for  his  address ;  and  a  vote  of  thanks  was  also  accorded 
to  the  outgoing  members  of  Council,  Mr.  E.  K.  Chambers 
and  Miss  Eyre,  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Tabor,  seconded 
by  Mr.  Dames. 


iSTH  January,  1908. 

The  Council  are  glad  to  record  that  the  numbers  of 
the  Society  are  well  maintained.  Five  libraries  have 
been  added  as  subscribers,  and  twenty-two  new  members 
have  been  elected.  On  the  other  hand  twenty  old 
members  have  resigned,  and  one  has  died;  and  the 
subscription  of  one  library  has  been  withdrawn.  There 
is,  therefore,  a  net  gain  of  five  on  the  roll  of  the 
Society.  A  smaller  number  of  members  than  usual 
are  in  arrear  with  their  subscriptions ;  but  greater 
regularity  in  the  payment  of  subscriptions  is  much 
to  be  desired.  Thoughtfulness  in  this  respect  on  the 
part  of  members  would  relieve  the  Secretary  of  much 
ungrateful  work. 

In  the  list  of  members  published  during  the  past  year, 
a  distinction  has  for  the  first  time  been  drawn  between 
ordinary  members  and  libraries  and  other  institutions  of 
a  similar  nature  subscribing  to  the  funds  of  the  Society ; 
and  the  year  in  which  the  first  subscription  was  paid 
is  now  printed  opposite  the  name  of  each  member  and 
library  or  other  institution.  This  change  was  fore- 
shadowed by  the  Council  in  their  last  report. 

6  Annual  Report  of  the  Council. 

Three  members  of  the  Society  have  been  appointed 
Professors  during  the  year,  viz.:  Dr.  J.  G.  Frazer,  for  whom 
a  Chair  of  Social  Anthropology  has  been  instituted  in 
the  University  of  Liverpool ;  Mr.  J.  C.  Myres  to  the 
Chair  of  Greek  in  the  same  University;  and  Dr.  E. 
Westermarck  to  the  recently-founded  Martin  White  Pro- 
fessorship of  Sociology  in  the  University  of  London. 

The  papers  read  during  the  year  have  been  as  follows : 

Jan,   1 6.     The  President's  Address.     {Folk-Lore^  March,  1907.) 

Feb.  20.     "  L*Ar,  or  the  Transference  of  Traditional  Curses  in  Morocco.** 
Dr.  Westermarck. 

March  20.     "Well  Cures  and  Children."    Dr.  Dan  M*Kenzie. 

April  17.     "Some  Notes  from  New  Guinea"  (illustrated  by  lantern  slides). 
Dr.  C.  G.  Seligmann. 

May  15.     "Homeric  Folklore."    Mr.   W.  Crooke. 

"A  Danish  Survival."    The  Rev.  H.  F.  Feilberg. 
June  19.     "Death's  Deeds:  a  Bi-located  Story."    Mr.  A.  Lang. 

Nov.  20.     "Local    Traditions    of    the    Quantocks."     The    Rev.    C.    W. 

Dec.  18.     "The  Principles  of  Fasting."    Dr.  Westermarck. 

The  meetings  were  usually  well  attended,  and  the 
discussions  which  followed  the  reading  of  the  papers 
were  very  suggestive. 

The  Council  have  to  thank  Mr.  A.  R.  Wright  for  so 
kindly  contributing  to  the  success  of  the  meetings  in 
February  and  June  by  exhibiting  on  the  former  occasion 
a  most  interesting  collection  of  Mohammedan  amulets, 
and  on  the  latter  a  number  of  objects  used  by  secret 
societies  in  West  Africa.  Other  objects  exhibited  during 
the  year  were  some  charms  against  the  evil  eye  illustrat- 
ing Dr.  Westermarck's  paper  on  Morocco,  and  a  Lincoln- 
shire charm  of  bog  oak  made  by  a  farm  lad  to  give  to 
his  sweetheart,  which  was  kindly  lent  by  Miss  Mabel 
Peacock.     The  Council  hope  that  members  generally  will 

Annual  Report  of  the  Council.  7 

bear  in  mind  how  much  the  exhibition  of  objects  adds 
to  the  attractiveness  and  the  scientific  value  of  the  Society's 
evening  meetings.  The  Council  take  this  opportunity 
of  expressing  their  great  regret  that,  owing  to  unfore- 
seen circumstances,  time  did  not  admit  of  Mr.  and  Mrs. 
Townshend  exhibiting  the  photographs  of  Pueblo  Cere- 
monial Dances,  which  they  had  brought  up  with  them 
from  Oxford  at  the  May  meeting. 

The  Council  rejoice  to  report  that  a  scheme  is  now  on 
foot  for  the  erection  of  a  new  Museum  of  Archaeology 
and  Ethnology  at  Cambridge,  which,  when  carried  out, 
will  allow  the  objects  belonging  to  the  Society  being 
seen  to  better  advantage  than  is  possible  under  the 
existing  conditions.  The  compilation  of  a  catalogue  of 
these  objects  referred  to  in  the  last  report  is  still  under 

The  library  of  the  Society,  which  is  open  to  con- 
sultation by  its  members,  together  with  that  of  the  Royal 
Anthropological  Institute  at  3  Hanover  Square,  has 
received  during  the  year  some  additions  of  a  miscel- 
laneous  character. 

The  Society  has  issued  during  the  year  the  i8th 
volume  of  Folk-Lore,  Miss  Burne  has  again  placed  her 
invaluable  services  at  the  disposal  of  the  Council  as 
editor  of  the  journal,  and  the  warmest  thanks  of  the 
Society  are  due  to  her  for  the  able  way  in  which  she 
has  discharged  her  task.  The  Society  is  again  indebted 
to  Mr.  A.  R.  Wright  for  the  index ;  and  the  Council 
have  to  place  on  record  their  appreciation  of  the  service 
he  has  once  more  rendered  to  the  Society  by  this 

Arrangements  have  been  made  with  the  Council  of 
the  Royal  Anthropological  Institute  for  issuing  a  joint 
Annual  Bibliography.  The  Council  have  observed  with 
satisfaction  that  the  Bibliography  for  1905  has  been  well 
received  by  the  press  and  the  public.     The  Bibliography 

8  Annual  Report  of  the  Council. 

for  1906  will  be  issued  at  an  early  date ;  and  will  in 
the  opinion  of  the  Council  be  found  still  more  acceptable, 
being  twice  the  size  of  the  former  issue.  Copies  will 
be  supplied  to  members  and  subscribers  on  application. 

The  additional  volumes  for  1904  and  1905,  viz., 
Jamaican  Song  and  Story,  by  Mr.  Walter  Jekyll,  and 
Popular  Poetry  of  the  Baloches,  by  Mr.  M.  Longworth 
Dames,  have  been  issued  during  the  year.  The  Council 
of  the  Royal  Asiatic  Society  have  co-operated  with  the 
Council  in  the  production  of  the  latter  volume,  and  have 
purchased  300  copies. 

The  Council  have  in  hand  the  collection  of  Lincoln- 
shire  Folk-Lore  from  printed  sources  made  by  Miss 
Peacock  and  Mrs.  Gutch,  which  it  is  proposed  to  issue 
as  the  additional  volume  for  1906,  and  a  monograph 
entitled  The  Grateful  Deady  by  Mr.  G.  H.  Gerould, 
which  will  probably  be  the  additional  volume  for  1907. 

At  the  meeting  of  the  Congress  of  Archaeological 
Societies  held  in  July  (at  which  the  Society  was  repre- 
sented by  its  President,  Dr.  Gaster,  and  other  members), 
a  resolution  was  carried  on  the  motion  of  Mr.  Nutt, 
seconded  by  Sir  E.  W.  Brabrook,  that  that  Congress 
should  ask  its  component  societies  to  assist  the  Folk- 
Lore  Society  in  the  collection  of  all  that  was  in  print 
on  the  subject  of  Folk-lore  in  their  respective  counties. 
Steps  are  being  taken  to  give  effect  to  this  resolution. 

In  the  course  of  1908  the  Society  will  complete  its 
thirtieth  year.  It  is  proposed  to  celebrate  the  event  by 
holding  commemorative  meetings  extending  over  three 
days  between  the  middle  and  end  of  July,  to  which 
eminent  students  of  Folk-lore  from  all  parts  of  the 
world  will  be  invited.  Full  particulars  of  the  time  and 
place  of  these  meetings,  and  of  the  subjects  to  be  dis- 
cussed at  them,  will  be  sent  to  members  at  as  early  a 
date  as  possible. 

The   Society  was   represented   at   the   meeting  of  the 

Annual  Report  of  the  Council.  9 

British  Association  at  Leicester  by  Sir  E.  W.  Brabrook, 
Mr.  E.  S.  Hartland,  and  others. 

The  Council  submit  herewith  the  annual  accounts  and 
balance  sheet  duly  audited.  The  balloting  list  for  the 
Council  and  officers  of  the  Society  for  the  ensuing  year 
is  also  sent  herewith. 


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At  the  birth  of  our  Society  stood  as  Godmother  the 
Fairy-Tale.  She  held  in  her  hand  the  magic  wand,  and 
threw  some  of  her  own  charm  upon  the  offspring.  With 
the  fondness  of  a  mother  the  Fairy-Tale  has  watched 
over  the  growth  of  the  child  and  has  experienced  the 
same  conflicting  emotions  as  are  in  store  for  every  nurse 
and  godmother.  The  child  no  sooner  feels  its  legs  than 
it  leaves  the  nursery  behind,  and  roams  over  the  wide 
world.  New  views  open,  new  interests  spring  up,  and 
when  reminded  of  the  days  of  youth  and  the  happiness 
of  the  nursery  years,  the  grown-up  man  tries  to  find 
some  excuse  or  some  rational  explanation  for  the  joy 
that  still  lingers  in  his  mind.  But  we  ought  not  to  leave 
the  nursery,  and  if  possible  we  must  needs  bring  the 
fugitive    youths    back   to  the    charmed    circle  of   olden 

Presidential  Address.  13 

birds  that  bore  us  on  their  wings,  the  beasts  that  spoke 
and  befriended  us,  and  the  flowers  tliat  quickened  the 
dead,  all  have  vanished.  Wise  men  shake  their  heads 
over  the  foolishness  of  youth,  and  prove  to  us  with  their 
dry-as-dust  wisdom  that  hobgoblins  do  not  nod  their 
heads  and  wink  their  eyes,  that  beasts  have  never  been 
kind,  and  that  birds  have  never,  never,  been  heard  speak- 
ing or  known  to  carry  men  aloft ;  and  that  fairies,  above  all, 
are  mere  fancies,  and  all  this  world  of  poetry  and  beauty 
a  snare  and  delusion.  There  are  other  wise  men  who 
explain  all  these  things  away;  they  have  theories,  you 
know,  and  they  tell  us  that  it  is  all  a  misunderstanding. 
The  people  who  tell  these  tales  do  not  know  what  they 
are  talking  about.  They  say  one  thing,  and  it  means 
something  quite  different.  It  is  "  cloudland  "  and  "  moon- 
shine "  and  "  fights  of  the  seasons,"  and  they  look  very  wise. 
Others,  again,  have  found  in  our  old  nursery  tales  the  lost 
philosophy  of  the  ages  and  the  birth-indexes  of  the 
several  nations  in  their  families  and  in  their  generations. 
And  all  the  while  the  fairy-tale  turned  to  us  with  a 
piteous  look  in  the  eyes,  hoping  that  we  at  least  would 
show  some  token  of  filial  affection,  and  come  to  the  rescue 
of  the  sorely  tried  godmother. 

I  therefore  make  bold  to  step  to-night  into  the  arena, 
encouraged  by  your  indulgence,  and  attempt  to  discharge 
this  filial  duty.  I  invite  you  to  follow  me  into  the  for- 
bidden chamber,  and  surprise,  if  possible,  the  fairy-tale 
at  the  toilet-table.  Peradventure  we  may  be  able  to 
light  upon  the  secret  of  the  charm,  and  find  out  the 
hidden  spring  of  the  spell  which  the  fairy-tale  has  cast 
upon  man,  and  with  which  it  has  swayed  the  world  for 
untold  ages.  I  do  not  intend  discussing  the  origin  of  the 
fairy-tale,  nor  entering  the  path  of  dogmatic  theories,  which 
leads  to  destruction.  The  problem  for  which  I  endeavour 
to  find  the  solution,  is,  wherein  lies  the  secret  of  the 
universal  popularity  of  the  fairy-tale,  at  all  times,  in  all 


At  the  birth  of  our  Society  stood  as  Godmother  the 
Fairy-Tale.  She  held  in  her  hand  the  magic  wand,  and 
threw  some  of  her  own  charm  upon  the  offspring.  With 
the  fondness  of  a  mother  the  Fairy-Tale  has  watched 
over  the  growth  of  the  child  and  has  experienced  the 
same  conflicting  emotions  as  are  in  store  for  every  nurse 
and  godmother.  The  child  no  sooner  feels  its  legs  than 
it  leaves  the  nursery  behind,  and  roams  over  the  wide 
world.  New  views  open,  new  interests  spring  up,  and 
when  reminded  of  the  days  of  youth  and  the  happiness 
of  the  nursery  years,  the  grown-up  man  tries  to  find 
some  excuse  or  some  rational  explanation  for  the  joy 
that  still  lingers  in  his  mind.  But  we  ought  not  to  leave 
the  nursery,  and  if  possible  we  must  needs  bring  the 
fugitive  youths  back  to  the  charmed  circle  of  olden 
days.  "Once  upon  a  time,"  so  the  story  begins,  "once 
upon  a  time,"  in  the  days  of  our  youth  we  were  living 
in  a  world  so  different  from  the  present,  we  built 
castles  and  peopled  them  with  all  that  is  beautiful  and 
lovable,  and  we  were  happy,  for  we  believed  in  the 
reality  of  their  existence,  and  we  were  as  one  of  them. 
An  enchanted  world,  a  weird  world,  but  none  the  less 
as  real  and  true  as  the  world  in  which  we  are  moving 
now.  Since  that  time  the  former  has  apparently  dis- 
appeared never  more  to  return ;  our  castles  have  been 
destroyed,    and    the    good    people   have    vanished ;    the 

Presidential  Address.  15 

scent  of  the  flowers  and  the  glory  of  the  clouds.  We  will 
ask  the  tale  to  yield  to  us  the  secret  of  its  charm,  and  to 
tell  us  why  it  should  appeal  so  strongly  to  all  men  ? 

My  only  claim  to  give  an  answer  to  these  questions  rests 
on  being  still  a  votary  at  the  shrine  of  the  Tale,  having 
never  swerved  in  my  allegiance  to  it,  feeling  still  the 
spell  unbroken  which  it  has  cast  upon  me  from  the  days 
of  the  nursery.  Maybe  that  for  such  devoted  service 
I  have  been  allowed  to  overhear  some  of  the  words  of 
magic,  and  to  read  the  spell  backwards  and  forwards,  so 
as  to  solve  the  riddle.  I  have  not  contaminated  my  soul 
with  any  heresy.  My  belief  in  the  tale  as  tale  has  re- 
mained unshaken.  For  no  sooner  has  the  belief  been 
shaken  than  all  the  fairies  betake  themselves  quickly  to 
another  abode.  I  bespeak  now  on  their  behalf  the  same 
strong  faith  also  on  your  part  at  least  for  this  evening, 
so  as  not  to  break  the  charm.  I  will  endeavour  to  lead 
you  by  pastures  green  and  by  orchards  filled  with  fruit 
exceptionally  not  forbidden  to  be  eaten  before  the  end 
of  the  quest.  It  is  not  so  in  the  tale,  the  wanderer  who 
goes  to  the  enchanted  world  is  strictly  enjoined  to  eschew 
the  touch  of  the  fruit,  and  to  conquer  the  temptation  of 
cool  shades  and  limpid  water  on  a  hot  day  ere  he  has 
reached  the  object  of  his  journey.  On  his  way  back  the 
poison  has  lost  its  sting. 

In  the  charmed  world  into  which  we  enter,  the  objects 
change  their  faces  so  often  that  it  behoves  us  to  be  wary 
of  these  delusions.  We  must  get  at  the  real  form.  What 
then  is  a  fairy-tale  ?  This  question  is  perhaps  more 
diflicult  to  answer  than  the  negative  question,  "what  is 
it  not?"  Well,  there  is  nothing  like  it.  But  there  are 
tales  and  tales.  Some  are  called  legends.  Wherein  does 
the  tale  differ  from  the  legend,  which  also  is  full  of 
wondrous  deeds  and  of  unexpected  incidents }  A  legend 
is  the  story  written  down  and  ready  as  the  word  Ugere 
denotes,  and  a  tale  is  a  story  told  by  word  of  mouth.    A 

1 6  Presidential  Address, 

legend  is  a  story  localised  and  individualised,  limited  by 
time  and  personality ;  a  tale  is  unlimited  in  time  and 
space,  and  has  no  defined  personality.  In  the  one  it  is 
an  individual,  in  the  other  it  is  a  type ;  in  the  one  it  is 
the  local  hero,  to  the  other  the  whole  world  is  open.  The 
legend,  moreover,  is  closely  bound  up  with  special  creeds, 
and  instead  of  worldly  deeds,  spiritual  feats  of  valour 
are  recounted.  The  hero  is  there  the  centre  of  worship 
as  well  as  admiration,  and  though  he  may  sometimes  be 
free  from  local  associations,  he  none  the  less  becomes 
limited  by  being  attached  to  this  special  form  of  faith. 
The  Buddhist  saint  will  not  appeal  as  such  to  the 
Muhammedan  or  Christian,  and  vice  versa.  Not  so  the 
fairy-tale,  which  knows  no  dogmas  and  serves  no  creed. 
And  yet,  though  this  line  of  demarcation  seems  to  be 
sharply  drawn,  it  is  not  so  easy  in  many  cases  to  draw 
it  with  precision.  For  there  is  an  interchange  going  on 
between  the  legend  and  the  tale,  the  tale  borrowing 
from  the  legend,  and  more  often  the  legend  transforming 
a  tale  by  fixing  it  and  individualising  it.  This  constant 
process  of  assimilation  and  transformation  is  one  of  the 
special  features  of  the  tale.  It  borrows  elements  from 
everywhere,  it  has  access  to  many  treasures,  it  embroiders 
its  garments  with  gold  leaf  and  silver  thread  beaten 
and  drawn  by  other  hands,  and  bedecks  itself  with  jewels 
glittering  in  the  sun  of  the  happy  world  in  which  it 
disports  itself,  though  those  gems  may  have  been  dug 
up  from  other  mines  of  human  imagination.  There  are 
also  darker  hues  in  its  raiment,  borrowed  from  the  brood- 
ing of  morbid  sensations,  and  tinging  it  with  its  own 
sombre  shades.  We  shall  have  to  bear  this  in  mind 
when  endeavouring  to  unravel  the  mystery  of  the  spell 
woven  by  the  tale. 

Let  us  then  borrow  for  a  while  the  magic  carpet  which 
is  to  carry  us  to  the  world  of  the  fairy-tale.  We  are  at 
once  transported  to  a  different  conception  of  life.     Not 

Presidential  Address.  17 

is  the  idiole  creation  one  living  organism,  but  there 
it  110  apparent  discrepancy  between    one    creature  and 
int>,   animals,   man — all  stand  on  the  same 
One  great  democracy  has  obliterated  the  differ- 

betwccn  the  various  stages  of  creation.    A  levelling 
op  is  going  on  all  the  time,  and  the  whole  world  is  united 
bgr  the  bond  of  a  mutually  responsive  ssonpathetic  under- 
it»fldfag>     Everything  is  animated,  and  the  actual  con- 
ifitioes    under    which    we  find    the    beings   in    the  tale 
are    merely    assumed    for    the    time    being,    and    easily 
changed    and    transformed   into    higher  or  lower  forms. 
Kor  is  there  any  difTerence  between  the  high-bom  and 
die  towly  ones  of  the  earth.    Though  the  tale  presupposes 
a  fa%|ier  rank  for  one  or  the  other,  it  sees  no  real  differ- 
ence between  a  prtoccss  and  a  shepherd,  or  between  a 
Idnf  and  a  swan  maiden.    The  world,  moreover,  is  peopled 
with  good  and,  at  the  same  time,  beautiful  spirits.    Note 
especially  the  Anc  esthetic  feeling  throughout  the  world 
«f  tale,      £ver>thing  mu«it  be  beautiful  if  it  is  to  be 
good.    PbysJcal  perfection  is  recognised  as  the  token  of 
aobiBty  of  soul  and  the  guarantee  for  high  attainment 
The  animals  are  of  equal  standing  with  man ;  their  shape 
hides  higher  beings,  who  do  not  disdain  for  purposes  of 
their  own  to  assume  such  animal  forms — ^the  maiden  is 
transformed  into  a  swan,  or  the  knight  into  a  horse,  or 
tile  fiury  into  a  toad.     Many  things  that  appear  repulsive 
are  not  to  be  shunned  on  that  score.     The  hideous  form 
b  often  there  to  test  the  strength  of  love  and  the  reality  of 
attachment  to  duty.     It  is  the  touchstone  of  faith.    The 
beasts  and  birds  and   fishes  speak  and  act  like  human 
beings,  and  are  easily  interchanged.     Nay,  more,  some  of 
these  animah  are  endowed  with  specific  properties  which 
make  them  the  superior  of  man.     The  metempsychosis 
takes  place  under  our  very  cyts  and  in  the  lifetime  of  the 
animal  or  man.    They  change  bodies  and  rechange  them 
whenever  required,  retaining  all  the  while  their  human 


1 8  Presidential  Address. 

faculties,  and  it  is  assumed  to  be  all  quite  natural  and 
in  accordance  with  the  principles  governing  the  world 
of  the  fairy-tale.  The  heroine  is  often  transformed  into 
a  tree  or  into  a  flower,  and  from  that  tree  she  is 
resuscitated  without  causing  wonder  or  surprise.  It 
is  taken  for  granted  that  such  permutation  can  and 
must  take  place,  and  need  not  be  questioned.  The 
animals,  moreover,  show  deep  gratitude  for  favours  shown 
and  are  ready  to  help  their  benefactor  in  times  of  stress 
and  duress  when  no  other  help  is  availing.  The  raven 
will  give  a  feather  from  his  wing,  the  bear  a  hair  from 
his  fur,  and  the  ant  a  leg,  to  be  used  by  the  man  when 
himself  in  danger,  and  requiring  similar  help  to  that 
which  he  had  given  them,  when  they  being  in  danger 
he  had  come  to  their  rescue.  There  is  perfect  equality 
between  all  the  inhabitants  of  the  world  above  and  below. 
For  the  tale  knows  of  an  above  and  a  below,  but  they 
are  totally  different  from  the  heaven  and  hell  believed  in 
and  pictured  by  the  men  of  mystical  faiths,  or  denied  by 
the  men  of  exact  science. 

It  is  throughout  a  happy  world  into  which  the  tale 
leads  us,  a  world  of  pleasure  without  end,  of  health 
without  break.  The  laws  of  nature  in  which  we  believe 
and  which  we  have  formulated  for  our  one  day's  satisfac- 
tion, are  all  suspended  in  the  tale.  The  fire  will  not  bum, 
and  the  water  will  run  uphill,  and  the  wind  will  be  at 
the  service  of  the  hero,  blowing  whence  and  whither 
he  desires.  A  curious  feature  is  the  total  absence  of 
divinity  in  the  religious  sense  of  the  word.  The  fairy 
who  mates  with  man  is  nothing  more  than  a  glorification 
of  womanhood  endowed  with  everlasting  beauty  and  with 
extraordinary  powers — the  highest  tribute  paid  by  man 
to  his  helpmeet  The  fairy  maidens  do  not  disdain  the 
company  of  man ;  on  the  contrary,  they  are  often  found 
to  covet  it,  and  they  are  irresistibly  drawn  to  this 
world  either  by  the  prowess  of  man   or  by  his  super- 

Presidentiai  AddruB*  19 

iftiaial  pcffcction.  Ctoadlaod  is  not  a  land  of  fogs  or 
bts,  and  the  more  primitive  the  story  is,  the  more  easy 

the  access  Co  the  sun  and  moon  and  other  heavenly 
mScl  They  also  live  in  palaces  like  human  beings 
id  are  subject  to  the  same  passions  as  humao  beingSv 
be  difference  between  them  and  man  is  only  dimly  felt 
bere  is  no  sign  of  awe  or  reverence.  They  are  treated 
ith  an  air  of  familiarity  which,  if  it  happened  in  the 
^  world,  might  breed  contempt.  Not  so  in  the  world 
'  the  tale ;  there  they  are  appreciated  for  their  kindness 
id  fof  that  superior  knowledge  which  they  as  a  rule 
pee  at  the  service  of  the  hero.  Sun  and  moon  con- 
acend  to  give  a  helping  band  to  the  young  prince 
ho  seeks  bis  beloved,  who  has  either  disappeared  through 
vUiil  <and  so  far  she  is  sufficiently  human  to  give  way 
I  painion).  or  has  been  carried  away  by  some  mysterious 

jStiU  lEiore  remarkable  than  the  world  above  is  the 
Ukt  ivorld  of  the  tale  It  has  none  of  the  terrors 
^  rdigjoiis  systems,  with  glowing  fires  and  frightful 
HMwcttUj  an  abode  of  wailing  and  gnashing  of  teeth. 
or  is  there  a  host  of  devils  presiding  over  these  tortures, 
id  gloating  over  the  sufferings  of  their  dupes.  There  is 
ithmg  to  inspire  fear  or  to  strike  terror  in  the  heart  of 
€  listener.     It  is  a  kind  of  n^ative  Elysium,  a  kind 

diminished  glory  and  joy,  but  otherwise  not  a  place  of 
isery.  The  souls  flit  by  in  the  very  shape  in  which 
ey  lived  in  this  world  The  hero  who  descends  to 
id  the  disappearing  uncanny  being  he  has  to  fight, 
ids  himself  often  enough  in  a  place  of  equal  comfort 
id  ease  to  the  upper  world.  The  devil,  whenever  he 
ipears  in  the  tale,  is  truly  a  "poor  devil,"  more  fool 
an  wise,  not  a ''  Mephisto,"  but  an  easy  prey  to  the  clever 
Bith  who  twists  his  tail.    The  nether  world  is  the  haunt 

such  extraordinary  beings  as  giants,  or  half-men,  who 
ptnre  beautiful  princesses  or  keep   the   life-tokens  of 


20  Presidential  Address. 

men  whom  they  wish  to  injure.  The  hero  returns  with 
the  rescued  captives  none  the  worse  for  his  adventure, 
or  brings  back,  taken  from  those  palaces,  answers  or 
mysterious  objects  to  the  king  who  has  sent  him  on  the 
perilous  errand.  But  nowhere  is  there  anything  resembling 
those  descents  into  Hades  described  in  such  lurid  colours 
by  the  greatest  poets  of  ancient  and  modern  times.  It 
is  at  least  surprising  to  find  our  tales  free  from  reminis- 
cences of  these  religious  dramas,  considering  that  almost 
every  creed  of  ancient  times  includes  more  or  less  power- 
ful descriptions  of  the  nether  world.  I  draw  no  inferences 
from  this  fact.  I  merely  adduce  it  here  to  bring  out  more 
forcibly  the  differences  between  the  world  of  the  tale  and 
that  of  the  legend. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  is  the  belief  in  immortality, 
an  immortality  of  its  own.  Death  is  not  always  the  end 
of  life;  it  is  often  a  mere  transitory  form  of  suspended 
life,  which  is  being  transfused  into  another  shape.  The 
slain  can  be  quickened,  and  called  to  life  again.  Snakes 
or  birds  know  the  virtue  of  the  herb  of  life  and  use  it ; 
animals  help  to  obtain  the  water  of  life  guarded  by 
mountains  that  open  and  close  with  the  quickness  of 
lightning,  or  life  is  kept  by  some  uncanny  being  from 
whom  it  is  rescued  by  the  hero.  There  is  a  token  of  life 
separate  from  the  body ;  this  is  the  essence  of  life  and 
determines  the  days  of  the  individual  to  whom  it  belongs. 
But  it  can  also  be  extinguished,  when  it  appertains  to  an 
evil  spirit.  The  dead  when  they  come  to  life  know  only 
that  they  have  slept  a  long  sleep  from  which  they  awaken. 
Life  and  death  are  waking  and  sleeping.  But  even  when 
the  grave  has  apparently  closed  upon  the  body,  life  is  by 
no  means  extinct  It  passes  into  a  flower  that  grows 
upon  the  grave  or  into  trees  that  take  their  root  deep 
down  in  the  grave,  and  even  a  mote  suffices  to  quicken 
the  dead  and  to  give  him  back  his  former  existence.  A 
spark  that  flies  from  the  burnt  log  of  wood   becomes 

Presidential  Address.  2 1 

*  germ  of  life,  or  turns  at  once  into  the  very  youth 
maiden  it  was  before.  Life  cannot  be  extinguished 
a  world  in  which  everything  is  animated  and  in 
ich  outward  forms  are  transitory  shapes — shadows  on 
t  wall  of  life,  which  remains,  notwithstanding  all 
jssitudes,  the  same,  one  and  undivided.  It  is  the  belief 
the  essential  unity  of  all  that  lives  and  moves  which 
deiiies  this  conception,  and  which  justifies,  as  it 
re;  the  easy  natural  transition  from  one  form  to  the 
ler.  It  is  an  important  point  to  retain  in  our  investi- 
&»,  and  one  of  the  traits  in  the  delineation  of  the  world 

iVe  proceed  now  to  the  men  and  women  that  live  in 

Few  are  the  types,  but  they  multiply  and  combine 

so  many  ways  that  the  number  seems  legion.    Yet 

can  very  quickly  distinguish  the  leading  characters, 

lich   reappear   over  and    over  again  in  the  manifold 

nbinations,  as  in  a  kaleidoscope,  shaken  tc^ether  by 

I  ingenuity  of  the  poet  who  tells  the  tale  and  shapes 

whilst   telling.     It  has   been    possible,  therefore,    to 

luce  that  multitude  to  a  small  number  of  types,  and 

leaving  out  some  of  those  incidents  which  the  tale  in 

development  gathers  into  itself,  assimilates  and  trans- 

ms,  the  remainder  can   be  brought  to   an   irreducible 

nimum.     The    fairy-tale   proves    to  be    of   the   same 

itter  as  that  of  which  the  world  has  been  built     Only 

few    elements    produce    by    their    combinations    the 

inite  variety  of  creation.     And  the  poetry  of  the  tale 

isists  in  this  free  play  of  the  elements  in  their  com- 

lations.     There  may  be  only  one   element,  in   nature 

d   in  tale,  but  this  belongs  to  metaphysics,  and  they 

r  not  the  friends  of  my  fairy.      Let  us,  therefore,  turn 

some  of  these  primitive  elements,  the    characteristic 

tures  which  a  large  group  of  tales  have  in  common. 

feature  we  meet  with  very  often  is  that  of  the  son 

the    daughter    who    is    least   considered    and    worst 

22  Presidential  Address. 

treated,  and  who  turns  out  afterwards  to  have  been  really 
the  very  best, — the  bravest,  the  noblest  and  the  most 
beautiful  in  body  and  mind.  The  person  so  selected  is 
either  deficient  in  some  quality — is  lazy,  indolent,  small,  or 
ugly — or  is  reduced  to  a  state  of  misery  and  ugliness  and 
servitude  by  the  action  of  his  nearest  relatives,  prompted 
either  by  ignorance  or  by  spite.  A  child  is  born  of 
abnormal  size,  either  too  big  or,  in  most  cases,  too  small — 
Tom  Thumb — or  apparently  an  idiot.  It  is  especially  the 
youngest  son  or  daughter,  and  he  or  she  is  indifferent 
or  selfish  and,  therefore,  persecuted  by  parents  and 
friends,  or  deprived  of  the  fruits  of  victory  by  brothers, 
sisters,  friends,  or  companions.  But  these  unhappy  ones 
are  the  favourites  of  the  powers  that  be ;  they  are  helped 
by  grateful  animals,  or  by  fairies  or  other  supernatural 
beings,  who  fall  in  love  with  them ;  and  the  very  personages 
who  had  to  endure  taunts,  nay,  to  suffer  the  greatest 
indignities  and  hardships,  triumph  in  the  end,  and  show 
themselves  not  only  the  best  and  most  worthy  of  admiration 
but  also  the  most  generous  and  forgiving;  and  "they 
live  on  happily  ever  after." 

This  fundamental  principle,  to  which  a  large  number 
of  tales  can  easily  be  reduced,  takes  the  most  diversified 
forms.  A  vast  amount  of  secondary  incidents  make  up 
the  plot  of  the  tale,  and  change  the  form  and  sex,  the 
surroundings,  and  the  conditions  of  success.  I  have  only 
to  mention  the  innumerable  variants  of  the  type  of 
CinderellUy  which  belongs  to  this  cycle,  to  prove  my  case. 
It  is  the  same  tune  played  to  any  number  of  settings.  It 
is  impossible  to  follow  up  these  variants  here  even  at  a 
remote  distance.  The  cardinal  fact  recurring  in  all  these 
hundreds  of  variations  is:  a  maiden,  treated  with  con- 
tumely by  her  sisters  or  her  step-mother,  is  helped  by 
fairies  or  other  helpful  creatures  to  a  proper  recognition 
of  her  virtues  and  to  a  station  in  life  in  accordance  with 
her  merits.     In  another  case  it  is  the  third  or  youngest 

Presideniial  Address.  23 

IDther  who  is  sent  out  to  do  the  work  in  which  the 
ilcf  brothers  have  failed*  He  is  to  catch  the  thief  who 
emb  the  golden  fruit  from  the  king's  garden;  he  is  to 
esoeml  to  the  nether  world  to  find  the  princess  who  has 
mbbed ;  be  is  to  fight  giants  and  to  defeat  wizards^  or 
I  acoocnpltslt  dangerous  missions.     As  a  menial  servant, 

male  Cinderella,  he  wins  the  love  of  the  princess; 
r  cooling  back  in  such  a  disguise  after  he  had  been 
irown  down  into  the  pit  by  his  own  brothers  he  weds  the 
who  chooses  him  in  preference  to  any  other 
The  final  act  in  the  little  romance  is  always, 
ptkc  done  to  the  wronged. 

The  same  view  of  unity  and  of  the  fundamental  identity 
Tall  the  beings  in  creation,  which  pervades  the  contempla- 
pe  of  naturCp  holds  good  also  for  the  r6le  assigned 
I  aotinaH  in  the  action  of  the  play.  They  are  not  to 
I  jiidged  by  outward  appearances.  The  meanest  and 
Iff  mmt  insignificant  may  turn  out  to  be  the  po.nsessors 
r  tinknowEi  powers ;  they  wait  only  for  the  proper  time 
Id  tbe  proper  person  to  display  them  to  advantaige. 
BPl  ai  Ae  youngest  brotlier  is  despised,  so  also  the 
nimals  or  implements  which  fall  to  his  lot,  or  which  he 
looses  for  his  exploits,  are  poor  or  insignificant ;  such  as 
jaded  horse,  a  rusty  sword,  a  lean  cow,  a  cat,  or  some 
thcr  such  object  rejected  by  his  brothers  in  haughty  dis- 
asn,  for  the  choice  of  which  he  is  ridiculed  and  laughed 
L  In  some  instances  it  is  the  father  who  leaves  to  his 
oungest  son  some  such  trifling  object,  and  this  very 
ifling  object  is  the  most  precious  when  used  by  the 
ght  man.  Puss-in-boots  is  an  example  in  point  But 
ti9s-in-boots  must  not  be  taken  to  be  only  a  puss,  she 

so  only  in  appearance,  and  our  western  tales  in  their 
kst  development  have  been  shorn  of  the  essentials  of  the 
Ider  form  and  have  been  mutilated  beyond  recognition. 
jid  this  is  not  the  only  example  of  moral  deterioration 
r  tbe  tale.     But  we  must  not  linger  now  on  our  way,  and 


24  Prestdential  Address. 

attend  to  the  patients.  I  must  leave  them-  to  the  tender 
care  of  our  Society  to  restore  them  to  their  pristine 
health  and  perfection. 

We  turn  to  another  important  factor  in  the  mechanism 
of  our  tales,  the  aim  and  object  of  the  quest.  In  many 
instances  these  also  are  insignificant  objects — an  apple, 
a  horn,  a  table,  a  stick,  a  pair  of  sandals,  a  carpet,  a  cap, 
a  bird  ;  or,  again,  a  piece  of  flint,  a  comb,  a  feather,  a  hair. 
Here  also  first  impressions  deceive.  The  coveted  prizes 
are  not  what  they  seem.  In  reality  they  are  quite  different 
things.  The  apple  or  the  nut  is  a  palace,  the  horn 
is  the  hold  of  herds  of  cattle,  it  is  the  horn  of  Amalthea, 
of  abundance;  the  table  is  readily-decked  with  all  the 
dainties  of  the  world,  the  stick  is  the  means  of  invincible 
power,  the  sandals  or  the  carpet  the  means  for  quick 
travel  from  one  end  of  the  world  to  the  other;  the  cap 
makes  the  hero  invisible,  the  bird  breaks  the  spell  and 
quickens  to  life  those  who  sleep  the  sleep  of  death,  the 
stone  becomes  a  mountain  and  a  barrier  to  the  pursuer^ 
the  comb  a  forest,  and  so  forth.  One  and  all  have  far 
greater  potentialities  than  their  outward  appearance 

Another  type,  representing  a  different  set  of  ideas,  is 
the  child  which  is  abandoned  or  the  hero  killed  so  as 
to  prevent  the  fulfilment  of  the  forecast  of  its  future 
greatness.  Wickedness  has  now  a  definite  aim ;  it  is  a 
question  of  self-preservation.  But  the  tale  recognises  no 
possibility  of  active  interference  with  the  laws  of  the 
world.  No  human  power  can  divert  the  course  of 
events.  It  is  fate,  "Moira,"  which  determines  the  future 
of  every  being,  and  in  vain  does  man  attempt  to  fight 
against  inexorable  destiny.  But  this  fate  is  not  "  fatalism,'* 
a  blind  law  to  which  everything  is  equally  subject  and 
which  determines  the  life  of  every  one  in  the  same  degree, 
which  scatters  good  and  evil  indiscriminately  and  affects 
the   whole  world  with  woe   and  joy.     In  the  tale  it  is 

Presidential  Address.  25 

nhed  in  its  eflfect  to  a  few  selected  persons  whose 
Nifae  has  been  determined  long  before,  and  no  power 
1  earth  can  change  or  turn  it,  not  even  the  death  of 
le  hero,  for  he  comes  miraculously  back  to  life.  This 
moeption,  which  rests  on  the  belief  that  the  best  must 
levitaUy  come  to  the  best,  independent  of  the  circum- 
anoes  in  which  he  has  been  bom,  is  akin  to  the  type 
f  the  Youngest  Brother  or  Cinderella^  for  they  were  also 
mh — ^to  use  a  phrase  of  the  eastern  tale — with  the  star 
B  their  forehead  and  with  the  golden  crown  on  the  brow. 
1  the  one  case  the  history  b^ns  at  the  birth,  or  shortly 
efore  the  birth,  in  the  other  after  they  have  grown  to 
lanhood  or  womanhood.  The  experiences  of  the  one  are 
[ken  indistinguishable  from  those  of  the  other.  Both 
Bdergo  a  certain  amount  of  hardship  and  danger  ere 
icy  reach  the  object  of  their  ambition. 
But  this  world  is  not  filled  only  with  heroes  and  kings  ; 
lere  are  also  abnormal  beings  lurking  everywhere,  and 
itfa  them  the  hero  has  to  fight,  or  by  them  he  may  be 
dped  in  his  daring  adventures.  It  is  a  remarkable 
ature  that  not  a  single  normal  animal  appears  in  all  the 
Jr>'-tales  as  the  antagonist  of  the  hero.  The  only 
nimais  which  he  has  to  fight  are  the  mythical  dragons, 
r  misshapen  creatures  which  by  their  deformity  show  that 
le}'  are  standing  outside  the  range  of  the  regular  and 
atural ;  monsters  in  human  or  animal  shape,  the  like 
r  which  are  not  usually  met  with,  which  are  a  source  of 
anger  and  evil  to  persons  or  countries,  and  of  which 
lese  are  ridded  by  the  hero.  The  weapon  employed  is 
jperior  knowledge.  Ruse,  cunning,  or  intelligence,  decides 
ic  contest  between  the  giant,  or  the  terrible  monster,  and 
ie  small  human  being.  Size  is  of  no  moment ;  Tom 
liumb  understands  better  how  to  overcome  difficulties 
lan  his  huge  temporary  masters,  and  the  giants  are 
[ways  portrayed  as  great  louts,  limited  in  intelligence, 
nd  easily  trapped  by  the  wary  nimble  man.     At  times 

26  Presidential  Address. 

the  hero  is  helped  by  men  who  can  do  prodigious  things, 
having  the  power  of  giants  with  the  size  of  men.  The 
one  can  uproot  whole  forests,  the  other  drink  a  river, 
the  third  is  as  fleet  of  feet  as  the  quickest  thought, 
another  can  blow  hot  and  cold,  and,  again,  another  can 
see  at  enormous  distances.  But  they  do  not  betray  their 
qualities  outwardly,  and  are  recognised  only  by  the 
feats  which  they  perform.  Even  in  this  case  physical 
force  does  not  stand  on  the  same  plane  as  keen  intel- 
ligence. With  all  their  strength  they  are  stupid;  a 
humanised  and  reduced  form  of  the  lordly  giant 

We  have  now  been  roaming,  I  think,  long  enough  in 
the  realm  of  the  fairy-tales.  We  have  scaled  the  heavens 
on  a  beanstalk  like  Jack,  or,  perhaps,  on  sunbean\s;  we 
have  followed  the  aerial  flight  of  the  swan-maidens; 
we  have  descended  into  the  nether  world ;  we  have 
ransacked  the  storehouse  of  the  fairies*  palaces.  But 
what  does  it  all  mean  }  Is  it  a  mere  play  of  fancy  coming 
from  nowhere  and  going  no  whither?  Is  it  the  birth 
of  a  day,  not  destined  to  see  the  sun  of  the  morrow, 
or  is  it  as  everlasting  as  the  heroes  of  the  tale?  And 
if  so,  why  so  ?  What  does  it  all  portend,  and  whence 
the  deep  interest  it  has  been  able  to  rouse,  and  the 
enthusiasm  it  has  been  able  to  kindle  everywhere  and 
at  all  times?  I  have  come  back  to  my  starting-point, 
but  no  longer  with  empty  hands,  a  mere  questioner 
at  the  closed  door.  The  door  has  opened  and  we  have 
had  a  glimpse  of  the  treasures  heaped  up  in  the  palaces 
of  the  fairies.  And  more  than  that:  a  whisper  of  the 
fairies  has  been  overheard.  I  hope  to  have  heard  aright 
what  they  spoke.  Should  I  have  missed  its  true  meaning 
then  I  trust  that  someone  else  will  be  more  favoured 
and  bring  you  a  better  message  than  has  been  vouch- 
safed to  me. 

What  I  heard  was  this.  The  fairy-tale  was  the  first 
attempt  of  man  to  solve  the  riddle  of  life  and  world.     It  is 

Presuieniiai  Address,  27 

the  fifst  attempt  to  understand  the  ways  of  the  world,  and 
to  offer  an  explanation  of  all  that  seems  so  disconcerting 
and  difficult  to  understand.     We  are  surrounded  by  Ills 
and  troubles;  w*c  arc  placed  in  the  midst  of  beings,  some 
savage,  some  tame,  some  kind,  some  unkind ;  illness  and 
death,  povcity  and  misery,  hardship  and  wrong  seem  to 
ftdgd  supreme.     There  is  a  throbbing,  fighting,  disporting 
animal  life  of  which  we  know  nothing,  and  some  of  the 
animals    seem    to    possess    qualities    higher    than    man. 
are  some  whose  movements  are  furtive,  mysterious, 
power?  fof  evil   are   great     There   is  a  world   of 
Sowers  and    trees,  each  one  living  in  its  own  way,  also 
csidowcd  with  mysterious  properties.     We  are  told,  then, 
that  all  these  are  parts  of  one  whole,  are  filled  with  one 
untvcnul  scuL    There  Is  no  essential  difference  between 
one  crrature  and  the  other,  and  the  sight  of  the  eye  is 
deceptive      Everything   is   subject   to   the   same    law   of 
eternal    change ;    but    this    change    does    not    affect  the 
fandamental   unity  of  the  universe,  nor  is  it  limited   in 
any  way  whatsoever     The  differences   between  various 
^>edes  and  kinds  are  obliterated  in  nature,  and  supreme 
equality   lies    at    the    root    of   the    social  conditions  of 
mankind.     What  the   one   is   to-day  the  other  may  be 
to-morrow.     It   is  all  so  democratic,  and  withal  so  well 
defined.    True,  there  are  degrees  in  society,  but  there  are 
00  insurmountable  barriers   between    the    one    and    the 
other  ;  the  best,  the  bravest,  the  truest,  the  most  upright 
wins  in  the  long  run.     Things  are  not  what  they  appear, 
the    lowest    contains    in    itself   the    possibilities   of    the 
highest     And  the  mark  of  the  highest  is  physical  prowess 
and  moral  rectitude.     This  world,  then,  with  its  infinite 
possibilities  is  not  left  a  prey  to  the  wicked.     The  funda- 
mental  principle   which  governs  it  is  that    of   absolute 
justice.     No  wrong  remains  unpunished,  no  evil  without 
redress,  though  not  always  in   the  manner  expected  by 
us;  in  the  most   unexpected  way  justice  finds  out  the 


28  Presidential  Address. 

wicked,  and  reward  and  punishment  are  meted  out  in 
the  end  to  the  innocent  and  to  the  guilty. 

As  such  an  ideal  state  cannot  be  found  in  the  real 
world,  the  poetic  imagination  of  mankind, — the  divine  gift 
placed  in  the  cradle  of  man  at  his  birth, — has  created  this 
imaginary  world  of  unity,  beauty,  and  justice,  and  has 
transplanted  thither  all  the  ideal  hopes  and  aspirations 
of  man.  For  what  have  been  the  ideals  which  have 
inspired  man  from  the  beginning  and  which  animate  him 
still  in  his  noblest  pursuits  }  Are  they  not  the  desire 
to  realise  some  of  the  pictures  of  the  fairy-tales  ?  to  create 
a  world  that  is  better,  happier,  and^  more  glorious ;  where 
the  differences  between  man  and  man  have  disappeared ; 
where  illness  and  troubles,  fleeting  shadows  like  the  clouds, 
are  dissipated  by  a  warm  and  radiant  sun ;  where  justice 
reigns  instead  of  wrong  and  oppression,  and  where  virtue 
is  rewarded.  We  may  call  such  a  picture  a  vision  or  an 
Utopia,  for  we  look  more  to  the  difficulties  which  prevent 
its  realisation.  We  are  too  scientific ;  we  are  calculating 
machines  and  men  of  exact  science,  we  have  allowed 
our  imagination  to  shrivel  up  and  our  poetry  to  disappear. 
With  them  departs  the  best  that  is  in  man,  the  possibility 
of  enthusiasm,  the  glow  of  inspiration,  the  joy  of  life, 
and  the  glory  of  the  world.  And  yet  all  the  while  we 
are  deceiving  ourselves  into  a  semblance  of  satisfaction 
and  pretend  to  have  got  nearer  the  solution  of  the  riddle 
than  those  were  who  told  the  first  tale. 

Are  these  not  the  same  ideals  which  have  inspired  men 
of  genius  in  all  ages  and  at  all  times }  Has  not  man  tried 
to  obtain  the  mastery  of  nature,  and  to  fathom  the 
mysterious  properties  of  the  elements  ?  to  utilise  the  very 
same  forces  which  nature  in  a  better  and  a  more  loving 
mood  offered  voluntarily  to  the  hero  of  the  tale  ?  What 
is  the  aim  and  object  of  all  science,  if  not  to  provide  for 
man  the  same  means  for  his  happiness, — health,  long  life, 
enjoyment  and  knowledge — as  "once  upon  a  time"?    Nay> 

f  Prisideniiai  Address,  29 

lie  objects  arc  almost  identical  We  desire  to  shorten 
Mce,  as  they  did  by  the  flying  horse  and  the  magic 
■rpct  We  wish  to  spy  out  the  mystery  of  heaven  and 
tm  down  the  depth  of  the  sea  as  they  did  when  the 
Aati  of  long  sight  searched  for  the  hidden  beauty  among 
be  places  above  the  skies  or  at  the  bottom  of  the  sea. 
I  is  imnulcrial  whether  Dick  Whittington  is  a  tale  or 
'.  Icgendi  the  fact  remains  that  he  had  a  Puss-in-boots, 
pA  that  we  aUo  are  turning  to  the  dumb  animal  world 
nr  help  in  our  adventures.  No  greater  truth  has  yet 
cm  fotmulated  than  that  there  exists  a  herb  of  life. 
Vbmt  cbe  was  the  dream  of  the  alchemist  but  to  find 
lir  elixir  of  life,  the  stone  of  the  philosopher  ?  so  as  to 
kajtge  the  elements,  to  turn  base  metals  into  gold,  just 
p  the  fairy  does  by  the  touch  of  her  wand,  to  prolong 
fe  just  as  the  "water  of  hfe''  does  in  the  tale*  And 
I  not  the  final  aim  of  modem  science  to  discover  and 
lace,  as  they  say,  on  a  sclenti5c  basis,  the  Unity  of 
kature?  Unity  presupposes  the  possibility  of  all  these 
karvelknts  changes  which  are  dreamt  of  in  the  tale  and 
Etake  its  charm  so  great  Magic  is  only  a  secondary 
tage  of  this  conception,  for  a  man  can  only  perform 
hose  changes  when  he  believes  that  it  can  be  done,  that 
be  one  can  easily  be  permutated  into  another  and  that  life 
(  essentially  one  and  the  same  in  the  whole  of  Nature, 
shall  be  confronted  by  the  argument  that  not  all  the  tales 
ave  either  a  moral  background  or  a  moral  ending. 
rhis  is  quite  true ;  but  such  tales  are  the  poor  remnants 
i  a  much  more  complete  tale  in  which  these  features 
sade  its  fortune.  Herein  lies  the  value  and  importance 
{  our  Society.  We  are  taught  to  take  a  compre- 
lensive  view,  to  gather  all  the  variants  and  forms  in 
rhich  a  tale  has  been  preserved,  and  to  reconstruct  it 
o  that  we  recover  the  old  form  with  all  its  charm 
nd  all  its  poetry.  Whilst  doing  so  we  shall  feel  the 
ame  sensatioo  which  stirred  the  alchemist  of  old  when 


30  Presidential  Address. 

he  felt  himself  on  the  track  of  the  elixir  of  life.  Our 
imagination  is  set  on  fire.  The, days  when  the  "world 
was  young"  dawn  again  upon  us.  Everything  in  us  and 
around  us  is  suffused  by  this  glow  and  we  see  mysterious 
powers  working  for  good.  They  who  told  the  tale  for 
the  first  time  cast  the  picture  back  into  days  that  had 
gone  by  long  ago;  we  are  throwing  the  rays  of  light 
before  us  into  the  days  that  are  to  come.  For  these 
tales  express  in  a  pithy  and  poetical  form  the  ideals 
of  mankind.  The  secret  of  the  fairy-tales  is  that  they 
are  thoroughly  human,  no  difference  of  faith  or  race,  or 
station  in  life  is  recognised.  They  draw  man  to  man, 
thereby  weaving  a  spell  over  our  mind.  They  find  a 
ready  echo  in  our  heart;  they  appeal  to  every  man, 
woman  and  child  who  is  not  yet  affected  by  the 
conventionalities  of  life,  who  is  still  responsive  to  the 
perfume  of  the  flower,  to  the  warbling  song  of  the  bird, 
to  the  music  of  the  murmuring  stream,  to  the  poetry 
of  forest  and  glen,  to  the  glory  of  the  skies,  and  to 
the  beauty  of  the  world.  They  are  a  vivid  reflex  of 
those  times  when  every  day  brought  forth  another 
wonder,  and  the  fragrance  of  the  poetry  of  life  is  wafted 
into  our  soul,  refreshing,  vivifying,  and  quickening.  Our 
Society  has  drunk  of  that  fountain  of  youth,  and  it  is 
our  privilege  to  have  kept  the  access  to  the  "eau  de 
jouvency "  free  to  all  comers.  The  Fairy  Godmother  still 
showers  her  gifts  upon  us.  It  is  for  us  to  appreciate 
the  gifts  and  to  recognise  the  glint  of  the  gold  in  the 
clay  out  of  which  we  fashion  the  bricks  for  the  future 
Palace  of  Folklore.  May  you  be  able  to  detect  a  minute 
fraction  of  it  in  the  brick  which  I  have  endeavoured 
to  add  to  the  grand  fabric,  and  forgive  me  if  I  now  break 
the  spell  and  bring  you  back,  let  me  hope  refreshed,  to 
the  world  of  stern  realities.     It  was  "  only  a  Fairy  Tale." 

M.  Gaster. 


TiCJia  OP  ?rrocKiAi«i>»  bridcwatbr. 

{Itmd  ai  Meeiing^  20//1  Nw^mier,  1907.) 

n  Qoantock  district  of  West  Somerset^  some  of  whose 
HKtMOS  arc  here  to  be  recorded,  lies  between  the 
mtra  Sea  and  Ibc  wide  fenUnds  of  the  Tone  and 
VTctt,  whkh,  rougbJy  speaking,  run  from  north  to 
Btfa«  and  then  from  east  to  west,  to  form  what  was 
ice  an  almoist  impassable  frontier  against  an  invader 
sf  '"       r      ,  ^      The  more  open   western    side  of 

is  quadrilateral  is  dominated  by  the  Quantocks  them- 
Ives,  rising  to  an  extreme  height  of  over  1200  feet 
lOQt  midway  of  their  length,  and  studded  with  ancient 
mps  at  every  point  where  a  crossing  could  be 
tempted.  In  early  days  there  have  been  practically 
dy  two  roads  into  the  district  from  the  eastward — one 
ross  the  Parrett  and  its  marshes  by  ferry  at  what  is 
m  Bridgwater,  where  the  way  was  kept  in  Roman  times 
r  earthworks  on  either  side  ;  the  other  by  a  ford,  passable 
dy  at  low  water,  at  Combwich,  some  six  miles  to  the 
award.  Except  to  marshmen,  there  could  have  been 
►  way  into  the  district  from  the  south,  where  Athelney 
s  hidden  in  the  fens;  and  the  hill  tracks  to  the  west 
ross  the  Quantocks  were  camp-guarded.  There  were 
x>  of  these  hill  tracks.     One  still  keeps  the  significant 


32  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

name  of  the  "Harepath"  or  "Hareknaps" — the  way,  or 
the  ridge,  of  the  host^ — and  the  other,  still  used  in  part, 
but  even  where  unused  yet  to  be  traced,  and  of  untold 
age,  leads  from  the  Combwich  ford  to  the  great  hill  fort 
which  crests  the  rounded  summit  of  Danesboro'  or 
Dowsboro'  hill,  midway  on  the  highest  part  of  the  range. 
The  great  Roman  roads  passed  to  the  southward  of  the 
Tone  fenland,  but  a  secondary  road  ran  from  Street 
along  the  low  ridge  of  the  Polden  hills  to  the  crossing 
at  Bridgwater,  and  thence  apparently  skirted  the  fenland 
along  the  hills  to  their  north  toward  Taunton,  or  rather 
the  earlier  Norton  Fitzwarren  station.  A  strange  tri- 
angular camp  of  great  strength  on  this  road,  near 
Petherton,  has  at  all  events  been  used  by  the  Romans, 
and  has  its  legends  of  buried  treasure  accordingly. 

So  isolated,  and  at  the  same  time  so  strong,  a  district 
would  seem  to  be  a  natural  frontier  position  between 
eastward  and  westward  tribes,  and  our  earliest  records 
prove  that  it  was  such.  The  ancient  province  of 
Domnonia  extended  little  to  the  east  of  the  bounding 
fenlands  which  parted  the  men  of  Dyvnaint  of  the 
Goidelic  stock  from  the  intrusive  later  Belgae,  and  the 
Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  tells  how,  after  the  battle  at 
Peonna^  in  658,  Kenwalch  of  Wessex  drove  the  Welsh 
into  the  shelter  of  the  district  at  Petherton,  no  doubt 
across  the  fen  paths  which  he  could  not  penetrate. 
The  same  authority  records  that  in  682  Kentwine  "drove 
the  Britons  to  the  sea,"  which  can  only  have  been  by 
successful  invasion  of  the  Quantock  land ;  but  it  was 
not  until  Ina*s  victory  over  Gerent  of  Dyvnaint  in  710 
that  the  district  was  finally  incorporated  into  the  Wessex 
dominion,  and  held  by  the  building  of  the  stronghold  of 
Taunton  at  its  south-western  angle,  where  it  lay  most 
open   to    attack    from    the  West  Welsh    lands    yet   un- 

^A.S.  here^  an  army,  and  cnap^  a  hill-top,  ridge. 
'  Pen-Selwood,  near  Frome. 

I  Local  Tradiiwns  of  the  Quaniocks.  33 

ftbducd.  Later,  in  87S,  the  Quantock  stronghold  lay  in 
he  rear  of  Alfred  as  he  planned  in  Athelney^  and  there 
I  00  recmd  that  it  was  held  by  the  Danes. 

The  lateness  of  the  Saxon  conquest  has  had  a  very  great 
Hcct  on  the  population  of  the  district  In  the  early 
Igbth  century  it  had  ceased  to  be  the  Saxon  policy  to 
Ifirc  out  or  enslave  the  conquered,  and  the  Welsh, 
^d^  the  laws  of  Ina,  \vere  treated  on  something  more 
Bee  an  equality  with  the  conquerors,  The  physique  of 
be  present  population  bears  unmistakably  the  mark  of 
he  Celtic  as  well  as  of  the  Saxon  type,  while  the 
Baled  is  akin  to  the  Devon  rather  than  to  the  Wessex 
Imsion*  though  rapidly  losing  its  distinctive  points.  In 
876  Prince  Louis  Lucien  Bonaparte  made  a  special 
bti  of  research  into  the  district,  and  the  results  were 
econied  in  the  Transacticns  of  the  Philological  Society 
ir  that  year  He  then  concluded  that  the  Devon  type 
f  dialect  was  rapidly  passing  into  that  of  south-western 
kMiierset ;  but  the  difference  between  the  speech  of  the 
luantock  villages  and  that  of  the  country  just  across 
he  Parrett  is  still  marked  enough.  It  is  the  tale  in 
>toke  Courcy  that  a  man  thence  went  to  work  at 
^iriton,  beyond  the  river,  and  returned  after  a  week  or 
wo  because  "they  did  talk  so  terrible  broad  there  that 
ic  could  not  rightly  zince  what  they  did  zay."  We 
hare  with  Devon,  accordingly,  Celtic  place-names,  and 
Ihurch  dedications  to  Celtic  Saints — ^those  to  St  Dubric 
md  St.  Decuman^  being  instances  of  the  latter,  and 
MT>bably  the   name   Quantock   itself  being  one   of   the 


The    proportion    of    well-marked    dark   and    brachy- 
«phalic  individuals  among  the  population  is  about  equal 

>  Ax  Porlock  aod  Watchet  respectively.    Also  St  Petroc  at  Timberscombe, 
iL  Colbooe  mt  Colbooe,  Sl  Congar  at  Badgworth. 

'Hm  ia  usoaUy  giTen  as  from  "Gwant  og/'  "many  hoUows";   but  the 
Ibhmi  facBi  "CaotQc'*  seems  haidly  to  bear  this  out. 


34  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

to  that  of  folk  of  the  Saxon  type,  but  on  the  coast, 
from  the  Parrett  mouth  to  Porlock,  a  third  type,  of 
which  more  is  to  be  said,  occurs. 

One  may  take  it  that  the  few  traditions  which  have 
been  mentioned  as  remaining  with  reference  to  the 
Roman  camp  near  Petherton  can  only  come  to  us  from 
British  sources.  They  are  our  earliest,  at  all  events, 
and  refer  to  times  when  the  garrison  and  inhabitants 
were  at  peace.  The  field  adjoining  the  camp  is  still 
called  "the  money  field,"  and  coins  are  now  and  then 
found  there.  Probably  it  was  the  place  of  market  with 
the  troops.  But  a  tradition  recorded  in  1857  by  the 
Rev.  J.  W.  Collins^  still  lingers,  to  the  effect  that  just 
outside  the  camp  enclosure  is  a.  buried  treasure-house, 
with  an  iron  door,  which  can  only  be  found  at  full  moon, 
containing  untold  wealth.  This  buried  treasure  legend 
occurs  constantly  in  connection  with  Roman  camps  else- 
where, in  one  form  or  other,  and  such  large  finds  as 
those  at  Caerwent  of  last  year,  and  along  the  Roman 
wall,  bear  out  the  tradition,  and  the  statement  of  the 
Anglo-Saxon  Chronicle  that  the  Romans  on  their  depar- 
ture from  England  took  some  of  their  treasure  into 
Gaul  and  buried  the  rest* 

We  have  no  tradition  of  Roman  warfare,  or  indeed  of 
the  Romans  by  name.  The  next  hero  of  tradition, 
Arthur  of  Britain,  has  left  no  mark  on  the  Quantock 
memory  as  it  exists  to-day,  though  to  the  southward  he 
is  still  remembered  round  Cadbury  camp,  the  Camelot 
of  the  "Green   Knight."     Capgrave  has  given  a  legend 

"^Journal  Brit,  Arch.  Assoc. ^  vol.  xxL,  1857,  p.  297. 

^Anglo-Saxon  Chron.^  Anno  418.  Treasure  is  said  to  be  buried  in  a 
field  at  the  back  of  Stockland  church,  where  the  traces  of  the  stone-pits 
whence  the  material  for  the  old  building  was  taken  are  still  visible;  **But 
the  man  who  is  to  find  that  treasure  isn't  bom  yet."  The  stone  would 
almost  certainly  have  been  a  gift,  and  the  reference  therefore  might  possibly 
be  to  the  "treasure  laid  up  in  Heaven"  thereby  for  the  donor,  in  a 
perverted  form. 

Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks.  35 

King  Arthur,  however,  localising  his  meeting  with  St 
rantock  and  the  finding  of  the  Round  Table,  during  his 
lest  for  a  certain  dn^on,  in  the  "marsh  of  the  Car" 

Carfaampton.     The  legend  is  forgotten  now,  but  the 
agon  is  carved  in  the  churches  of  Old  Cleeve  and  of 
L     Decuman,    which     lie    close    to    Carhampton    and 
Ratchet  on  the  western  foothills  of  the  Quantocks. 
Still,  on  the  western  slope  of  the  hills,  it  is  said  that 

dragon  with  two  heads,  was  slain  by  an  unnamed 
lampion  at  Crowcombe,  and  one  of  the  bench  ends  in 
le  church  records  the  feat  Another  dragon,  also 
tfvcd  in  the  church,  was  killed  by  a  champion  of  the 
itzwarren  family,  nearer  Taunton,  at  Norton  Fitzwarren, 
It  of  these  two  exploits  no  details  are  preserved. 

A  third  dragon,  which  had  its  habitation  in  Shervage 
rood,  below  the  Danesborough  camp,  on  the  eastern 
ope  of  the  hills,  is  however  told  of  very  definitely,  and 

still  used  as  a  deterrent  to  children  who  might  linger 
o  late  among  the  whortleberry  bushes. 

It  was  a  long  dragon,  "  one  of  that  sort  they  called  a 
orm."  and  devoured  every  living  thing  within  reach. 
Dnsequcntly  the  local  woodman  was  unable  to  go  to 
e  wood  and  cut  the  faggots  on  which  his  living 
rpcnded.  At  last,  however,  starvation  drove  him  to 
ork  at  a  time  when  the  dragon  seemed  to  have  gone 
sewhere  in  search  of  prey,  and  during  the  morning  he 
It  wood  unmolested,  seeing  or  hearing  nothing  of  the 
rror.  At  noon  he  sat  on  a  fallen  log  half  buried  in 
m  to  cat  his  "  nummit "  (noon-meat),  and  as  he  sat, 
le  log  heaved  under  him.  It  was  the  sleeping  dragon. 
iTicreon,  in  desperation,  he  leapt  up,  and  crying,  "  So 
ice  do  movey,  do  'ec  ?  Take  that  then ! "  he  struck  his 
ce  into  the  beast,  and  fled.  But  what  became  of  the 
ragon  no  man  knows,  for  it  was  never  seen  afterward. 

It  is  worth  notice  that  each  of  these  legends  is  located 
\  the  position  of  a  camp.     That  at  Crowcombe  is  under 

36  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

a  large  circular  entrenchment  known  as  "the  Trendle 
Ring,"  Norton  was  a  Roman  station,  and  Danesborough 
is  the  refuge  camp  of  the  district,  with  a  battle-tradition 
of  the  slaughter  of  "  Danes "  still  remaining. 

A  fourth  camp,  unnamed,  lying  in  Aisholt  parish,  on 
the  eastward  slopes,  and  guarding  a  pass  over  the  highest 
ridge  of  the  hills,  **  Will's  Neck,"  seems  to  be  associated 
with  a  more  definite  battle-tradition  yet  The  field  below 
the  spur  of  hill  where  the  camp  lies,  in  which  the  fight 
took  place,  is  still  pointed  out  as  that  where  "the  worst 
battle  ever  fought  in  these  parts  was  fought.  The  dead 
men  were  heaped  all  so  high  as  the  top  of  the  gates, 
and  the  blood  ran  out  so  deep  as  the  second  thill," 
{t,e.  gate  bar).  The  folk  can  tell  you  no  more,  but  will 
repeat  the  detail,  only  adding  that  it  is  not  so  long  ago 
that  the  graves  of  the  dead  men  could  be  seen  in  the 
field,  and  that  swords  and  spears  had  been  dug  up  often. 
Nothing  is  visible  now  to  break  the  surface,  and  it  is  not 
known  what  became  of  the  weapons.  This  statement  is 
probably  traditional,  and  may  date  back  indefinitely.  The 
formula,  "So  and  so*s  grandfather,"  or  "our  old  people" 
has,  I  believe,  come  down  with  very  many  legends  as  an 
integral  part  of  them. 

I  would  hazard  an  identification  of  this  last  battle  with 
that  in  which  Kentwine  drove  the  Britons  to  the  sea. 
The  position  is  strategically  correct  for  the  resistance  by 
the  Britons  to  the  Saxon  advance,  while  the  ridge  above 
the  battle  field,  "  WilCs  Neck,"  preserves  the  name  of  the 
defeated  Welshman  and  their  flight  to  the  coast  and 
Exmoor.  That  battle  of  Kentwine's  must  have  been  a 
fierce  one,  and  we  have  no  record  of  later  penetration  so 
far  into  the  district  by  the  Danes.^ 

It  is  possible  that  the  dragon  traditions  of  the  other 

'In  loio  the  Danes  raided  Cannington  Marsh  (A,S.  Chron,),  but  seem 
to  have  been  unopposed.  The  definite  localisation  of  their  foray  thus  points 
to  the  confinement  of  their  movements  to  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  district. 

I         Locai  Traditi&m  &/  ike  Quaniocks,  37 

itions  rciM.f  record  the  battles  of  the  Wesscx  dragon 
ier  Ina  with  the  Red  Dragon  of  the  Welsh,  as  told  in 
godcal  form  by  the  glcemen*^ 

Nie  of  our  "ghosts"  may  also  be  a  relic  from  Saxon 
%.  He  appemfs  in  a  deep  hillside  lane  with  his  head 
fer  hi*t  arm,  and  is  well  known  and  feared,  though  he 
lOt  held  to  portend  anything  in  part icu tar  Remem- 
cng  that  in  the  olden  days  it  was  not  unusual  to 
ipttate  the  body  of  one  who  was  restless  in  his  grave, 
re*tnter  it  with  the  head  laid  aside,  it  is  probable  that 
irwbcre  on  the  hill  lies  a  Saxon  so  treated.  In  the 
t  of  a  simitar  ghost  in  Gloucestershire,  such  an  inter- 
Itp  with  the  head  laid  beside  the  thigh,  was  actually 
Id  in  the  field  where  the  ghost  walked. 
kiiother  headless  ghost  rides  down  a  slight  hiJl  half  a 
\  further  00,  his  steed  being  a  hurdle,  and  his  head  ts 
I  before  him.  Probably  this  is  of  later  origin,  and 
r  refer  to  some  local  follower  of  Lord  Audley  of 
■rcy  aiKl  Perkin  Warbeck^  who  had  been  drawn  to 
^Kifibkl  on  a  hurdle,  and  there  beheaded,  after  the 
Bwr  of  tboAe  da\'s.  It  is  possible  that  there  is  a 
d  deal  more  to  be  done  in  the  way  of  collection  of 
one  memories  from  the  tales  of  the  ghosts  of  the 

H  the  coming  of  the  Danes  the  battle  traditions  have 
'h  to  say,  if  nowadays  they  are  growing  misty.  But 
r  it  must  be  noted  that  every  tale  of  ancient  warfare 
Lhc  Quantock  country,  and  probably  in  the  rest  of 
lerset,  is  assigned  to  the  time  of  the  Danes  in  a  way 
ch  is  not  wonderful  when  one  considers  that  Athelney 
f  lies  on  the  edge  of  the  Quantock  land,  and  that 
1  835  to  1010  the  North  Somerset  coast  was  constantly 
igcd  by  the  Viking  fleets.  I  have  known  even  Scdge- 
r  fight  ascribed  to  the  Danes. 

se  Geoffrey  of  Moamoath,  British  History^  bk.  vii.  c.  3,  "The  Pro- 
es  or  Mcriin.'* 


38  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

The  first  landing  of  these  invaders,  in  A.D.  835,  was  at 
Parrett  Mouth,  but  on  the  right  bank  of  the  river.  The 
memory  of  that  invasion  is  still  so  clear,  however,  that  it 
should  be  recorded.  The  field  of  battle  lies  under  Brent 
Knoll,  and  is  known  as  "  Battle  Borough."  The  tradition 
is  that  the  enemy  was  destroyed  because  a  certain  old 
woman  dared,  during  the  fight  inland,  to  prevent  their 
escape  by  cutting  the  cables  of  the  ships,  and  so  setting 
them  adrift  on  the  falling  tide.  The  landing  and  defeat 
are  briefly  recorded  in  the  AS,  Chronicle^  Bishop  Ealhstan 
being  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  Somerset  and  Dorset 
levies.  The  next  Danish  invasion  was  that  of  the 
Athelney  campaign.  We  have  no  actual  stories  of  Alfred  ; 
but  the  fort  on  the  end  of  the  Polden  Hills  at  Downend, 
close  to  the  bank  of  the  Parrett,  is  said  to  have  been  a 
place  "where  they  came  from  Athelney  to  fight." 

This  tradition  was  given  only  a  few  months  ago  to  the 
Rev.  W.  Gresswell,  by  an  old  illiterate  labourer,  and  is 
remarkable,  as  the  place  had  up  to  that  time  hardly  been 
noticed  as  a  possible  Danish  stronghold,  and  it  could  not 
have  been  mentioned  to  the  old  man  as  a  battle  place 
otherwise  than  by  tradition.  There  is  still  work  to  be 
done  in  this  connection,  and  I  must  pass  by  the  deductions 
which  might  be  drawn  from  it. 

Of  the  same  date  would  seem  to  be  a  tradition 
connected  with  the  small  stone-walled  and  very  ancient 
hill  fort  which  I  have  mentioned  as  commanding  the 
tidal  ford  of  the  Parrett  at  Combwich,  and  now  known 
as  Cannington  Park  (Park  being  in  west  country  parlance 
still  a  term  for  enclosed  but  uncultivated  ground).  Here 
local  tradition  says  that  a  force  of  Danes  was  exterminated 
with  the  exception  of  one  boy.  The  graves  of  the  slain 
lie  on  a  hill  close  under  the  camp,  and  are  very  numerous, 
many  of  the  skeletons  bearing  marks  of  weapons.  That 
the  tradition  records  the  nationality  of  the  slain  correctly 
seems  certain,  as  a  short  exploration  of  the  battle  trenches, 

Local  Trodiiions  of  the  Quaniacks.  39 

I  whi^  the  dead  have  been  huddled  in  long  rows, 
i9  yielded  pottery  of  Anglo-Saxon  make,  and  distinct 
rtdefice  of  mdtscrimlnate  massacre.  I  shall  have  to 
rfcr  to  this  camp  again  in  another  connection,  and  will 
Ot  enter  on  the  vexed  question  of  what  this  force  of 
huies  may  have  been. 

The  little  town,  once  a  borough,  of  Stoke  Courcy,  the 
Bntre  of  the  north  of  the  district,  has  its  own  traditions 
rferring  to  later  history.  The  ruins  of  a  small  castle 
dll  ^and  there,  and  the  church  is  a  fine  early  Norman 
en&cture^  both  dating  from  the  early  twelfth  century. 
Soncemii^  the  founding  of  the  place,  the  tradition  is, 
rst.  that  once  the  town  was  all  on  the  top  of  Farringdon 
Di ;  and,  next,  that  once  the  name  of  the  place  was 
Qthing  but  Stoke,  and  then  a  giant  came  and  built  the 
Ifttle,  and  his  name  being  **  Curcy,"  they  called  it  "  Stoke 
iircy**  ever  since. 

The  Faningdoo  tradition  I  shall  refer  to  again.  The 
bnt  is  an  actual  historic  character,  being  that  gigantic 
Obn  de  Courcy  who  was  the  first  earl  of  Ulster,  and 
^  reluctant  champion  of  King  John  against  an  equally 
%inlic  French  knight,  who  fled  from  him  on  his 
ppearance  in  the  lists.  The  eighteenth-century  ale- 
isXcfs  quart  tankard  of  the  borough  still  exists,  and 
\  considered  to  be  "  Curcy*s  breakfast  mug "  by  the 

The  neighbouring  castle  of  Stowey,  of  which  only  the 
uthworks  now  remain,  was  held  by  Falk  de  Br6aut6, 
rhose  peculiarly  robber-baron  customs  are  probably  re- 
icmbered  in  the  warning  to  the  Stowey  children  that 
liey  must  not  go  past  the  mounds  after  dark,  lest  the 
iants  who  live  in  them  should  put  out  their  hands  and 
ach  them. 

Both  these  castles  were  slighted  in  1455,  but  the  local 
icfDory  has  it  that  **  men  from  Dowsborough  beat  down 
towey  castle,  and  the  men   from    Stowey  beat   down 


40  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

Stogursey  castle."  But  this  tradition  may  rather  refer 
to  some  episode  of  the  wars  of  Stephen  or  of  the  barons. 

From  this  date  until  Sedgmoor  we  have  no  traditions  of 
warfare,  even  the  siege  of  Bridgwater  having  left  no  trace. 

The  Stogumber  district,  along  the  western  slopes  and 
foothills  of  the  Quantocks,  is  one  of  the  few  districts 
where  St.  Thomas  k  Becket's  Day  is  still  observed  in 
a  way.^  The  de  Tracys,  Fitzurses,  and  Morvilles  belonged 
to  the  countryside,  and  the  memory  is  not  wonderfuL 
The  day  of  the  martyr,  July  7,  is  that  on  which  the 
beans  must  be  sown.  It  is  called  Saint  Becket's  Day, 
the  usual  Christian  name  being  omitted.  This  peculiarity 
perhaps  points  to  an  early  cult  of  the  martyr,  dating 
previously  to  the  adoption  of  the  recognised  title  "St. 
Thomas  of  Canterbury." 

Trees  on  which  rebels  were  hung  after  Sedgmoor  are 
still  pointed  out  at  Durleigh  and  Crowcombe,  and  the  site 
of  an  old  cattle-barton  on  Stockland  marsh  is  known  as 
the  place  where  two  fugitives  lay  hid  until  they  escaped 
by  boat  to  Wales.  The  battle  is  brought  very  near  when 
one  is  told  by  a  middle-aged  farmer  (Mr.  Case,  late  of 
Farm)  that  he  has  often  heard  from  his  great-aunt  how 
her  grandmother  used  to  tell  her  of  the  search  of  their 
out  buildings  by  Kirke's  men,  and  how  they  thrust  their 
pikes  among  the  hay  and  straw  to  dislodge  possible 

The  great  hill-camp  of  Danesborough  is  practically  the 
central  point  of  our  district,  and  it  is  a  usual  saying  with 
us  that  a  Quantock  man  never  cares  to  be  out  of  sight 
of  "Dowsboro*  pole."  It  is  also  the  centre  of  a  very 
remarkable  chain  of  traditions  which  are  perhaps  the 
most  important  remains  of  our  past  which  I  have  to 
record.  I  have  already  mentioned  the  tradition  that  at 
Danesborough  there  was  a  massacre  of  "  the  Danes,"  and 

^Disuse  of  the  festival  was  ordered  on  November  16,  1538,  and  enforced 
strictly  under  penalties. 

L^ioi  Traditions  of  the  Quaniocks,  41 

iDiagh  tt  m  not  Ukdjr  that  those  marauders  ever  reached 
le  eampf  no  doubt  some  such  slaughter  did  take  place 
lere,  possibly  in  the  invasion  of  Kentwine.  But  it  is 
lid  that  the  old  warriors  are  still  living  within  the  hill, 
id  that  at  midnight  their  songs  and  merriment  as  they 
Bst  may  be  heard. 

Shcrvage  Woodp  on  the  westward  slope  of  this  hill, 
f^eady  menttoned  as  the  haunt  of  a  dragon,  is  stitl  the 
icne  of  a  curious  and  not  very  explainable  custom*  On 
ood  Friday  the  men  and  boys  of  the  neighbouring 
Uagcf^  turn  out  and  hunt  the  squirrels  which  abound 
\  the  wood,  with  throwing-sticks  and  stonea  This  they 
Ml  *  hunting  Judas"  but  no  reason  is  known  among 
mn  for  the  procedure  otlierwise  than  that  it  "always 
is  been  done."  Any  hint  of  analogous  custom  which 
Quid  lead  to  explanation  of  why  the  squirrel  repre- 
Mi  the  traitor  would  be  most  welcome*^ 

lo  die  same  wood  is  a  shallow,  peaty^  but  never- failing 
Eicid«  known  as  "Wayland's  Pond/'  standing  at  the 
icrsection  of  four  ancient  boundaries;  and  the  smith  of 
be  Asir  b  remembered  again  not  far  away. 

From  Danesborough  runs  eastward  the  ancient  track- 
ay  to  the  Cannington,  or  Combwich,  fort  and  the  tidal 
wd.  And  along  this  route  the  "Wild  Hunt"  still  passes 
irerfaead,  coming  from  the  river  to  the  hills.  The  belief 
I  the  hunt  is  strong  with  us,  but  I  have  never  heard 
uit  its  passing  is  held  to  portend  anything  special,  as 
\  the  north. 

It  is  said  that  once  there  lived  at  Keenthome,  the 
Dint  of  junction  of  the  ancient  trackway  and  the  present 
Ain  road, — probably  always  a  crossing,  and  from  time 
nmemorial  the  site   of  a   smithy, — a   smith  who  was  a 

*  [Probably  the  tndition  that  Judas  had  red  hair  gives  the  point  in  com* 
oo  with  the  iquirrel.  For  a  similar  squirrel -hunt  see  vol.  xiv.  p.  185.  This 
IS  held  in  November,  but  if  the  object  really  were  to  preserve  or  assert  a 
ibx  ci  oocnmoo  in  the  enclosure  any  holiday  would  sufHce. — Ed.] 


42  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

good  craftsman,  but  given  to  boasting  to  such  an  extent 
that  at  last  he  declared  that  "  if  the  devil  himself  came 
to  his  forge  he  would  shoe  his  horse  for  him ;  aye,  and 
shoe  him  to  rights  too ! "  As  might  have  been  expected, 
the  smith  was  called  up  at  midnight  by  a  traveller  whose 
horse  had  cast  a  shoe,  and  hurried  down  to  open  the 
doors  of  the  smithy,  only  to  realize  that  the  rider  of 
the  great  black  horse  which  was  led  in  had  himself  a 
hoof  instead  of  a  boot.  The  man  was  terrified,  but  had 
presence  of  mind  enough  not  to  show  it.  He  said  that 
he  had  left  his  shoeing  hammer  in  the  village,  and  must 
run  and  fetch  it,  and  the  terrible  rider  made  no  objection. 
The  smith  went  to  the  parson  at  once,  and  roused  him, 
and  implored  his  assistance,  only  to  find  that  he  was 
bidden  to  keep  his  promise,  else,  of  course,  Satan  would 
have  him.  But  he  was  in  no  case  to  take  pay  for  the 
work,  or  else  he  would  equally  of  course  have  sold  himself 
to  the  evil  one.  Then  the  wretched  man  begged  that 
at  least  the  parson  would  go  back  with  him. 

"No,  for  if  I  am  seen,  the  devil  will  go  away,  and 
you  will  not  be  able  to  do  what  you  promised.  I  can 
only  come  as  far  as  the  corner,  and  there  hide." 

So  the  two  went  back  together,  and  the  parson  hid 
behind  the  hedge.  After  which  the  smith  shod  the  horse 
"and  shod  him  to  rights  too,  all  so  as  he  boasted  he 
would,"  even  the  devil  himself  praising  the  work,  and 
being  anxious  to  reward  the  smith  handsomely.  But 
the  man,  having  been  warned,  protested  that  he  took 
no  pay  for  night  work.  The  devil  insisted,  but  to  no 
effect,  and  at  last  became  suspicious  that  the  smith  had 
some  auxiliary.  Looking  round,  he  was  aware  of  the 
parson,  in  hiding. 

"Ah,"  he  cried,  "if  it  wasn't  for  that  old  blackbird 
behind  the  hedge,  I'd  have  made  thee  take  the  money!" 
and  with  that  he  and  his  horse  "vanished  in  a  vlash 
of  virc." 

Local  Tradiitons  of  ike  Quantocks.  43 

Here  one  would  suppose  that  the  details  are  mediaeval, 
the  indent  remembrance  of  the  smith  of  the  Asir  having 
been  worked  up  into  a  moral  lesson  on  the  value  of 
troth -keeping.  Stilly  that  corner  has  an  evil  reputation 
among  the  farm  waggoners,  and  even  with  the  coachmen 
of  the  residents.  It  is  not  at  all  unusual  to  hear  that 
there  is  more  trouble  with  horses  at  that  comer  than 
anywhere  else*  Witliin  memory,  too,  a  witch  is  said  to 
have  lived  close  by,  who  had  an  uncanny  power  of  sending 
ber  clients  home.  My  informant,  an  old  man  of  75,  stated 
that  in  hiis  father's  time  certain  Stockland  villagers  went 
to  this  wise  woman,  '^who  knowed  more  than  what  she 
Oq^lt  to  have  knowed/*  to  learn  something  about  the 
fiitofe*  After  they  had  been  told  by  her,  she  enquired 
how  ihcy  would  like  to  go  home — *'  ride  or  walk  ? "  They, 
betftg  pmzlcA,  replied  that  they  didn't  mind — and  then 
they  were  at  home — *'how  they  could  not  tell,  unless 
it  wai  over  the  tree^topa** 

But  the  riders  of  the  Wild  Hunt  are  specially  localised 
at  the  rivcrward  end  of  the  trackway,  where  the  hill  fort 
of  Combwich  has  a  most  uncanny  reputation.  The  hill 
itself  is  a  bold,  rounded  mass  of  the  mountain  limestone 
of  the  Mendip  formation,  cropping  out  through  the  red 
sandstone,  and  is  said  to  have  been  brought  from  the 
Mendips  by  the  devil  when  he  dug  out  Cheddar  goi^e, 
which  is  plainly  visible  from  any  point  of  the  district 
commanding  an  eastward  view  across  the  Parrett  After 
throwing  some  material  into  the  sea,  thereby  forming  Flat- 
holme  and  Steepholme  islands,  the  next  spadeful  made  the 
Knoll  at  Brent,  falling  short  of  the  water,  and  the  labourer 
decided  to  carry  the  next  load  westward.  He  filled  a 
basket  accordingly,  and  with  it  on  his  back  leapt  over  the 
Parrett,  landing  so  heavily  that  the  load  was  jerked  from 
the  basket  to  form  the  hill,  at  whose  foot  one  may  still 
see,  deeply  impressed  in  the  rock,  the  mark  of  his  hoof. 
This  is  a   very  definite  imprint,  but  the  corresponding 


44  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

impression  of  the  hand — for  the  devil  came  down  on  all 
fours  as  he  lighted  from  the  leap— on  the  opposite  side 
of  the  hill,  I  have  not  been  able  to  locate,  though  it  is 
said  to  be  there. 

Fear  of  meeting  the  Wild  Hunt  prevents  most  villagers 
from  using  the  footpath  across  the  fields  under  the  camp 
after  dark  yet.  It  is  told  that  one  man  who  dared  to 
cross  it  about  midnight  heard  the  sounds  of  a  pack  of 
hounds  in  full  cry,  and  for  a  time  wondered  what  fetched 
"the  old  squire"  out  hunting  at  that  time  of  night. 
However,  as  there  was  evidently  a  good  run  going  on, 
he  hastened  to  open  the  field  gate  toward  which  the 
pack  was  coming,  and  stood  by  to  watch.  And  when  the 
dogs  came  through,  they  were  not  the  squire's,  but  terrible 
great  black  dogs,  with  fiery  red  tongues  lolling  out,  and 
the  gentleman  with  them  was  riding  a  great  black  horse 
without  a  head. 

No  harm  came  to  the  man  in  this  case.  But  only  the 
quick  wit  of  another  man  saved  him.  He  also  dared  to 
cross  the  path  in  the  dark,  and  was  overtaken  by  the 
Wild  Hunt  as  it  passed  overhead.  And  when  he  looked 
up,  there  was  the  devil  himself  following  the  hounds  and 
riding  on  a  great  pig.  What  was  worse,  the  devil  pulled 
up  and  spoke  to  him. 

"Good  fellow,"  he  called,  "how  ambles  my  sow.^" 

The  man  was  "  most  terrible  feared,"  but  he  knew  that 
he  must  make  some  answer,  so  he  replied : 

"Eh,  by  the  Lord,  her  ambles  well  enow!" 

And  that  saved  him,  for  the  devil  could  not  abide 
the  Name  of  the  Lord,  so  he  and  his  dogs  vanished  in 
a  flash  of  fire! 

It  is  said,  however,  that  a  man  met  a  great  black 
spectral  hound  on  Rod  way  Hill,  between  the  park  and 
the  village  of  Cannington,  and  that  it  "  brushed  up  against 
him"  in  passing,  and  that  he  was  paralysed  ever  after. 

Local  tradition  has  it  that  this  hill  is  so  named  from 

the  Quantocks.  45 

lie  Rood  erected  on  it  to  protect  the  villagers  from  the 
Devil's  hunt 

A  branch  of  the  old  track  joins  the  main  way  at 
Cooibwidi  itself,  running  through  a  deeply  worn  cutting 
under  heavy  trees.  Here,  ''on  the  night  that  the  old 
voman  who  was  a  black  witch  died "  by  falling  into  the 
ilream,  a  man,  whose  "brother  still  lives  in  Combwich/' 
tnet  the  horseman  himself  coming  down  the  hill  toward 
the  cottage.  At  first  he  took  him  for  an  ordinary  traveller, 
but  as  the  black  horse  passed  noiselessly,  he  saw  that  the 
rider  was  a  great  black  man  without  a  head.  And  then 
be  knew  that  he  was  going  to  fetch  someone ;  and  when 
be  heard  that  the  old  woman  was  dead  he  was  not 

It  will  be  recognised  that  these  three  appearances  of 
"the  devil"  are  distinctly  Odinic  In  the  first  case  there 
ii  tbe  rider  of  the  sacrificed  horse  of  Thor ;  next  the 
rider  of  the  golden  boar  of  Frey,  GuUinbursti ;  and  then 
llic  hooded  Odin  himself  on  his  horse.  The  occurrence 
of  such  definite  remembrances  of  the  great  triad  of  the 
Scandinavian  mythology  at  the  same  place  is  in  itself 
remarkable.  It  is  still  more  significant  when  one  re- 
members that  even  if  one  may  postulate  for  the  Saxons 
in  these  early  pagan  times  so  definite  a  mythology  as 
that  of  the  Eddaic,  or  Viking  period,  one  would  hardly 
expect  to  find  it  still  so  clearly  marked  in  a  region  settled 
by  already  Christianised  Saxons.  Meeting  with  the  same 
legends  in  the  eastern  counties  one  would  without  hesita- 
tion claim  them  as  Danish  or  Norse.  They  seem  out 
af  place  in  their  definiteness  in  Somerset. 

G>mbwich  itself  has  been,  and  still  is,  a  little  port,  the 
stream  that  still  marks  the  tideway  of  an  ancient  inlet 
making  a  tiny  berth  for  coasting  vessels  where  it  joins 
the  river.  It  was  the  natural  landing-place  ^  for  those 
Danes  whose  bones  lie  outside  the  camp  half  a  mile  away, 
and  there  would  seem   grounds   for  believing  that  these 

46  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

invaders  had  reason  to  know  that  berths  for  their  ships 
could  be  found  there.  The  coast  population  here  begins 
to  show  that  definite  third  type  of  physique  which  I  have 
already  alluded  to,  and  which  is  still  more  marked  at  the 
actual  mouth  of  the  river  and  along  the  westward  sea 
coast.  The  fisher-folk  are  distinctly  of  the  fair-haired, 
blue-eyed  Scandinavian  type,  and  would  pass  as  natives 
an)rwhere  on  the  Norway  coast.  They  have  intermarried 
for  ages,  and  still  keep  themselves  somewhat  apart,  using 
boats  of  a  double-ended,  three-strake  type,  oar-steered  and 
thwartless,  not  known  elsewhere,  but  extremely  handy. 
They  have  been  fitted  during  the  last  fifteen  years  with 
centreboards,  but  are  otherwise  unaltered,  and  the  in- 
dispensable bailer  is  carved  of  one  block  of  wood  in 
precisely  the  same  pattern  as  those  found  with  buried 
vessels  in  the  North. 

Just  outside  the  river  mouth,  an  ancient  inlet  to  the 
westward,  at  which  is  a  very  strong  settlement  almost 
entirely  of  the  fair  type,  mixed  with  a  few  definitely 
British  dark  and  brachycephalic  families,  has  also  been 
a  small  port,  remaining  so  until  Elizabethan  times  at 
least.  Here  occur  a  cluster  of  names  which  are  of  the 
Scandinavian  type.  The  inlet  is  "Wick,"  and  a  second 
and  less  level,  once  also  tidal,  is  "Whitewick."  The 
village  itself  is  "  Stolford,"  and  the  next  silted  embayment 
of  the  land  is  still  "  Catford."  The  hill  on  the  landward 
side  of  what  was  not  so  long  ago  the  Wick  inlet  is 
"  Farringdon  Hill,"  and  the  local  tradition  concerning  this 
is  that  the  little  town  of  Stoke  Courcy,  at  its  landward 
foot,  "  was  once  all  on  the  top  of  Farringdon  Hill " — 
perhaps  as  good  a  dating  back  to  the  days  of  the  first 
settlers,  the  "Farings,"  as  could  be  found. 

One  Stolford  family  of  the  fair  type,  that  of  Rawlins, 
has  a  tradition  that  "they  were  driven  out  of  Wales, 
and  came  here,"  but  they  cannot  give  even  an  approximate 
date  or  reason  for  the  exodus. 

I  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks.  47 

A  secofid  family,  the  GovettSp  has  a  claim  to  definite 
finish  origin."  One  member  of  this  family  was  remark- 
ily  musical,  and  trained  the  local  band  at  Combwich, 
pie  five  and  tA^^cnty  years  ago.  *'  H  e  came  from  the 
d  Danes,  and  they  were  the  most  musical  people  that 
P^  were.  When  they  were  about  here,  some  of  them 
Ipped  and  settled  down,  and  Govett  came  from  them. 
kat  is  where  he  got  his  music  from,"  Another  definite 
l^cnd  of  settlement  of  a  ghastly  sort  still  survives.  It 
said  that  the  *' Danes''  had  married  "some  of  our 
aaiei3«**  The  women  rose  by  a  concerted  plan  one  night, 
kI  slew  all  their  foreign  husbands* 
From  the  testimony,  therefore,  of  physique,  place-nameSp 
id  tradttkxis,  it  seems  certain  that  there  has  been  an 
Itual  settlement  of  Scandinavians  on  the  southern  shore 
*  the  Severn,  analogous  to,  and  probably  contemporary 
ith.  the  known  eighth-century  settlements  on  the  south 
^djh  coast.  With  so  favourable  a  land  in  sight  from 
fefkoe,  and  that  helpless  after  the  first  Saxon  inroads,  it 
Md  seem  actually  improbable  that  such  settlements 
ould  not  have  been  made. 

The  Danes  of  Alfred's  troubles  most  certainly  did  not 
in  any  foothold  in  Somerset.  Indeed,  the  utmost 
suit  that  one  can  now  hurl  at  a  red-headed  opponent 
I  a  village  green  is  to  call  him  "a  Dane's  bastard" — 
lile  a  new  comer  who  is  also  a  Somerset  man  is 
iled  as  "an  Englishman  too."  It  is  quite  probable 
at  the  Rawlins  family  tradition  of  expulsion  from 
ales  may  give  an  exact  date  at  which  the  Somerset 
ttlement  existed,  as  the  Danes  are  known  to  have  been 
ivcn  from  Wales  in  795.^ 

It  would  be  most  natural  for  the  wanderers  to  seek 
fuge  with  already  established  countrymen  just  across 
c  water.    The  knowledge  of  the  same  settlements  would 

The  local  pronancuition  of  the  name  Rawlins,  is  '*  HroUins,"  a  close 
^   ■  •■■  ■■  1 10  the  Norse  "  Hrolfing." 


48  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

fully  account  for  the  first  Danish  landings  being  made  at 
the  Parrett  mouth  in  later  years.  For  this  settlement  the 
hill  by  the  Combwich  haven,  already  guarded  by  its  pre- 
historic walling,  would  be  a  natural  place  for  the  sanctuary 
of  the  Asir,  and  it  may  be  worth  noting  that  on  this 
hill  the  ash  trees,  rare  on  the  surrounding  land,  grow 

It  becomes  a  further  and  interesting  question,  whether 
the  old  port  of  Watchet  may  not  have  been  founded  by 
the  men  of  the  same  settlement,  and  if  the  name  of  the 
little  market  town  of  Williton,  "  the  town  of  the  Wealas," 
may  not  refer  rather  to  these  northern  foreigners  than 
to  the  Welsh  of  the  district.  Scandinavian  names  occur 
in  the  Somerset  Domesday  as  those  of  tenants  of  coastwise 
lands,  mostly  those  under  the  de  Courcy  who  gave  his 
name  to  the  village  which  took  the  place  of  the  old 
Farringdon.  A  later  chapelry  dedicated  to  St  Olaf  in 
the  Church  of  St.  Dubric  at  Porlock  may  also  tend  to 
prove  a  lasting  Scandinavian  interest  in  the  coast 

To  pass  now  to  another  group  of  traditions,  common 
perhaps  to  all  our  component  populations.  The  Pixy 
legends  of  the  district  are  of  no  unusual  type.  Belief 
in  "  Pixy  leading "  is  general,  and  only  a  few  years  since 
a  woman,  lost  in  a  sudden  evening  mist  within  a  few  minutes 
walk  across  the  fields  from  her  house,  and  unable  to 
regain  the  pathway  or  find  the  stile,  became  actually 
demented  from  terror,  firmly  believing  that  she  was 
**  Pixy  led."  The  legends  have  one  special  centre  round 
a  large  mound  on  the  Wick  "  moor,"  exploration  of  which 
has  this  year  yielded  some  very  remarkable  results.  The 
mound  is  about  ninety  feet  across  by  eleven  feet  high, 
mainly  composed  of  stones,  and  it  was  said  to  move  bodily 
about  the  field  in  whose  centre  it  stands.  Its  position, 
not  many  feet  above  the  old  high-water  line  and  below  the 
hill-crest,  is  unusual.  Close  to  it  is  a  holy  well,  said  to 
be    gifted    with    healing    properties    for    skin    and    eye 

Lmmi  Tradititms  of  the  Quantocks.  49 

Ifkbdttts.  and  still  resorted  to  for  such.  The  field 
If  U  caUled  "Pixy  piece,"  and  the  mound  "Pixies' 
itid'*:  while  the  well  is  said  to  be  dedicated  to  St 
ivoU«  and  \%  known  as  ''Sidwells."  Thb  dedication 
■ts  dsewbere  in  the  county  and  in  Devon  (Exeter 
\  MoffdMlhX  The  Somerset  "Sigwell"  at  Charlton 
pKtbofne  IB  also  associated  with  a  barrow.  It  would 
in  more  likely  that  in  both  these  cases  the  name  is 
iiectcd  with  the  '*sidhe"^  of  the  Gaelic  population, 
I  that  the  mediaeval  saint  has  been  chosen  for  some 
kol  likeness  of  name,  if  not  evolved  from  it 
o  this  mound  the  pixies  were  said  to  live,  and  an 
bam  dose  at  hand  is  the  last  place  where  they  were 
p  tjr  *^  Mr.  Rawlins's  uncle/'  He  heard  the  sound  of 
Sriib^,  and  crept  up  to  the  bam  to  see  who  was 
free  with  his  corn.    As  he  came  near  he  heard 

How  I  do  tweat/'  said  one. 

5o  thee  do  tweat,  do  'ee.'"  answered  another,  "well 

^,  I  do  tweat  and  double  tweat,  looky  zee!" 

Ir.    Rawlins's    uncle    looked    over   the  half-door,  and 

re  were  the  pixies  with  their  red  caps. 

Well  done,  my  little  vellows!"  he  cried,  and  at  that 

y  fled,  and  have  been  seen  no  more. 

Tie   story   is    not    unusual,    of  course,  and   occurs  in 

nection    with   other  old   bams   and  relatives  of  other 

^^  men  elsewhere  in  the  district. 

Another  less  common  legend,  but  one  which  is  found 

rwhere  in  England  and  Scandinavia  alike,  is  that  of  a 

Lighman  who  was  at  work  in  one  of  the  Sidwell  fields. 

be  worked  he  heard  what  he  took  to  be  a  child 
ing,  and  lamenting  that  it  had  "  broken  its  peel,"  round 

barrow.  The  "  peel "  is  the  long  wooden  shovel  with 
ch  the  bread  is  put  into  the  old  brick-ovens,  but  the 
1    went   to  see  if  he  could   find  the  child,  whom  he 

kr  torm  "side^—presumably  pronounced  as  ^'sheM^"  (M'Ritchie). 


50  Local  Traditions  of  the  Quantocks. 

supposed  must  have  wandered  from  home.  He  could 
see  no  one,  but  on  the  side  of  the  mound  was  the 
broken  peel,  which  he  mended  with  string,  being  good- 
natured,  and  supposing  that  the  child  could  not  be  far 
away.  When  he  left  work  in  the  evening  he  went  to 
see  if  the  peel  had  been  recovered.  It  was  gone,  but 
in  its  place  was  a  cake  hot  from  the  oven  of  the  grateful 

There  is  no  treasure-legend  attached  to  the  mound, 
which  is,  in  the  light  of  the  results  of  the  exploration, 
significant.  It  was  said  that  ''  beautiful  music  comes  from 
it  of  a  night,"  and  (perhaps  in  this  district,  of  course), 
"  that  a  Dane  was  buried  there."  But  the  most  persistent 
statement  concerning  the  mound  was  that  "if  it  were 
digged  down  by  day,  it  would  be  put  back  that  night." 
This  statement  probably  occurs  in  connection  with  other 
barrows,  but  I  have  always  had  a  strong  opinion  that 
it  was  a  memory  of  an  actual  attempt  at  mound-breaking 
by  some  enemy,  and  of  replacement  of  the  moved 
material  by  the  tribe. 

The  mound  seemed  from  position  and  tradition  a  most 
likely  place  for  the  burial  of  a  Scandinavian  warrior  near 
his  beached  ships,  besides  that  the  size  and  position  of 
it  was  most  unusual.  A  joint  exploration  was  therefore 
carried  out  this  year  byt  the  Somerset  Archaeological 
Society  and  the  Viking  Club,  under  the  superintendence 
of  Mr.  St.  George  Gray,  Mr.  A.  F.  Major,  and  myself^ 
The  mound  proved  to  be  of  early  bronze  date,  three  perfect 
secondary  interments  with  accompanying  flint  implements 
and  typical  "beakers"  being  found  in  the  upper  portion 
of  the  barrow.  Below  them,  and  resting  on  the  bed  rock 
of  the  district,  had  been  built  a  perfect  circular  wall 
surrounding  the  core  of  the  structure,  some  3  ft.  6  in. 
high  and  of  varying  thickness.     Within  this  we  expected 

^  The  full  account  of  this  exploration  will  be  found  in  the  Saga-book  of  the 
Viking  Club  for  1908,  and  will  be  published  separately  during  the  year. 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.         53 

ilaces  of  a  ruling  aristocracy  .  .  .  the  poems  are  aristo- 
ratic  and  courtly";  they  are  in  no  sense  ballads  or 
die-song.    This  fact,  as  will  be  suggested  later  on,  tends 

>  explain  some  curious  omissions,  and  the  reticence 
hich  the  poet  displays  r^^arding  ideas  and  traditions 
hich  must  have  been  within  his  knowledge.  Any  one 
ho  has  had  personal  experience  of  such  Court  poets. 
Ice  the  BhAts,  who  are  the  singers  and  panegyrists  of 
le  aristocracy  of  India,  will  easily  understand  why  the 
Dems  contain  the  inconsistencies  on  which  the  Separatists 
ive  laid  special  stress.  It  is  most  improbable  that  the 
>ics  were  reduced  to  writing  in  the  age  during  which 
ley  were  composed,  and  it  seems  quite  certain  that 
ic  audience  which  heard  portions  of  them  recited  in  the 
neat  hall  of  a  palace  troubled  itself  little  about  the 
Mitradictions  which  impress  the  modem  critic,  even  if 
tese  attracted  attention. 

Mr.  Lang,  again,  has  done  good  service  in  showing 
lat  the  Iliad  has  a  well-developed  plot,  and  he  adduces 
d^ty  arguments  to  prove  that  the  Doloneia,  or  Tenth 
cx>k,  forms  a  necessary  part  of  it.  He  also,  with  much 
genuity,  displays  the  consistency  of  the  character  of 
gamemnon  throughout  the  Iliad.  He  argues  that  both 
)ics  represent  the  culture,  customs,  and  art  of  a  single 
^e.  In  particular,  the  methods  of  disposal  of  the  dead 
ive  supplied  large  materials  for  controversy.  This 
lestion  seems  to  be  placed  out  of  court  by  his  remark 
at  the  people  of  Australia  and  Tasmania  practise,  or 
d  practise,  every  conceivable  way  of  disposing  of  their 
ad.^  I  have  lately  had  occasion  to  consider  this 
lestion   with   special   reference  to  India.     Here  we  find 

>  uniformity  of  practice.  Inhumation,  cairn  burial, 
ouched  burial,  burial  in  shaft  g^ves,  exposure  to  beasts 
id  birds,  disposal  on  platforms,  and  various  forms  of 
emation,  are   some   of  the   many  modes  which  prevail 

1  Hcwur  and  his  Age^  95. 

54          Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

among  tribes  not  ethnically  distinct,  and  possessing  a 
fairly  uniform  degree  of  culture.  Further,  we  find  these 
customs  varying  under  our  very  eyes — forest  tribes  who 
used  to  bury  their  dead  adopting  cremation  when  they 
come  under  Brahman  influence,  and  Hindus  converted 
to  Islam  or  Christianity  replacing  cremation  by  inhuma- 
tion. Rites  of  this  kind,  in  short,  seem  to  be  liable 
to  constant  modification,  and  provide  no  safe  criterion 
for  deciding  the  relative  ages  of  poems  like  the  epics. 

The  facts  thus  collected  seem  to  indicate  unity  of  age 
and  authorship  of  the  Iliad,  The  relation  of  the  Iliad 
to  the  Odyssey  is  a  much  more  difficult  question.  I  do 
not  pretend  to  offer  an  opinion  on  the  arguments  based 
on  archaeology  and  philology;  but  I  am  inclined  to 
think  that  the  linguistic  differences  in  the  two  poems, 
of  which  a  catalogue  has  been  prepared  by  that  great 
scholar,  Mr.  Munro,  have  not  been  fully  met  by  Mr. 
Lang.  From  the  point  of  view  of  religion,  again,  Professor 
Lewis  Campbell  has  given  a  long  list  of  the  "obvious 
differences"  between  the  standpoint  of  the  two  poems ;^ 
and  the  same  view  has  been  adopted  by  Professor  Gilbert 
Murray,*  both  critics  being  deeply  impressed  by  the 
splendour  of  Homer's  poetry.  Mr.  Lang's  main  answer 
to  these  arguments  seems  to  be  that  they  do  not  fit  in 
with  Mr.  Leafs  scheme  of  breaking  up  the  Iliad  into 
** cantos."*  Another  set  of  arguments  against  the  unity 
of  the  two  poems  has  been  produced  by  Mr.  Hall,*  who 
points  out  that  whereas  in  the  Iliad  the  Dorians  are 
of  no  account  among  the  Greek  tribes,  in  the  Odyssey 
they  appear  to  have  reached  the  end  of  their  migrations ; 
that  in  the  Iliad  the  process  of  the  withdrawal  of  the 
Phoenicians  from  the  Aegean  seems  to  have  begun,  in  the 
Odyssey  they  appear  to  have  disappeared  from  Greece,  and 

'^Religion  in  Greek  Literature^  84  ff. 

^History  of  Ancient  Greek  Literature,  33  flf.  *  Op,  cit,  231  f. 

^  The  Oldest  Civilisation  of  Greece,  42,  236,  246,  258,  269. 

on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.  55 

re  found  trading  more  especially  outside  Greek  waters; 
lat  the  knowledge  of  Italy  shown  in  the  Odyssey  points 
>  a  later  date;  and  that  local  politics  in  the  Egyptian 
elta  fix  the  date  of  the  raid  of  Odysseus  ^  at  the  end 
f  the  eighth  or  the  beginning  of  the  seventh  century  B.C. 

Mr.  Lang  is  at  his  best  in  demonstrating  that  the 
dictncfi  for  the  dislocation  of  the  Iliad  into  lays  are 
npractjcablc  ajid  self-contradictory.  The  Separatist 
beory,  in  short,  involves  at  least  two  serious  difficulties: 
n^  that,  assuming  the  Menis  or  Wrath  of  Achilles,  the 
IpBniel''  of  the  poem,  as  Mr.  Leaf  calls  it,  to  be  the 
iDrk  of  a  writer  whom  we  may  call  Homer,  there  must 
Ave  benit  in  or  about  the  same  age,  at  least  two 
m  thfce  equally  great  poets  who  were  content  to  merge 
\A  {lenooalities  in  his,  or  were  identified  with  him ; 
ecoodly,  that  if  the  present  arrangement  of  the  epic  is 
be  irork  of  a  later  editor,  it  is  a  mystery  how  a  writer 
if  Mch  genius  as  his  must  have  been  could  have  left 
be  discrepancies  and  difficulties  which  at  once  attract 
he  attention  of  the  modem  critic.  The  result  of  the  whole 
i*v#*^ff-ratJnn  fir*^"Tis  to  be  that  we  may  provisionally 
icccpt  the  Iliad,  with  certain  later  additions,  as  the  work 
►f  a  single  hand,  while  the  Odyssey  probably  comes 
rom  a  different  and  later  writer.  "  The  poems,"  says 
'rofessor  Campbell,  "  are  a  treasure-house  of  things  new 
ind  old,  preserving  some  relics  of  an  immemorial  past 
ike  flies  in  amber,  while  bearing  on  their  surface  all  the 
[loss  of  novelty."* 

In  studying  part  of  the  large  mass  of  literature  devoted 
o  this  controversy  it  occurred  to  me  that  if  arguments 
or  and  against  the  unity  of  the  epics  can  be  based  on 
onsiderations  like  those  of  armour,  the  use  of  bronze 
ind  iron,  customs  of  disposal  of  the  dead,  and  similar 
onsiderations  to  which  Mr.  Lang's  recent  book  is  largely 
Icvoted,  it    might    be   possible    to   apply   a  similar  test 

^Od,  xiv.  259.  ^Op.  cU,  54. 

56          Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

dependent  on  the  provenience  of  the  Sagas,  Marchen, 
and  folk-lore  incidents  which  appear  in  the  poems.  If, 
for  instance,  the  "kernel"  of  the  Iliad  was  composed 
on  Greek  soil,  and  was  subsequently  extended  by  an 
Ionic  poet,  we  would  expect  that  some  indications  of 
this  would  appear  in  the  folk-lore.  So  that  if  taking 
the  scheme  of  arrangement  of  the  "  cantos "  in  the  Iliad^ 
as  proposed  by  Mr.  Leaf,  and  comparing  these  with  the 
r  Odyssey  we  could  show  that  there  is  anything  like  a 
stratification  of  belief  or  tradition,  and  that  this  cor- 
responds with  the  suggested  divisions  of  the  poems,  we 
should  have  an  argument  of  some  importance  in  disproof 
of  the  unity  of  authorship.  I  hope  that  in  making  this 
investigation  I  shall  not  lay  myself  open  to  the  sarcastic 
comment  of  a  recent  writer,  who,  reviewing  the  work 
of  the  Separatists,  remarks  that  "we  feel  as  if  we  were 
assisting  at  the  midnight  adulteration  of  some  new  brand 
of  sugar  behind  a  grocer's  counter."^  I  trust  that  the 
reverence  in  which  I  hold  the  poems  will  save  me  from 
such  a  charge.  In  considering  the  folk-lore  and  folk 
tales  I  shall  comment  occasionally  on  any  result  of  this 
scrutiny  which  seems  of  any  value,  leaving  the  references 
in  the  notes  to  this  paper  to  speak  for  themselves.  I 
may  say  at  once  that  the  investigation,  for  reasons  which 
I  will  suggest  later  on,  has  led  to  no  definite  result.^ 

To  return  to  the  sources  of  the  poems — attempts 
have  also  been  made  to  discriminate  the  evidence  of 
foreign  influence,  of  the  knowledge  of  savagery  and  of 
lands  beyond  the  Hellenic  area,  which  appears  in  the 
epics.     For  instance,  in  the  Iliad  alone  we  find  a  reference 

'^Edinburgh  Reviiw^  cci.  210. 

'The  references  follow  Leafs  scheme  as  given  in  his  //iVk/,  ist  ed.  In 
the  2Dd  ed.  he  gives  a  similar,  but  less  elaborate  classification,  i.  represents 
the  Menis  or  "kernel"  of  the  poem;  ii.  A,  ii.  B,  ii.  c,  the  "Earlier 
Expansions";  iii.  the  "Later  Expansions";  iv.  the  "Greater  Interpola- 
tions; V.  "Short  Interpolated  Passages  by  which  the  transitions  from  one 
piece  to  another  of  different  ages  were  managed." 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.         57 

\o  the  Pheres,  probably  some  aboriginal  race;  and  the 
irriter  seems  to  display  special  knowledge  of  the  Thracian 
tribes.'  The  Odyssey  is  said  to  show  a  wider  outlook 
in  the  direction  of  Sicily  and  Italy;  but  it  exhibits  no 
extension  of  knowledge  towards  the  Propontis  and  Euxine, 
irhile  the  information  possessed  by  the  writer  of  the 
fliad  of  the  Troad  and  of  the  peoples  of  Asia  Minor  is 
DO  longer  to  be  traced.'  On  the  other  hand,  the  Iliad 
knows  of  the  Central  African  Pygmies,  and  the  tale  of 
the  Laestrygonians  in  the  Odyssey  seems  to  point  to  an 
acquaintance  with  the  Vikings  or  their  predecessors  of 
Dorthem  Europe.  How  far  this  may  be  due  to  the 
difference  of  subject  in  the  two  poems  is  a  question  for 
careful  consideration. 

Marks  of  Semitic  influence,  again,  have  been  traced 
in  the  epics.  An  instance  of  this  will  be  suggested  later 
on  in  connexion  with  the  Saga  of  Bellerophon.  To  this 
source  has  also  been  attributed  the  reference  to  the  rain- 
bow as  a  sign ;  *  that  to  Iris  as  a  winged  goddess,  unique 
in  the  poems  ;^  the  mention  of  a  flood  as  a  punishment 
for  wickedness;*  and  of  the  palm  tree  at  Delos.*  It 
has  been  the  habit  to  attribute  Homer's  knowledge  of 
Western  Mediterranean  folk-tales,  like  those  of  the 
Cyclops  and  Atlas,  to  Phoenician  influence.  But  it  is 
now  certain  that  the  Mycenaean  culture  was  of  home 
growth,  and  that  it  cannot  be  assigned  to  a  non-Greek 
race,  like  the  Phoenicians.  The  connexion  of  the  Phoen- 
icians with  the  Persian  Gulf  is  now  generally  dis- 
credited ;  ^  and  from  the  Tel-el-Amarna  records  it  is 
clear  that  as  early  as  1400  B.C  Babylon  was  the  dominant 
power  in  Western  Asia,  and  that  its  civilisation  passed 

*//.  i.  268  [L];   ii.  743    [iv.];  G«ddes,   Problem   of  the  Homeric  Poems ^ 

•Monro,  Odysity,  iL  337.  '//.  xi.  28;    xvii.  548:  [both  in  v.]. 

♦/;:  riiL  398  [iiL  B}.  •//.  xvi.  384  f.  [v.].  *  Od,  vi.   162. 

^  Hocmithf  Jcmmal  Anthropological  Institute^  xxxii.  349. 

58  Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

into  the  Aegean  independent  of  Phoenician  agency.  The 
discoveries  in  Crete,  again,  imply  the  existence  of  a  great 
sea  power  in  the  Aegean  as  early  perhaps  as  the  second 
millennium  before  Christ ;  and  in  this  way  the  sites  which, 
according  to  M.  B^rard,  were  associated  with  the  Marchen 
of  the  Odyssey — the  city  of  Alcinous  in  a  west  Corfiote  site, 
the  island  of  Calypso  in  that  of  Peregil  near  Ceuta,  the 
cave  of  the  Cyclops  at  Cumae — must  have  become  known 
to  the  Greeks  at  a  period  much  earlier  than  is  usually 
supposed,  and  independently  of  information  from  Phoen- 
ician mariners. 

Again,  in  dealing  with  the  question  of  Semitic  influence 
on  early  Greek  beliefs,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that,  as 
Mr.  A.  J.  Evans  points  out,^  while  it  may  be  admitted 
that  it  may  have  left  traces,  as  Egypt  certainly  did,  on  the 
externals  of  Mycenaean  worship,  there  was  an  underlying 
race-connexion  between  the  pre-Hellenic  population  of 
Greece  and  its  islands  and  the  Anatolian  region.  "The 
pure  Semite  is,  in  fact,  difficult  to  find  in  Anatolia  or 
Palestine,"  and  "in  Cilicia  and  northern  Syria  he  has 
largely  assimilated  elements  belonging  to  that  old  Ana- 
tolian stock  of  which  the  Carians  and  the  Cilicians  stand 
out  as  the  leading  representatives,  and  which  was  itself 
linked  on  by  island  stepping-stones  to  pre-historic 
Greece."  The  suggestion,  then,  of  direct  borrowing  from 
oriental  sources  must  be  reconsidered  in  the  light  of 
recent  historical  and  ethnographical  research. 

In  dealing  with  folk-tradition  in  the  epics  nothing  is 
perhaps  more  remarkable  than  what  may  be  called  the 
reticence  of  the  poet.  A  singer  of  lays  before  a  courtly 
audience,  he  knows  that  his  hearers  will  take  little  interest 
in  the  rude  peasant  cults.  Dionysus  he  regards  as  an 
outsider,  received  with  hostility,  and  if  he  was  the  successor 
of  a  village  god  the  poet  makes  no  mention  of  him.  If 
Homer  was  a  native  of  the  Greek  mainland  he  must  have 

'^Journal  Hellenic  Sludies,  xxi.  131. 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.  59 

en  familiar  with  the  coarse  archaic  cults,  which  are 
ibalmed  for  us  in  the  pages  of  Pausanias,  but  he  carefully 
Olds  all  mention  of  them.  Demeter  is  referred  to  in  the 
\ad^  but  she  hardly  ranks  as  an  Olympian  goddess.  She 
spoken  of  as  the  wife  or  mistress  of  Zeus ;  but  there  is 
»  mention  of  a  child  bom  to  the  pair,  and  only  once,  in 
e  Odyssey,  is  a  personal  legend  told  of  her,  when  she 
(Ids  to  her  love  of  lason,  and  lies  with  him  in  the  thrice- 
Dughed  field  * — *  one  of  the  lovely  earth-bom  myths  that 
Dp  up  now  and  again  in  Homer,  telling  of  an  older 
npler  world,  of  gods  who  had  only  half  emerged  from 
e  natural  things  they  are,  real  earth-born  flesh-and-blood 
eatures,  not  splendid  phantoms  of  an  imagined  Olympian 
igeant"'  As  the  Indian  Sita  sprang  from  a  furrow,  we 
cognise  in  the  myth  the  familiar  story  of  the  Sacred 
arriage,  which  attributed  to  the  union  of  the  Earth 
KUess  with  her  male  partner,  the  fertility  of  the  soil. 
be  representation  of  this  in  dramatic  form  was  an 
iportant  incident  in  the  Mysteries,  and  was  described 
a  passage  of  splendid  poetical  imagination,  where 
era  beguiles  Zeus  to  couch  with  her  on  the  crest  of 

It  is  equally  remarkable  that  we  have  no  mention  of  the 
rpcnt  cult.  We  have  two  snake  portents,  the  snake 
jvouring  the  sparrows  and  the  bird  bearing  a  snake;*  a 
ake  of  cyanus  adorns  the  breastplate  of  Agamemnon  ;  * 
t  hear  of  a  dragon  fed  on  poisonous  herbs,  of  a  deadly 
ftter-snake,  and  Alexandros  starts  back  as  one  who  sees 
serpent  in  a  mountain  glade.®  But  of  a  snake  cult  we 
ar  nothing,  and  this  in  spite  of  the  fact  that  it  might 
ive  been  connected  with  two  personages  to  whom  the 

» Od.  ▼.  125. 

'  Mist  Harmon,  ProUgomtna  to  the  Study  of  Greek  Religion^  566. 
»  //.  xiv.  296  ff.  [iii.] ;  Farndl,  CuUs  of  the  Greek  States,  i.  184  ff. 
♦//.  iL  308  ff.  [ii.  A] ;  xiL  200  ff.  [iii.].  » //.  xi.  26  f.  [v.], 

•//.  xxiL  93  f.  [i.];  u.  723  [iv.];  iu.  33  f.  [ii.  B]. 

6o         Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

poet  refers.  He  knows  of  Erechtheus,  to  whom  Athene 
gave  a  resting-place  in  her  rich  sanctuary.^  But  both  he 
and  Pausanias  are  reticent  about  the  sacred  serpent  which, 
according  to  Herodotus,  abode  there.^  He  also  knows  of 
Asklepios,  the  great  healer,  who  in  his  view  is  not  a  deity, 
but  a  man  with  mortal  sons  who  learned  their  craft  from 
him,  and  he  is  called  "  the  blameless  leech,"  an  epithet 
never  applied  to  a  god.'  And  yet  the  poet  says  nothing 
of  his  snake,  although,  as  Dr.  Frazer  shows,*  it  is  tolerably 
certain  that  Asklepios  was  originally  nothing  more  or  less 
than  a  serpent,  which  at  a  later  time  was  transformed  into 
an  anthropomorphic  figure  with  a  serpent  symbol. 

It  is  equally  remarkable  that  the  poet  carefully  selects 
certain  legends  for  treatment  and  discards  others.  His 
silence,  in  short,  means  nothing  in  connexion  with  his 
knowledge  of  cultus  or  folk-lore.  In  some  cases  doubtless 
the  legend  was  developed  after  his  time  by  the  later  epic 
writers  and  tragedians.  But  he  certainly  knew  some  of  the 
stories  although  he  pays  little  attention  to  them.  Thus  of 
the  famous  tale  of  Jason  and  the  Argonauts  he  tells  us  little, 
except  in  one  passage  in  the  Odyssey,^  While  relating  the 
legend  of  the  Symplegades  or  Wandering  Rocks,  he  men- 
tions incidentally  that  only  one  ship  of  all  that  sail  on  the 
sea,  even  Argo  that  is  in  the  minds  of  all,  ever  passed  that 
way ;  and  even  her  the  waves  would  have  cast  upon  the 
mighty  rocks  had  not  Hera,  for  love  of  Jason,  passed  her 
through.  We  are  told,  again,  that  Euneus,  whom  Hypsipyle 
bore  to  Jason,  supplied  the  Achaeans  with  wine,  and  it  was 
apparently  he  who  bought  Lykaon  as  a  slave,  and  the 
ransom  of  Lykaon  was  the  silver  cup  which  he  gave  to 
Patroclus.*  Of  Medea  there  is  no  record  in  the  poems, 
unless  she  be  identical  with  Agamede,  the  daughter  of 
Augeias,  who,  like  Medea,  was  a  grand-daughter  of  Helios, 

V/.  ii.  547  [iv.] ;  Od.  vii.  8l.  *  Pausanias y  i.  26,  5  ;  Herod,  viii.  41. 

*//.  ii.  731  [iv.];  iv.  194  [ii.  b];  xi.  518  [i.].         ^Pausanias,  iii.  65  f. 
•xii.  69  flf.  •//.  vii.  467  ff.  [iii.],  xxi.  41  [i.],  xxiii.  747  [iv.]. 

S(nHe  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.  6i 

and  knew  all  the  drugs  which  the  wide  earth  nurtureth.^ 
At  any  rate  Homer  does  not  connect  her  with  the 
Argonauts;  and  this  was  probably  a  later  expansion  of 
the  legend.  If  the  poet  was  familiar  with  the  tale,  it  is 
strange  that  he  does  not  refer  to  it;  for  it  abounds  in 
excellent  epic  material  Thus  the  incident  of  the  cauldron 
in  which  she  induced  the  daughters  of  Pelias  to  boil  their 
father  in  order  to  restore  his  youth  appears  in  European 
folk-lore  in  the  story  where  Christ  or  St  Peter,  or  the 
Devil,  wanders  through  the  world  in  disguise,  and  restores 
an  old  man  to  youth  or  a  dead  person  to  life  by  boiling 
htm  in  a  kettle  or  roasting  him  in  a  forge;  a  bungler, 
generally  a  blacksmith,  tries  to  perform  the  same  trick  and 
fiulSb'  Like  this  is  the  Indian  tale  of  Chyavana,  who  is 
restored  to  youth  by  bathing  under  the  advice  of  the 
Asvinsi  and  the  wide  cycle  connected  with  the  Well  of 
Life,  which  revives  even  the  ashes  of  the  dead'  There  is, 
again,  in  the  Medea  Saga,  the  fatal  wedding-robe  which 
coosomes  the  bridegroom,  and  this  in  the  German  story  is 
naade  of  sulphur  and  pitch.^  The  yoking  of  the  fire- 
breathing  bulls  and  the  sowing  of  the  dragon's  teeth  appear 
in  the  Kalevala  in  the  form  of  the  field  of  serpents  which 
Ilmarinen  must  plough  before  he  can  win  his  bride.^ 
Lastly,  Medea's  slaughter  of  the  children  points  to  the  fact 
that  she  is  originally  a  divinity,  probably  of  Semitic 
origin,  closely  associated  with  Hera,  and  that  the  sacrifice 
of  children  was  part  of  the  archaic  ritual  at  her  shrine.* 

Of  the  famous  tale  of  Philoktetes,  again,  Homer  tells  us 
only  that  he   lay   in   sore   pain   at    Lemnos,   where   the 

*//-  «.  740  [iv.]. 

'Grimm,  H<mstkc>ld  Tales,  i.  312  f.  ;  Ralston,  /Russian  folk  Tales ^  57  f,  ; 
Ciaae,  Italian  Popular  Tales,  188  f.  ;  Frazcr,  Pausanias,  iv.  218;  Adonis^ 
Atfu,  Osiris,  93. 

'KaowIcs,  FolJk  Tales  of  Kashmir ^  504.     *Grirom,  Household  Tales,  i.  23  f. 

^  KaUvala,  Rone  19;  Frazcr,  op.  cU.  iii.  26  ;  Rhys,  Hihberi  Leciutes,  291. 

•  Famell,  op,  cii,  L  J03 ;  Frazcr,  op.  fit.  iii.  26  f. 

62  Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

Achaeans  left  him  sick  of  a  grievous  wound  from  a  deadly 
water  snake ;  that  he  returned  home  in  safety,  and  that  he 
alone  surpassed  Odysseus  in  archery.^  Though  the  use  of 
poisoned  arrows  was  familiar  to  the  poet,  we  do  not  hear 
of  them  in  connexion  with  the  hero. 

So  with  Melampus,  a  notable  figure  in  Greek  folk-lore, 
who  was  endowed  with  prophetic  power,  who  first  prac- 
tised the  art  of  medicine  and  established  the  cult  of 
Dionysus  in  Greece.  Of  him  the  poet  records  two  different 
traditions  \^  but  we  are  not  told  that  he  knew  the  language 
of  birds,  and  that  he  was  warned  to  leave  his  house  by 
hearing  the  wood-worms  say  that  the  roof-beam  was  well 
nigh  eaten  through.  In  this  he  resembles  the  Norse 
Heimdall,  who  had  an  ear  so  fine  that  he  could  hear  the 
grass  growing  in  the  meadows  and  the  wool  on  the  backs 
of  the  sheep.  The  same  tale  of  semi-divine  prescience  of 
coming  disaster  is  told  of  Gauhar  Shah,  a  modern  Hindu 

There  is  perhaps  no  tale  better  adapted  to  romantic 
treatment  than  that  of  Admetus  and  his  devoted  wife, 
Alkestis.  But  of  her  all  we  learn  from  Homer  is  that  she 
was  fair  among  women,  the  most  lovely  of  the  daughters 
of  Pelias,  and  bore  Eumelus,  the  charioteer  to  Admetus.* 
We  hear  nothing  of  Oenone,  or  of  the  Apples  of  the 
Hesperides,  which  appear  in  Celtic  legend  and  in  the 
Arabic  tale  of  Ala-ud-din.*  Lastly,  Homer  tells  us  little 
of  Herakles,  save  that  many  labours  were  imposed  upon 
him  by  a  man  inferior  to  himself.  We  learn  only  of  the 
fetching  of  the  Dog  of  the  Underworld,  which  the  poet 
does  not  name.®    And  yet   Herakles  has  a  widespread 

^  //.  ii.  716  AT.  [iv.] ;  Od,  iii.  190,  viii.  219.  '  Od,  3d.  281  ff.,  xv.  225  flF. 

•  Mallet,  Northern  Antiquities^  95  ;  Crooke,  Popular  Religion  and  Folk-lore 
of  N,  India^  i.  190. 

*//.  ii.  713  f.  [iv.],  xxiii.  532  f.  [iv.]. 

'^Jacobs,  Celtic  Fairy  Tales,  244 ;  Burton,  A  radian  Nights  (Library  ed.),  x.  50. 

«  Od,  xi.  621  f. 

an  Homeric  Folk-Lore,  63 

:tiltu5  as  a  god  of  dreams  and  of  warm  springs,  as  a  worm- 
(layer,  the  counterpart  of  the  Semitic  Melkart.^ 

The  best  explanation  of  such  omissions  is  found  in  what 
Professor  Ralei|^h  says  of  Shakespeare,  a  kindred  genius : 
*  Flays  like  those  of  Shakespeare  cannot  be  written  in  cold 
Mood ;  they  call  forth  the  man's  whole  energies,  and  take 
0II  of  Che  last  farthing  of  his  wealth  of  sympathy  and 
Bcperience.  In  the  plays  we  may  learn  what  are  the 
luesttond  that  interest  Shakespeare  most  profoundly  and 
jecur  to  his  mind  with  most  insistence  ;  we  may  note  how 
le  handles  his  story,  what  he  rejects  and  what  he  alters, 
flanging  Its  purport  and  fashion  ;  how  many  points  he  is 
%»itait  to  leave  dark ;  what  matters  he  chooses  to  decorate 
^ith  the  highest  resources  of  his  dramatic  art,  and  what  he 
pivcs  over  to  be  the  sport  of  triumphant  ridicule ;  how  in 
*very  type  of  character  he  emphasises  what  most  appeals 
)D  his  instinct  and  imagination,  so  that  we  see  the  meaning 
if  character  more  plainly  than  it  is  to  be  seen  in  life  .  .  . 
low  dare  we  complain  that  he  has  hidden  himself  from  our 
Knowledge  ? "  ' 

Let  us  now  consider  some  of  the  folk-lore  in  the  epics. 
[n  dealing  with  Homeric  Animism  it  is  hard  to  say  how 
jiuch  represents  actual  belief  and  how  much  metaphor; 
md  its  occurrence  in  what  are  supposed  to  be  the  oldest 
x>rtion  of  the  poems  may  be  due  to  the  superior  energy 
md  imagination  of  the  older  writer.  Thus,  a  stone  is 
ailed  "  stubborn  "  or  "  relentless  "  in  not  quite  the  earliest 
x>rtions  of  the  liiad,  and  also  in  the  Odyssey?  At  times 
1  distinctly  human  emotion  is  ascribed  to  inanimate  nature: 
;he  earth  laughs  or  groans,  the  sea  rejoices  or  rouses  the 
^rgives,  in  the  earliest  as  well  as  in  the  latest  cantos.* 
rhe  river  Scamander  waxes  wroth  in  heart  in  the  "kernel" 

^  Fausamas,  ii.  35,  5;    MUllcr,  Dorians  (E.T.)  i.   373;    Frazcr,   Adonis^ 
Attis^  Osiris^  12,  35,  4I,  II8  ff. 
^Skaktspmrt,  %,         ^ /I.  iv.  52 1  [ii.  a],  xiii.  139  [ii.  c]  ;  Od,  ri.  598. 
•//.  six.  162  [i.].  riiL  29  [iiL],  xxi.  357  [iv.],  xiv.  392  [v.]. 

64         Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

of  the  Iliad,  but  speaks  with  a  voice  out  of  the  whirlpool 
in  one  of  the  later  lays.^  In  the  same  fashion  waves  and 
shores  bellow,  and  the  sea  is  prescient  of  a  storm.*  The 
belief  in  birth  from  rocks  and  trees,  which  is  probably 
mere  rhetoric,  appears  twice  in  the  Menis^  once  in  the 
Odyssey}  Lastly,  it  is  impossible  to  detect  any  stratifica- 
tion in  the  mention  of  weapons  craving  for  slaughter, 
which  is  often  quoted  as  an  instance  of  Animism.*  In  the 
Ramayana  "the  great  bow  embossed  with  gold  Throbs 
eager  for  the  master's  hold."  *  The  spears  of  the  Irish  Red 
Branch  champions,  we  are  told,  "were  regularly  seized 
with  the  rage  for  massacre;  and  then  the  bronze  head 
grew  red-hot,  so  that  it  had  to  be  kept  in  a  caldron  of 
cold  water,  or,  more  commonly,  of  black  poisonous  liquid, 
into  which  it  was  plunged  whenever  it  blazed  up  with  the 
murder  fit."* 

To  take  the  cases  in  which  supernatural  intelligence  and 
powers  of  speech  are  attributed  to  animals. — Though  the 
horse  Arion  is  mentioned  in  the  Iliad^  the  crude  legend 
,of  its  birth  from  Demeter  and  its  powers  of  reason  and 
speech  are  ignored.®  But  we  have  other  instances  of  these 
gifted  beasts.  Antilochus,  Achilles,  and  Menelaus  appeal 
to  their  horses,  and  Polyphemus  to  his  ram,  throughout  the 
epics,®  and  the  horses  of  Achilles  weep  in  sympathy  with 
their  lord.^®  This  communion  of  man  and  beast  is  common 
in  folk-lore,  and  the  power  of  understanding  beast  language 
is  gained  in  various  ways — by  eating  porridge  mixed  with 

'xxL  136  f.  [i.],  xxi.  413  [iv.]. 

'xvii.  265  [i.],  ii.  210,  iv.  425  [ii.  a],  xiv.  17  [iii.],  xiv.  394  [v.]. 
^//.  xvi.  34,  xxii.  126  [i.];  Od.  xix.  162  f. 

*//.  xi.  574,  xxi.  70  [i.],  iv.  125  [ii.  B],  xv.  317  [iii.],  xxi.  168  [iv.]. 
'Griffith,  Ramayan,  256.     •  Joyce,  Social  History  of  Ancient  Ireland^  i.  114. 
'xxiii.  346  [v.].  *^  Pausanias,  viii.  25,  4,  with  Frazer's  note. 

•//.  xxiii.  402  ff.  [iv.],  xix.  399  flf.  [i.],  viii.  184  ff.  [iii.  B];  Od,  xv.  150  ff., 
ix.  446  ff. 

10//.  xvii.  426  ff.  [iL  c]. 

I  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.  65 

«  slaver  of  tortured  snakes,  by  Finn's  broiled  fish  and 
^^ed's  roasted  dragon's  heart,  or  by  eating  a  white  snake 

•  a  herb  like  a  fem.^  With  these  gifted  horses  which 
leak  and  lament  the  fate  of  their  owner  we  may  compare 
te  Karling  l^end  of  Bayard,  and  Skimir  in  the  Edda 
Iking  to  his  horse,  as  Godrun  does  with  Grani  after  the 
iirder  of  S%urd.*  In  Persian  myth  the  same  power  is 
ftributed  to  the  steed  of  Rustum  ;  in  an  Irish  story  the 
im  speaks  to  St.  Magnenn,  as  in  a  Kashmir  tale  the  horse 
ants  his  master,  the  Raja,  against  his  treacherous 
Faiir;  and  in  the  Hindu  tale  of  Vidhusaka,  the  hero, 
iring  no  mcaos  of  escape  from  his  trouble,  and  knowing 
Ml  hb  bor^c  had  been  in  a  previous  birth,  bows  before 
liii  and  says:  "Thou  art  a  god;  a  creature  like  thee 
mriot  commit  treason  against  his  lord."  On  which  appeal 
ic  horse  obeys  hb  master,  "  for  excellent  horses  are  divine 

Another  of  these  sacred  Homeric  beasts  is  the  boar, 
bich  the  offended  Artemis  sends  against  the  garden  land 
r  Otiieu&^  This  reminds  us  of  the  mythic  swine  of 
-^dand,  reared  with  malice  and  venom  that  it  might  be  the 
ine  of  the  men  of  Erinn,  or  the  Erymanthian  boar  slain 
Y  Herakles.* 

Again,  to  take  the  cult  of  trees — A  phrase  employed  by 
lomer  implies  that  the  earliest  temple  was  a  booth  of 
ranches,*  and  it  has  been  supposed  that  the  same  idea  is 
tvolved  in  the  custom  of  hanging  up  the  arms  of  defeated 
>mbatants,  which  appears  in  the  second  canto  of  the 
^iad  as  well  as  in  the  Odyssey?     In  the  same  canto  of  the 

•  Ehoo- Powell,  Saxc^  Intro.  Ixix.  ;  Miss  Cox,  Cinderella^  496  ff. 
*GhiniD«  TtutonU  Mythology  SJL.I.^  i.  392. 

'CloQstoo,  Popular  TaUi^  i.  45  f.  ;  O'Giady,  Sih'a  Gaddua^  ii.  37; 
rwwics.  Folk  Tales  0/ Kashmir,  353  ;  Tawncy,  /Caiha  Sarit  Sagara^  i.  13a 

•  //.  ix.  533  ff.  [i^.J. 

»  Rhys  Hibbert  Uftures,  511  ;  id.  Celtic  Folk-lore,  ii.  509  f. 

•/A  L  39  Ii.]-  '^'-  V.  82  f.  [u.  A];  Od.  iii.  274  f. 


66         Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

Iliad  we  find  a  reference  to  the  very  archaic  belief  in 
the  grave-tree  as  an  abode  for  the  spirit  of  the  dead  man, 
when  the  mountain  Nymphs  plant  elm-trees  round  the 
barrow  of  Action.^  A  similar  tale  is  told  of  Protesilaus, 
round  whose  barrow  elm-trees  grew ;  those  which  faced 
towards  Troy  bloomed  early  and  withering  fell  untimely, 
like  the  hero  himself,  and  of  Geryon,  on  whose  grave  the 
trees  dropped  blood.*  We  have  the  same  idea  in  the  folk- 
tales of  the  grave-trees  springing  from  the  corpse  and 
becoming  a  refuge  for  the  spirit. 

**  Margaret  was  buryed  in  the  lower  chancel, 
And  William  in  the  higher : 
Out  of  her  breast  there  sprang  a  rose, 
And  out  of  his  a  briar."  * 

In  Samoa  the  grave  of  a  chief  is  called  "the  house 
thatched  with  the  leaves  of  the  sandal-wood,"  in  allusion 
to  the  custom  of  planting  some  tree  with  pretty  foliage 
near  the  grave.*  So  in  the  Celtic  tale  of  Baile  and  Ailinn 
the  yew  and  apple  trees  grew  from  the  lovers'  graves 
and  when  cut  down  were  made  into  tablets  on  which  the 
poets  inscribed  their  pitiful  story.^  It  is  only  in  the 
Odyssey  that  we  have  a  vague  hint  of  the  equally  archaic 
belief  in  the  birth-tree,  if  the  palm  springing  at  the  altar 
of  Apollo  which  Odysseus  saw,  refers  to  the  birth-palm 
under  which  Leto  was  delivered.** 

It  seems  equally  impossible  to  discover  any  stratification 
of  the  more  primitive  religious  beliefs  in  the  Iliad.  Per- 
haps the  most  archaic  cultus  recorded  in  the  poems  is 
that  of  Dodonaean   Zeus.      It   is   at   the   supreme    crisis 

^11.  vi.  419  f.  [ii.  a].  'Frazer,  Pausanias^  ii.  473,  483. 

***Fair   Margaret   and   Sweet  William,"   Percy,   Ballads^   ed.   Wheatley, 
iii.   126. 

*  Miss  Stokes,  Indian  Fairy  TaUs^  244,  250  f. ;  Turner,  Samoa^  147. 
'Joyce,  Social  History ,  i.  481  f. 

*  Od.  vi.   162  f.;   Pausanias,  viiL  4,  7;    Plutarch,  De  Iside^  15;  Grimm, 
Household  Tales,  i.   187. 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.         67 
len  Achilles  sends  Patroclus  to  the  fight  that  he  invokes 

"  who  dwell'st  remote,  O  Zeus  supreme  f 
The  lord  of  all  Pelaagos,  and  enthroned 
On  frore  Dodona's  snows;  and  round  thy  throne 
Circle  the  Sellian  seers,  for  thee  devote 
To  feet  unwashen,  and  to  bed  the  earth."^ 

bis  is  in  the  Menis^  but  the  other  two  references  to  Dodona 
c  found  in  the  Odyssey}  At  Dodona,  according  to  Pro- 
saor  Ridgeway,  occurred  the  first  clash  of  Pelasgian  and 
chaean,  and  here  Zeus  and  his  shadow-wife,  Dione, 
splaced  the  old  Earth  Mother  and  her  dove  priestesses.^ 
ence  we  find  here  a  dove  cult,  which  in  its  earliest 
ages  bad  no  connexion  with  Aphrodite,  but  with  Zeus, 
»  whom  in  another  passage  the  doves  bring  nectar.^ 
gain,  we  find  at  Dodona  that  Odysseus  visits  the  oracular 
ee,  to  learn  the  counsels  of  Zeus  from  the  high  leafy 
ik-tiee  of  the  god.  The  notice  of  this  archaic  cultus  is 
lund  not  in  the  Iliad^  but  in  the  Odyssey}  Aeschylus 
leaks  of  these  prophetic  oaks  of  Dodona,  Sophocles  of 
le  oak  of  many  voices,  and  Herodotus  tells  how  ''two 
lack  doves  flew  away  from  Egyptian  Thebes,  and  on 
ighting  at  the  Dodona  oak  began  to  speak  with  human 
>ice  and  told  them  that  on  this  spot  should  be  the  oracle 
f  Zeus."*  Such  oracular  trees,  like  the  burning  bush 
r  Moses,  the  "tree  of  the  augurs,"  near  Shechem,  the 
a.k  of  Moreh,  the  palm  tree  of  Deborah,  are  common 
I  the  beliefs  of  the  Semites  and  other  racesJ     Thirdly, 

» //.  xvi.  233ff.  [i.J.  'xiv.  327,  xix.  296. 

•  Ridgrway,  Eariy  Age  of  Greece,    i.    339 ;    Miss  Harrison,   ProUgonuna^ 


•  Od.  xii.  62  f.;  A.  J.   Evzns^  /ourna/  Hellenic  Studies^  xxi.   105. 

•  Od.   xiT.   327  f. ;   xix.   296  f. 

•A<«ch.   Prom.    Vttut.  851  ;  Soph.    Trcuk.   11 68;  Herod,  ii.  55. 
'  Robertson  Smith,  Religion  of  the  Semites  ^^  194  ;   A.J.   Evans,  Journal 
UlUnii   Studies,    xxi.    1 33 ;    tolkhre^   xv.    295 ;     foumal   Anihropological 
%%t%tuu^  XXX.  36;  cf.  the  ancient  Irish  divination  with  branches  of  the  sacred 
rw,  Joyce,  op.  cU.  i.  230. 

68  Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore, 

the  priests  of  this  pre-Hellenic  god  were  subject  to  various 
taboos.  Thus,  they  were  obliged  to  sleep  on  the  ground, 
as  is  the  rule  with  the  chief  priest  of  Zinda  Kaliana  in 
the  Panjab,  who  must  sleep  on  the  ground  or  on  a  square 
bed  of  grass  made  on  the  earth  between  four  posts,  a  form 
of  primitive  asceticism,  the  idea  that  ghosts  cannot  touch 
the  ground  possibly  aiding  in  the  establishment  of  the 
practice.^  For  the  same  reason  the  votaries  of  Sultan  in 
the  Panjab  sleep  on  the  ground,  not  on  a  bedstead ;  and  in 
memory,  it  is  said,  of  the  fall  of  their  capital,  Chithor,  but 
more  probably  in  obedience  to  some  primitive  taboo,  the  old 
Rajputs  used  vessels  of  clay  instead  of  metal,  and  slept 
on  straw,  while  the  modem  Raja,  though  he  eats  off  gold 
and  silver,  and  sleeps  on  a  bed,  places  leaves  beneath  the 
one  and  straw  under  the  other.^  Apparently  for  the  same 
reason  the  Roman  Flamen  Dialis  had  the  feet  of  his  bed 
smeared  with  mud,  and  the  priest  of  the  old  Prussian  god, 
Potrimpo,  was  bound  to  sleep  on  the  bare  earth  for  three 
days  before  he  performed  sacrifice.^ 

The  custom  of  the  Selloi  keeping  their  feet  unwashed 
presents  more  difficulty.  We  have  many  cases  in  which 
the  removal  of  foot-gear  in  holy  places  is  prescribed, 
as  in  the  Semitic  ritual,  probably  lest  the  shoes  might 
become  taboo  and  unfit  for  future  use  by  contact  with 
the  holy  ground.*  The  officiant  at  the  Latin  Lemuria 
walked  barefoot  through  the  house,  possibly  on  the  theory 
that  he  thus  was  unfettered,  and  there  was  a  special 
Roman  rite,  the  Nudipedalia,  in  which  barefooted  matrons 
walked  in  procession  in  order  to  prevent  drought;  while 
the  Egyptian  priests,  like  the  modern  Kafirs  of  North 
India,  took  off  their  shoes  at  the  time  of  sacrifice.*    At 

^  Rose,  Punjab  Census  Report^  1901,  i.   118  f. 

^  North  Indian  Notes  and  Queries^  iv.   59. 

'  Frazer,  Classical  Review,  ii.  322 ;  id.  Golden  Bought  i.  242. 

*  Robertson  Smith,  op,  cit,  453. 

*  Fowler,  Roman  FestivcUs,  109;  Conder,  Tent  Life  in  Palestine,  ii.  221  ; 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.         69 

he  Inibe,  or  rite  of  abstinence  in  Japan,  the  medicine-man 
ras  not  allowed  to  comb  his  hair,  eat  meat,  or  approach 
r  :^  i  1  if  his  clients  fell  ill  they  set  it  down  to  his 
lilure  to  keep  his  vows.^  In  the  case  of  the  Selloi  the 
nic  of  keeping  the  feet  unwashed  may  be  a  survival  of 
0me  primitive  ascetic  ritual,  as  the  Hindu  Faqir  smears 
limself  with  dust  or  ashes  to  indicate  to  all  and  sundry 
bat  he  is  in  a  state  of  taboo,  and  this  may  have  attracted 
he  attention  of  the  later  Greeks  by  its  startling  contrast  to 
be  elaborate  rules  of  personal  purity  which  marked  the 
Adantfs  of  the  service  of  the  Olympian  gods.' 

It  U  remarkable  that  the  shadowy  Dione,  the  partner 
i  the  older  Zeus,  is  mentioned  only  once  in  the  epics, 
nd  that  not  in  the  **  kernel,"  but  in  one  of  the  so-called 
Her  additions.' 

Two  primitive  forms  of  oath  appear  in  the  poems — one 
i  connexion  with  animal  victims;  the  other  by  the  river 
iljrx.  The  former  does  not  occur,  as  perhaps  we  might 
lave  expected,  in  the  older  cantos.*  The  conception  of 
ityx  varies  in  Homer.  By  one  account  it  is  a  stream  of 
bjs  world,  or  at  least  closely  connected  with  it,  because 
he  Titaresios  of  Thessaly  is  a  branch  of  it ;  by  another  it 
s  a  river  of  the  underworld,  and  a  branch  of  it  is  Cocytus  ; 
elsewhere  it  is  described  as  a  waterfall.*  This  oath  by 
ityx  is  undoubtedly  a  most  primitive  rite.  In  the  first 
►lace.  Dr.  Frazer  has  shown  that  the  fact  that  a  draught 
A  its  water  is  considered  deadly,  points  to  the  conclusion 
hat  it  originally  represented  one  of  those  poison  ordeals 

laftpero.  Dawn  of  Civiiisaticn,  124  ;  Robertson,  Kafirs  of  the  Hindu- Kush^ 
J9 ;  NcwtoD,  Essays  on  Art  and  Archaiology^   I $6,   178. 

*  Aston,  NiJumgi^  i.  42  n. 

*  lUll'ft  view  is  that  the  Selloi  were  non- Aryan,  and  to  be  compared  with  the 
iwepatabie  Galli  of  Asia  Minor,  op.  cii.   loi. 

*IL  V.  370,  581  [ii.   B];  Miss  Harrison,  ProUgonuna,  317. 

♦//.  iii.  267  f.  [iL   Bj;   xix.  252  f.  [iv.]. 

»//.  iL  755  [v.);    Od.   x.   514;    //.  xviu.  369  [iii.   B). 

70         Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

which  are  still  enforced  among  many  savage  and  semi- 
savage  races ;  ^  secondly,  the  triple  offering  to  the  dead 
made  at  the  falls  of  Styx — mead,  wine,  and  water — 
suggests  chthonic  rites,  and  has  a  curious  analogy  in  the 
remarkable  libation  table  found  in  the  Dictaean  Cave 
with  its  cup-like  receptacles.*  The  Homeric  accounts  of 
this  primitive  oath-taking  by  Styx  do  not  occur  in  what 
are  supposed  to  be  the  earlier  cantos  of  the  Iliad? 

When  we  come  to  magic  the  case  is  similar.  Thus  in 
the  case  of  the  Aegis,  Professor  Ridgeway  has  clearly 
shown  that  the  Gorgoneion  on  the  shield  is  but  the  head 
of  the  slain  beast  whose  skin  was  the  raiment  of  the 
primitive  goddess  *  In  the  poems  it  appears  in  practically 
all  the  cantos,  and  is  borne  by  Zeus,  Athene,  or  Apollo.^ 
The  other  magical  appliances  appear  more  often  in  the 
Odyssey  than  in  the  Iliad,  In  the  Iliad  we  meet  the 
magic  strap  or  girdle  of  Aphrodite,  which  seems  to  have 
been  placed  in  a  loose  fold  of  the  robe  as  a  mimetic 
charm  to  promote  union  with  the  beloved  one.®  It  some- 
times seems  to  stand  for  the  Life  Token,  as  in  a  Micmac 
story  where  a  man  captures  a  mermaid  by  obtaining  the 
hair-string  without  which  she  could  not  live.^  The  magical 
power  of  the  girdle  seems,  in  other  cases,  to  depend  on 
the  efficacy  of  the  cord  and  sacred  circle  as  a  charm 
against    evil    spirits.     That   of  Aphrodite   is   **broidered, 

^  PausaniaSy  iv.  253  f. 

^Od.  X.  %\f)  {,\  Journal  Hellenic  Studies,  xvii.  358. 

»//.  ii.  755  [v.],  xiv.  271,  XV.  37  [iii.],  xxiii.  73  [iii.  B] ;  Od,  v.   184. 
\/oumal  Hellenic  Studies,  xx.  p.   xliv,  and  see   Miss   Harrison,   op.  cit. 
187  if.;  El  worthy  {Folk-lore ,  xiv.  212  ff.)  connects  it  in  its  later  development 
with  the  octopus. 

»//.  ii.  447,  xviii.  204  (Athene)  [i.],  iv.  167  (Zeus)  [ii.  b],  v.  738  (Athene), 
xvii.  593  (Zeus)  [ii.  c],  xv.  229,  308,  318,  361  (Apollo)  [iii.],  xxiv.  20  (Apollo) 
[iii.  b],  xxi.  400  (Athene)  [iv.] ;  Od,  xxii.  297  (Athene). 

•//.  xiv.  214  [iii.]. 

^  McCulloch,  ChiUihood  of  Fiction,  126,  quoting  Leland,  Algonquin  Legends^ 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.  71 

ir-wrought,  wherein  are  all  the  enchantments;  therein 
e  love,  and  desire,  and  loving  converse,  that  steals  the 
Is  even  of  the  wise."  The  girdle  of  Hera  has  additional 
otectives  in  its  hundred  tassels,  which  baffle  the  Evil 
^e,  and  are  probably  like  the  pendants  found  at  Mycenae, 
lich  seem  to  represent  a  common  form  of  amulet.^  The 
^ptian  kings  wore  as  a  protective  a  special  royal  girdle, 
lich  is  like  the  Bunna-do-At  worn  by  the  old  Irish 
ngs,  and  the  Brahmanical  cord  of  India.^  Even  in  the 
'estem  Isles  of  Scotland  a  girdle  of  seal-skin  is  worn  to 
re  sdatica,  while  one  method  of  becoming  a  werwolf  is 

obtain  a  girdle  made  of  human  skin.'  An  even  closer 
irallel  to  the  love-girdle  of  Aphrodite  is  the  magic  neck- 
re  of  Frey  which  fascinates  the  sons  of  men.^ 
The  magic  wand,  the  stock  implement  of  all  magicians 
id  sorcerers,  appears  only  once  in  the  Iliad,  but  several 
nes  in  the  Odyssey  f 

The  Iliad  provides  examples  of  those  works  of  art 
lich  indicate  the  magical  qualities  ascribed  to  the  early 
rtallurgists — the  magic  tripods  of  Hephaistos  with  golden 
lecls,  which  of  their  own  motion  might  enter  the  assembly 

the  gods  and  again  return  to  his  house ;  the  magic 
iiows  which  work  at  his  bidding  ;  the  golden  handmaids, 
he  semblances  of  living  maids,  who  have  understanding 
their  hearts,  voice,  and  strength."  •  These  have  their 
alogues  in  the  Odyssey  in  the  hounds  of  gold  and  silver 
lich  guard  the  palace  of  Alcinous,  and  the  youthful 
Idcn  torch-bearers,  possibly  statues,^  which  may  be  com- 

//.   uiv.    161  [iii.];  Schachhardt,  Schliemann's  Excavations^   l8o. 

Lmum,  Lif<  in  Ancient  tf^pt^  60;  O'Curry,  Manners  and  Customs  of  the 
\(irmt  Irish^   iii.    174. 

Pinkcrton,    Vc*ya^s^  iii.   595  ;   Fiskc,  Myth  and  Myth-makers^  90. 

Thorpe,  S<^thtrfi  Mythology^  i.  33  ;  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mythology ^  i.  307» 

//.  xxiv.  343  (Hermes)  [iii.  b]  ;  Od.  x.  238  (Circe),  xiii.  429,  xvi.  172, 
)  (Alhcr^c),   V.   43  ff.   (Hermes). 

//    xvuj.  373,  470  [iii.   b].  "'  Od.  vii.  91,   100. 

72  Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

pared  with  the  young  deer,  made  of  gold  and  studded 
with  jewels,  which  in  Somadeva's  story  dance  in  front  of 
the  maidens,  and  the  magic  figures  which  fan  the  sleepers 
in  the  palace  of  Ravana,  or  the  five  golden  figures  of  men 
given  by  Kuvera,  the  god  of  wealth,  to  Vikramaditya, 
whose  limbs  grow  again  when  they  are  cut  off;  and  when 
Naravahanadatta  enters  the  magic  city  he  finds  all  the 
men  to  be  wooden  figures,  which  moved  as  if  they  were 
alive,  but  lacked  the  power  of  speech.^  Friar  Orderic  tells 
us  that  "  in  the  palace  of  the  Great  Khan  there  are  many 
peacocks  of  gold,  and  when  any  of  the  Tartars  wish  to 
amuse  their  lord,  then  they  go  one  after  another  and  clap 
their  hands,  upon  which  the  peacocks  clap  their  wings 
and  make  as  if  they  would  dance/*  This,  he  shrewdly 
remarks,  must  be  done  either  by  diabolic  art  or  by  some 
engine  working  underground ;  and  in  another  place  he 
tells  of  vessels  of  wine  which  lift  themselves  to  the  lips 
of  the  drinkers.*  Such,  too,  were  the  horse  of  copper,  the 
hounds,  the  metal  serpent,  which  the  arch-magician  Vir- 
gilius  made  to  clear  Rome  of  evil-doers.'  In  the  Teutonic 
legend  Thor*s  hammer  comes  back  of  itself  into  his  hand, 
like  an  Australian  boomerang,  and  in  the  hall  of  Aegi  the 
pitchers  of  ale  brought  themselves  to  the  board,  the  loaves 
walked  in,  and  the  wine  poured  itself  out*  With  these 
magical  works  of  art  may  be  classed  the  imperishable 
clothing  which  Calypso  gives  to  Odysseus,*  like  the 
invulnerable  garment  presented  by  his  mother  to  Oddo 
in  the  Eyrbyggia  Saga.® 

In  the  same  class  are  the  flying  sandals  of  Hermes, 
golden,  divine,  which  bear  him  over  the  wet  sea  and  the 

^Tawney,  Katha^  ii.  569,   i.  350,  390;   Griffith,  Ramayan^  401. 
•Yule,  Cathay  and  the  Way  Thither^  L  131,  143;  id.  Marco  Polo^  \.  266, 
278  ff. 

*  Hazlitt,  Tates  afid  Legends,  46  ff. 

*  Grimm,   Teutonic  Mythology,  ii.  870. 

*  Od.  vii.  265.  •  Mallet,  op.  cit.  522. 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.  73 

iindlcss  land  with  the  breathings  of  the  wind,  and  those 
Athene  which  wax  not  old.^  These  have  their  ana- 
^es  in  the  feather  shift  of  Freyja,  and  the  fairy  shoes, 
e  nine-leagued  boots  of  the  fairy  tales,  the  Pushpaka 
flying  throne  of  Hindu  tradition.*  In  another  form  we 
eet  them  in  the  slipper  of  Cinderella,  and  the  magic 
oe  of  the  Chinese  story,  which  the  lover  shakes  when 
r  wishes  to  summon  his  absent  mistress.'  In  a  Hindu 
3ry  the  hero  wins  them  from  the  sons  of  the  Asura 
iya,  who  are  represented  in  European  tradition  by  the 
K»  gtanU  in  the  German  tale  of  the  "  Crystal  Bath."  ^ 
It  is  only  in  the  Odyssey^  that  we  have  an  allusion  to 
e  trtcatment  by  the  savage  medicine-man,  the  stopping 
bleeding  by  the  recital  of  a  charm,  which  appears  con- 
intly  in  Indian  and  other  folk-lore.  In  the  Ramayana 
rftujpati  combines  such  spells  with  the  use  of  herbs ; 
e  mere  passing  through  the  palace  of  the  Hetaira  cures 
ft  horses'  wounds,  as  Lancelot  cures  the  wounds  of  Sir 
rre  of  Hungary ;  and  in  Celtic  folk-lore  the  magic  oint- 
ent  gains  its  power  from  the  spells  pronounced  over  it.* 
The  veil,  again,  is  used  in  a  mystic  way.  In  the  Odyssey 
K)  Leucothea  gives  him  the  divine  veil  which  saves 
dysseus  when  he  wraps  it  round  his  breast,  the  per- 
>nality  of  the  owner  attaching  to  her  clothing,  as  the 
ight  of  Achilles  is  supposed  to  be  transferred  to  Hector 
ith  the  arms  of  Achilles." 

Circe,  again,  knows   the   magic   ointment.     When   she 
loints   the   swine   with    it,   the  bristles    with   which    the 

» //.   xxiv.   340  ff.  [iii.  b];  OcU  v.  44  ff.,  i.  90  if . 

'Ckmston,  Popular  TaUs,  i.  72  ff.;  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mythology y  i.  327,  ii. 

3 ;  Tawncy,  Katka^  i.  13.  ii.  627  ;  Griffith,  Ramayan^  267. 

•Gilc*,  Strange  StorUs^  L    1 70. 

•TawDe>',  Katka^  i.    \^{.\  Grimm,  Household  Tales ^  ii.   347. 

*nx.  457.     [Cf.  infra,  p.  89. J 

*  Griffith,  Ramayan,  464,  482  ff. ;  Tawney,  Katha,  i.  348,  quoting  La  Mort 
Artkmrt,  iii.  270 ;  Rbys,  Ctltic  Folklore,  ii.  657  n. 

•  0<L  V.   346,  373 

74  Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

venom  had  clothed  them  drop  off  their  limbs.^  This  is 
like  the  ointment  of  the  folk-tales,  which  makes  him  who 
uses  it  invulnerable,  and  restores  the  dead  to  life ;  if  made 
of  the  fat  of  unbaptised  babies,  or  of  seven  herbs,  each 
picked  on  a  special  day,  it  gives  the  witch  the  power  of 
riding  through  the  air  on  a  broomstick.*  Another  variety 
gives  the  power  of  seeing  fairies ;  a  third  the  faculty  of 
invisibility,  like  the  stone  which  Peredur  receives  in  the 
Arthurian  legend.*  In  the  Arabian  Nights  the  Merman 
gives  Abdulla  an  ointment,  "  wherewith  when  thou  hast 
anointed  thy  body,  the  water  will  do  thee  no  hurt,  though 
thou  should  pass  the  lave  of  thy  life  going  about  in  the 
great  deep " ;  and  in  another  tale  of  the  same  collection 
the  Fakir  says  :  "  The  wonders  of  this  ointment  are  passing 
strange  and  rare.  An  thou  close  thy  left  eye  and  rub 
upon  the  lid  the  smallest  portion  of  the  salve,  then  all 
the  treasures  of  the  world  now  concealed  from  thy  gaze 
will  come  to  sight" — the  same  ointment,  in  fact,  which 
the  fairies  give  to  the  human  midwife  who  attends  their 
wives,  and  which,  if  misused,  causes  blindness.*  This  and 
many  other  ideas  of  the  same  kind  are  survivals  from 
the  time  when  no  one  tried  to  draw  the  line  between 
medicine  and  magic. 

Invisibility,  which  in  folk-lore  is  ordinarily  secured  by 
the  use  of  drugs, — in  Dahome  by  pounding  up  a  baby 
boy  in  a  mortar, — by  a  special  stone,  fernseed,  and  the 
like,  is  in  Homer  gained  by  a  magic  helmet,  like  that 
of  Hades,  which  Athene  dons  that  terrible  Ares  may 
not   behold    her.      This    is    the  Tarn-kappe   of  Teutonic 

^  Od.  X.  391  ff. 

*  Hartland,    Legend  of  Perseus^   i.    49,    57,    iii.    104 ;    Webster,    Basque 
Legemis^  70. 

'Hartland,   Science  of  Fairy   Tales ^  59  if.;    Grimm,    Teutonic  Mythology j 
iii.  1210  ;  Rhys,  Studies  in  the  Arthurian  Legend^  87,  271. 

*  Burton,  A'igh/s,  vii.  250,  x.  175;  Hartland,  Science  of  Fairy  Tales,  59  ff. 
•//.  V.  844  ff.  [iii.  b]  ;   Burton,  Mission  to  Gelele,  ii.  71  n. 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.  75 

mythology,  the  Dular-kufl  or  Hulidshjalmir  of  Norse 
legend,  the  cap  of  Perseus,  the  ring  of  Gyges,  the  mantle 
of  Arthur  and  of  the  Irish  Druids,  and  the  ring  of  Lunid, 
which  were  reckoned  among  the  thirteen  precious  things 
of  the  Island  of  Britain.^  In  the  Iliad^  too,  the  gods 
freely  exercise  the  power  of  shedding  or  removing  the 
mist  which  shrouds  themselves  or  their  favourites,  an 
incident  which  occurs  all  through  the  epic  and  in  the 
Odyssey}  So  in  the  Irish  tale,  Broichan  the  Druid  spreads 
a  mist  over  St  Columba.' 

For  the  witch  ointment  of  Circe  there  is  a  counter- 
charm,  the  "herb  of  virtue"  which  Hermes  gives  to 
Odysseus,  the  plant  black  at  the  root,  but  the  flower 
is  like  to  milk ;  the  gods  call  it  Moly,  but  it  is  hard  for 
mortal  men  to  dig.*  In  the  word  Moly  some  philologists 
see  the  Skr.  mUla,  "root."  It  is  very  improbable  that 
any  special  plant  was  in  the  mind  of  the  poet  The 
diflfeulty  in  digging  it  perhaps  points  to  the  mandrake, 
diat  remarkable  plant  with  a  myriad  mystic  virtues,  which 
shrieks  as  it  is  drawn  from  the  earth,  and  of  which  Pliny 
tells  us  that  when  they  intended  to  take  the  root,  "they 
took  the  wind  thereof,  and  with  a  sword  describing  three 
circles  round  it,  they  digged  it  up  looking  towards  the 
west*'  Josephus  {BJ,  vii.  6,  3)  says  that/' a  furrow  must 
be  drawn  round  the  root  until  its  lower  part  is  exposed, 
then  a  dog  is  tied  to  it,  after  which  the  person  tying 
the  dog  must  get  away.  The  dog  then  endeavours  to 
follow  him  and  so  easily  pulls  up  the  root,  but  dies 
suddenly  instead  of  his  master."* 

*  Thorpe,  op.  cit.  \.  217;  Clouston,  Popular  TaUsy  i.  109;  Lady  Guest, 
Mshmri^um,  286  ;   Joyce,  Social  History,  i.    245. 

* //.   XV.  668:    XX.  444;   xxi.   597  [i.];  v.   24,  500  [ii.  a];   viii.   50;  xxiii. 

iSb  (lu-   b];    xi.   72  [iv.];    xvii.   269,  551  [v.];    Od.  vi.  15;   xiii.  189 ;  xxiii. 
371  f 

*  Joyce,  SoitaJ  History,  \.    223,   246.  *  Od.    x.   287,   302  f. 

'  Fliny,  .No/.  ///;/.  xxv.  94  :  Aubrey,  Remains  of  Gentilisme^  253 ;  Gray, 
China,  L   260 ;    Aston,  Nihangi^  i.   208  ;    Wilkinson,  Ancient  Egyptians^  ii. 

76  Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

Another  of  these  magic  drugs  is  that  which  Helen 
learnt  from  Polydamnia  of  Egypt,  that  home  of  magic 
and  mystery : 

**  But  Helen  now  on  new  device  did  stand, 
Infusing  straight  a  medicine  in  their  wine, 
That  drowning  care  and  dangers,  did  decline 
All  thought  of  ill.      Who  drunk  tEe  cup  should  shed 
All  that  day  not  a  tear,  no,  not  if  dead 
That  day  his  father  or  his  mother  were. 
Nor  if  his  brother,  child,  or  chiefest  dear 
He  should  see  murdered  there  before  his  face."^ 

This  drug  of  forgetfulness  is  a  stock  element  in  the 
folk-tales.  In  the  Norse  legend  Grimhild  gives  a  potion, 
the  Ominnis-6l,  to  Sig^ried,  which  makes  him  forget  his 
love,  Brunhild,  and  the  same  draught  she  gives  to  her 
daughter,  Gudrun.  We  have  the  Nepenthe  of  Homer  in 
the  "  insane  herb "  eaten  by  the  companions  of  Sindibad, 
which  some  have  tried  to  identify  with  the  oriental  hemp. 
We  meet  it  also  in  the  Arab  tale  of  the  "Ensorcelled 
Prince,"  and  in  the  Hindu  story  Koila  procures  a  drug 
from  the  dancing-women  which  causes  him  to  forget 
his  home,  his  wife,  his  child,  as  in  the  Irish  tale  the 
Druids  give  Cuchulainn  the  draught  of  oblivion.*  In  the 
Chinese  purgatory  the  drink  of  forgetfulness  is  adminis- 
tered by  an  old  beldame,  Mother  Meng.  "  Whether  they 
swallow  much  or  little  it  matters  not ;  but  sometimes 
there  are  perverse  devils,  who  altogether  refuse  to  drink. 
Then  beneath  their  feet  sharp  blades  start  up,  and  a 
copper  tube  is  put  down  their  throats  by  force,  by  which 
they  are  compelled  to  swallow  some.***    The  Greeks  had 

25*  iii.  350 ;  Miss  Garneti,  Wonun  of  Turkey^  ii.  2  f.  ;  Hastings,  Dictum- 
ary  of  the  Bible^  iii.  234. 

*  Od.  iv.   220  ff. 

'  Corpus  Poet.  Borcale,  i.  289,  393,  395 ;  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mythology^  iii. 
I  loi ;  Burton,  Nights^  i.  65 ;  iv.  376 ;  Wilkinson,  Ancient  Egyptians^  ii. 
412 ;  Miss  Frere,  Old  Deccan  Days^  256 ;  O'Curry,  Manners  and  Cttstoms 
of  the  Ancient  Irish,  ii.   198. 

'Giles,  Strange  Stories,  ii.  207. 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.  77 

e  same  idea  in  Lethe,  "the  place  of  foi^etfulness "  in 
e  underworld,  and  the  river  of  which  when  the  dead 
ank  they  forgot  their  homes  and  infant  children,  while 
e  modem  shepherd  of  the  islands  knows  of  a  mountain 
ant,  "the  grass  of  denial/'  of  which  when  the  sheep 
t  they  forget  their  young.^ 

So  far  I  have  been  dealing  with  some  of  the  many 
Ik-lore  incidents  which  occur  in  the  epics.  From  what 
have  said  of  the  provenience  of  these  incidents  as 
ustrated  by  the  references  attached  to  this  paper,  it 
II,  I  think,  be  found  that  it  is  impossible  to  trace  any 
atification  of  these  in  the  various  cantos  or  lays  into 
licfa  some  critics  divide  the  Iliad.  So  far,  this  may 
considered  evidence  in  support  of  the  view  that  the 
md  and  Odyssey  belong  to  a  single  age,  if  they  are 
t  the  work  of  a  single  author.  But  this  argument  must 
t  be  pressed  too  far.  The  number  of  facts  is  not  large 
piigh  to  base  a  safe  induction  upon  them.  Some  ideas 
irfd  naturally  be  selected  for  use  by  the  poet  when 
iiin^r  with  special  episodes  in  the  story  which  he  selected 
"  treatment.  Or,  again,  it  is  possible  that  such  incidents 
ly  have  become  part  of  the  stock  epic  machinery, 
d  be  used  by  one  poet  after  another  when  dealing 
th  subjects  of  the  same  class. 

W.  Crooke. 

(To  be  continued.) 

Bent,  Journal  Antkrapologual  Institute^  xv.  395  ;  Frazcr,  Pausanias^  ▼. 
;  Mtts  Cox,  Cinderella^  512  f.  ;  Grimm,  Household  TaUs,  ii.  393; 
•too,  f(usstan  Folk   Tales^  305. 


The  Lazy  Wife:  A  Manx  Folk-Tale. 

This  story  was  told  from  memory  by  a  Peel  woman  who  heard 
it  some  sixty  years  ago  from  her  mother.  She  had  heard  the 
Manx  verse  given  in  Manx  Ballads  (A.  W.  Moore),  at  a  Manx 
Concert  in  January,  1907,  and  she  told  me  that  she  had  a 
different  story  and  knew  another  verse  of  the  song.  I  have 
taken  her  yam  down  as  nearly  as  possible  as  she  told  it,  but 
when  it  came  to  the  name-guessing,  she  said  that  she  had  for- 
gotten the  names  now,  but  that  she  knew  that  "The  Lazy  Wife 
guessed  a  power  of  names — all  she  knew  or  ever  heard  tell  of.** 
I  have  taken  the  liberty  of  giving  names  to  her  guesses,  so  as 
to  make  a  better  story  and  also  so  as  to  preserve  an  old  tradi- 
tion about  there  being  only  seven  families  on  the  Island  at 
one  time  whose  names  all  began  with  "Myl."  Mylrea,  Mylroi, 
Mylvridey,  Mylchreest,  Mylvoirrey,  Mylvartin,  Mylcharaine. 
Mollyndroat  is  probably  Myl  yn  Druaighty  Druid's  servant. 

The  spinner  in  this  type  of  story  is  usually  a  dwarf  or  a  fairy, 
but  my  informant  used  the  words  foawr  and  gianty  and  was 
positive  that  she  told  the  tale  as  she  had  heard  it.  In  connection 
with  the  belief  that  to  know  a  man's  name  gives  one  power  over 
him,  it  is  interesting  to  note  that  to  this  day  charmers  in  the  Isle 
of  Man  insist,  before  using  their  charms,  on  knowing  the  full  name 
of  their  patient ;  and  the  name  must  be  given  as  at  their  baptism, 
otherwise  the  charm  will  not  work. 

Sophia   Morrison, 

{^Hon.  Sec.  Manx  Language  Society), 

Collectanea.  79 

Wkll,  there  was  a  woman  once,  and  she  was  scandalous  lazy. 
She  was  that  lasy  she  would  do  nothing  but  sit  in  the  corner 
of  the  fhicUagh  (hearth,  fire-place)  warming  herself,  or  going  out 
on  the  houses  for  newses  the  day  long.  And  one  day  her  man 
gnres  her  some  wool  to  spin  for  him ;  he  was  terrible  badly  off 
lor  clothes  to  wear,  for  she  was  letting  them  get  all  ragged  on 
him.  He  had  told  her  to  mend  them  until  he  was  tired,  but  all 
he  could  get  out  of  her  was,  "  Traa  dy  liooar  "  (time  enough). 

One  day  he  comes  to  her,  and  says: 

••  Thou  ihiggey  my  hraa  (dawdler,  slothful  one),  here  is  some 
wool  for  thee  to  spin,  and  if  it  is  not  done  a  month  from 
this  day,  I'll  throw  thee  out  on  the  side  of  the  road.  Thou 
aixl  thy  ^iraa  dy  liooar^  have  left  me  nearly  bare." 

Well,  she  was  too  lazy  to  spin,  but  she  would  be  pretending 
to  be  working  hard  when  the  husband  was  in  the  house. 
Slie  used  to  put  the  queeyl  (wheel)  out  on  the  floor  every  night 
before  the  husband  came  in  from  work,  to  be  letting  on  to 
biaa  that  she  had  been  spinning. 

The  husband  was  asking  her  was  the  thread  getting  near 
,  for  he  said  that  he  was  seeing  the  queeyl  so  often  on  the 
that  he  wanted  to  know  if  she  had  enough  to  take  to 
the  weaver.  When  it  came  to  the  last  week  but  one,  she  had 
only  one  ball  spun,  and  that  one  was  knotted  and  as  coarse 
as  gorse.     When  her  husband  says  to  her : 

•*  I'm  seeing  the  queeyl  middling  often  on  the  floor  when  I 
cone  home  at  night ;  maybe  there's  enough  thread  spun  at 
thee  now  for  me  to  take  to  the  weaver  next  week?" 

•*I  don't  know,  at  all,"  says  the  wife,  "maybe  there  is;  let 
OS  count  the  balls." 

Then  the  play  began  !  Up  she  went  on  the  lout  (loft),  and 
flung  the  ball  through  the  hole,  down  to  him. 

'*  Keep  count  thyself,  and  fling  the  balls  back  again  to  me," 
says  she  to  the  man.  And  as  fast  as  he  flung  the  ball  up  to 
her,  so  fast  she  flung  it  down  to  him  again.  When  he  had 
counted  the  ball,  maybe  two  score  times,  she  says  to  him : 

"That's  all  that's  in." 

**  Aw,  'deed,  you've  spun  well,  woman,  for  all,''  says  he ; 
"there's  plenty  done  at  thee  for  the  weaver." 

So  Collectanea. 

Aw,  then  she  was  in  the  fix,  and  didn't  know  in  her  senses 
what  to  do  to  save  herself.  She  knew  she  would  sup  sorrow 
if  she  was  found  out,  but  she  could  think  of  nothing.  At  last 
she  bethought  herself  of  the  Foawr  (giant)  that  lived  in  a  lone- 
some place  up  the  mountain,  for  she  had  heard  tell  he  was 
good  to  work,  and  the  woman  she  says  to  herself: 

"I've  a  mind  to  go  my  ways  to  him." 

She  took  the  road  early  the  next  morning,  she  and  her  rolls 
of  wool,  and  she  walked  up  hills,  down  gills,  till  at  last  she 
came  to  the  Foawf^s  house. 

"What  are  thou  wanting  here?"  says  the  Foawr, 

"I'm  wanting  thee  to  help  me,"  says  she;  and  she  up 
and  told  him  about  the  ball  of  thread  and  everything. 

"I'll  spin  the  wool  for  thee,"  says  the  Foawr^  "if  thou'll 
tell  me  my  name  when  thou  come  for  the  balls  a  week  from 
this  day.     Are  thou  satisfied?" 

"Why  shouldn't  I  be  satisfied?"  said  the  woman;  for  she 
thought  to  herself  it  would  be  a  middling  queer  thing  if  she 
couldn't  find  out  his  name  within  a  week.  Well,  the  woman 
she  tried  every  way  to  find  out  the  Foawt^s  name,  but,  go 
where  she  might,  no  one  had  ever  heard  tell  of  it.  The  time 
was  getting  over  fast,  and  she  was  no  nearer  to  the  Foawr' s 
name.     At  last  it  came  to  the  last  day  but  one. 

Now,  as  it  happened,  the  husband  was  coming  home  from 
the  mountains  that  day  in  the  little  everin',  and  as  he  neared 
the  Foawf^s  house,  he  saw  it  all  in  a  blaze  of  light,  and  there 
was  a  great  whirling  and  whistling  coming  to  his  ears,  and  along 
with  it  came  singing  and  laughing  and  shouting.  So  he  drew 
near  the  window,  and  then  he  sees  the  big  Foawr  inside  sitting 
at  a  queeyl,  spinning  like  the  wind,  and  his  hands  flying  with 
the  thread  to  and  fro,  to  and  fro,  like  the  lightning,  and  he 
shouting  to  the  whistling  queeyl: 

"Spin,  queeyl,  spin   faster;    and  sing,  queeyl,  sing  louder." 

And  he  sings,  as  the  queeyl  whirls  faster  and  faster: 

**  Snieu,  queeyl,  snieu ;  *rane,  queeyl,  'rane ; 
Dy  chooilley  chlea  er  y  thie,  snieu  er  my  skyn. 
Lheeish  yn  oUan,  Ihiams  yn  snaie 
S'beg  fys  ec  yn  ven  lit9heragh 
Dy  re  MoUyndroat  my  cnnym." 

Collectanea.  8i 

(Spin,  wheel,  spin;  siiig,  wheel,  sing; 
Every  beun  on  the  house,  spin  overhead, 
The  wool  is  hers,  the  thread  is  mine. 
How  little  she  knows,  the  lasy  wife. 
That  MoUyndroat  is  my  name.) 

When  the  husband  got  home  that  everin'  he  was  late,  and 
Us  wife  said  to  him: 

** Where  have  thoo  been  so  late?    Did  thou  hear  anything 

Then  he  said:  *'Thou  are  middling  good  to  spin  thyself, 
9m4kU  (housewife) ;  but  I'm  thinking  there's  one  in  that's  better 
thee,  for  all  Never  in  all  my  bom  days  did  I  see  such 
a  thread  as  fine  as  a  cobweb,  and  hear  such  singing 
as  diere  was  going  on  in  the  Foawt^s  house  to-night" 

"What  was  he  singing?"  says  the  wife.     And  he  sang  the 
to  her: 

''Soieo,  qneeyl,  mien;  'rane,  queeyl,  'rane; 
Dy  diooilley  chlca  er  y  thie,  snien  er  my  skyn. 
Lheeish  yn  oUan,  Ihiams  yn  snaie. 
S'bcg  iys  ec  yn  ven  lit9henigh 
Dy  le  MoUjfiidroat  my  ennym." 

Well,  wdl,  the  joy  the  woman  took  when  she  heard  the 

^  Aw,  what  sweet  music  !  Sing  it  again,  my  good  man,"  says 
she.     And  he  sang  it  to  her  again,  till  she  knew  it  by  heart 

Early  next  morning,  she  went  as  fast  as  her  feet  could  carry 
her  to  the  Foawrs  house.  The  road  was  long,  and  a  bit  lone- 
some under  the  trees,  and  to  keep  up  her  heart  she  sang  to 

'*  Snieu,  qoceyl,  snieu  ;  snieu,  qnceyl,  snica  ; 
I)y  chooillcy  vangan  er  y  villey,  snieu  er  my  skyn. 
S1csh  bene  yn  ollan,  as  lesh  my  bene  y  snaie 
Son  shenn  MoUyndroat  cba  vow  eb  dy  braa." 

(Spin,  wbccl,  spin  ;  spin,  wheel,  spin  ; 
Every  branch  on  ibe  tree,  spin  overhead. 
The  wool  is  bimself*s,  ibc  thread  is  my  own, 
For  old  Moll>'ndroat  will  never  get  it.) 

When  she  got  to  the  house,  she  found  the  door  open  before 
her,  and  in  she  goes. 


82  Collectanea. 

"I've  come  again  for  the  thread,"  says  she. 

**Aisy,  aisy,  woman,"  says  the  Foawr\  "if  thou  don't  tell 
me  my  name  thou  won't  get  the  thread,  that  was  the  bargain." 
And  says  he:   "Now,  what's  my  name?" 

"Is  it  Mollyrea?"  says  she;  to  let  on  that  she  didn't  know 

"No,  it  is  not,"  says  he. 

"Are  you  one  of  the  Mollyruiy  ones?"  says  she. 

"  I'm  not  one  of  that  clan,"  says  he. 

**Are  they  calling  you  Molly vridey  ?  "  says  she. 

"They  are  not,"  says  he. 

"I'll  warrant  your  name  is  MoUychreest ? "  says  she. 

"You  are  wrong,"  says  he. 

"Are  you  going  by  the  name  of  Molljrvoirrey ? *'  says  she. 

"'Deed  I'm  not,"  says  he. 

"Maybe  your  name  is  Molly varten ? "  says  she. 

"And  maybe  it's  not,  at  all,"  says  he. 

"  They're  saying,"  says  she,  "  that  there  was  only  seven  families 
living  on  the  Island  at  one  time,  and  their  names  all  began 
with  "  Molly,"  "and  so,"  says  she,  "  if  you're  not  a  MoUycharaine, 
you're  none  of  the  rael  oul'  Manx  ones." 

"I'm  not,"  says  he.  "Now,  be  careful,  woman,  next  guess 
is  your  last." 

At  that  she  pretended  to  be  frightened,  and  says  she  slowly, 
pointing  her  finger  at  him: 

'*S'lesh  bene  yn  ollan,  as  lesh  my  hene  y  snaie. 
Son  shenn Mollyndroat  cha  vow  eh  dy  braa." 

(The  wool  is  himselfs,  the  thread  is  my  own, 
For  old Mollyndroat  will  never  get  it.) 

Well,  the  Foawr  he  was  done,  and  he  was  in  a  red  rage, 
and  he  cries :  "  Bad  luck  to  you  1  You  never  would  have 
found  out  my  name  unless  you  are  a  mummig  yn  aishnee** 
(fortune-telling  witch). 

"Bad  luck  to  yourself,  my  boy,"  says  she,  "for  tr3ring  to 
steal  a  dacent  woman's  wool." 

"  Go  to  the  Jouyl  (Devil),  yourself  and  your  fortune-telling," 
shouts  he,  jumping  up  and  flinging  the  balls  at  her. 

Collectanea.  83 

And  away  home  with  her,  and  her  balls  of  thread.  And  if 
she  didn't  spin  her  own  wool  for  ever  after,  that's  nothing  to 
do  with  yoa  and  me. 

(St€  Mr,  B.  Clodd  in  Folklore  Journal,  vii.  13S-43.) 

Notes  on  Some  Amulets  or  the  Three  Magi  Kings. 

There  are  issued  at  the  present  time,  at  the  great  Cathedral 
at  Cologne,  two  kinds  of  protective  amulets  whose  origin  may 
be  tnced  back  to  medieval  times.  Of  these,  one  is  formed  by 
mctallk  medals,  of  the  type  commonly  used  in  connection 
with  holy  persons  or  places,  the  other  has  the  less  usual 
riMqw  of  printed  slips  df  linen. 

The  slips,  a  little  more  than  6  inches  by  3  inches,  are 
prodnccd  in  two  forms,  German  and  French,  since  pilgrims 
from  Cu^-off  parts  of  Europe  still  visit  the  holy  shrine.  £ach 
sUp  bcarsi  upon  its  left,  a  design  of  the  '*  Adoration  of  the  Magi," 
abore  a  view  of  Cologne  wherein  the  Cathedral  stands  prominent, 
mmI  upon  its  right  an  inscription,  which,  in  both  the  forms,  com- 
mences with  an  invocation  of  the  "  Holy  Three  KLings."  After 
the  invocation  follows,  on  the  German  Zettel,  the  statement 
that ''  The  Three  Kings  have  been  honoured  and  invoked  since 
ancient  times  as  types  of  faith  and  as  protective  patrons  against 
the  dangers  of  travelling,  headache,  fever,  epilepsy,  and  the 
snares  of  enemies,  as  well  as  to  prevent  sudden  death,"  and 
concludes  with  the  remark  that  "  This  little  picture  has  touched 
the  relics  of  the  Three  Holy  Kings  in  the  great  Cathedral  at 

The  French  slip  is  somewhat  more  limited  in  its  claims, 
saying,  after  the  invocation,  that  "This  ticket  has  touched  the 
relics  of  the  Holy  Magi  Kings  at  Cologne,  whose  protection 
is  invoked  against  fever,  epilepsy,  sudden  death,  and  all  the 
accidents  which  may  happen  to  travellers." 

Besides  being  employed  for  the  general  purposes  indicated  by 
the  inscriptions,  the  slips  are  occasionally  carried  by  cavalr3rmen, 
or  other  horsemen,  as  a  protection  against  accidents  while  riding. 

84  Collectanea, 

In  Collectanea  Antigua^  C.  R.  Smith  figures  a  printed  slip 
of  paper,  3^  inches  by  i^  inches,  found  in  1748  upon  a  man 
convicted  of  murder,  in  England,  which  shows  the  form  in  which 
the  slips  were  issued  at  that  time.  Like  the  modem  slips,  it 
bore,  but  more  crudely  executed,  an  "Adoration"  above  a 
contemporary  view  of  Cologne,  to  the  right  of  which  was  an 
invocation  in  Latin  (similar  to  that  which  now  appears  in  German 
or  French)  of  the  "  Holy  Three  Kings,  Caspar,  Melchior,  and 
Balthasar,"  followed  by  an  inscription  in  French :  "  Ces  billets 
ont  touchi  aux  trots  testes  des  Saints  Roys^  d  Cologne:  ills  sont 
pour  les  voyageursy  contre  les  malheurs  des  chemins^  maux  de 
testey  mal  caduque,  fihires,  sorcellerie^  toute  sorte  de  malefice^  et 
mort  subtle.^'  Observe  how  the  inscription  as  it  appeared  in 
the  eighteenth  century  has  since  been  modified,  owing  to  the 
decline  of  certain  beliefs  implied  in  the  earlier  form. 

Medals  of  the  Three  Kings  were  probably  issued  at  a 
considerably  earlier  date  than  the  printed  slips.  The  older  ones 
are  usually  more  or  less  rectangular,  frequently  of  silver,  with 
an  "Adoration"  on  one  face  and  an  invocation  on  the  other. 
The  medals  of  the  present  day,  of  several  designs,  are  generally 
circular,  and  of  silver,  brass,  aluminium,  or  pewter,  with  an 
"  Adoration  "  on  one  face,  and  a  representation  of  the  Cathedral 
or  the  Shrine,  or  an  invocation,  on  the  opposite.  They  are 
"touched"  in  the  same  manner,  and  for  the  same  purpose, 
as  the  slips,  and  are  worn  with  the  same  intentions. 

The  relics  of  the  Magi,  brought  to  Constantinople  by  the 
Empress  Helena  and  taken  thence  to  Milan  after  the  First 
Crusade,  were  in  the  twelfth  century  conveyed  by  Frederick 
Barbarossa  from  Milan  to  Cologne,  as  objects  of  enormous  value 
and  sanctity.  The  royalty  early  attributed  to  the  Magi,  in 
consequence  of  the  references  in  Psalms  Ixviii.,  Ixxii.,  and  Isaiah 
Ix.,  to  gifts  and  offerings  presented  by  kings,  became  in  the 
following  century  a  matter  of  faith,  and  they  were  known  as  the 
Magi  Kings,  the  Holy  Three  Kings,  and  the  Three  Kings  of 
Cologne.  Their  miraculously-guided  journey  caused  them  to  be 
chosen  as  the  patron  saints  of  travellers,  whom  they  were 
desired  to  protect  from  the  dangers  with  which  journeys  were 
*  Coll.  Ant.  i.  p.  120. 

*  Collectanea,  85 

t  dtmog  the  Dark  Ages,  from  the  bites  and  stingos  of 
•aU  aod  other  venomous  reptiles,  and  from  the  diseases  to 
h  irrnvxllcrs  were  especially  exposed.  Hence  also  the  custom 
\  of  gmng  to  inns  a  name  dedicating  them  to,  or  recalling 
rhfce  Kings.  And  as  great  magicians,  their  intercession  was 
bt  fof  protection  against  all  forms  of  sorcery  and  witchcraft, 
Wl  the  evil  eye,  and  against  epilepsy,  the  "  falling  sickness,*' 
I  often  manifested  itself  as  a  demoniacal  possession, 
cb  beltrfs  in  their  virtues  were  spread  over  Europe  by 
pi)griin&  who  flocked  to  the  shrine  at  Cologne.^  The  mere 
H  oi  the  Magi  became  invested  with  protective  and  curative 
VI,  and  are  consequently  to  be  found  on  numbers  of 
iicval  durro-rings,  on  brooches,  on  drinking-horns  and  cups 
le  same  period  (probably  for  protection  against  poisons, 
\  tnifiijt  qualities  to  the  liquids  within,  as  in  the  well-known 
I  bowb  in  use  to-day,')  and  even  on  garters.' 
hb  F&ifrway  to  Healthy  1664,  Peter  Levens  gives,  as  a 
for  epilepsy,  a  charm  to  be  hung  from  the  neck,  to  be 
Bi  in  I^tin  with  the  blood  of  the  patient's  little  finger, 
It  effect  that  "Caspar  bore  myrrh,  Melchior  frankincense, 
luar  gold.  He  who  bears  with  him  the  names  of  the  Three 
^  b  freed,  through  the  Lord,  from  the  falling  sickness.^  ^ 
»1  bat  slightly,  these  same  words  appear  on  a  ring  found 
imwich,  Suffolk.^ 

Ffilkl 0re^  LXx.  1906,  Y\.  V.  and  p.  469,  there  is  described  a  medal 
'  Three  Kings,  from  Spain.  A  medal,  executed  in  the  Byzantine  style, 
!  9(h  or  loth  century,  displaying  the  head  of  Christ  on  the  obverse 
be  Adoration  of  the  Magi  on  the  reverse,  which  is  figured  in  the 
aled  4to  edition  of  Dean  Farrar's  Life  of  Christy  p.  14,  shows  that 
c  of  such  amulets  had  begun  even  before  the  removal  of  the  relics  from 
«  Line's  Modern  hf^yptians. 

R.  Smith,  in  Coll.  Ant.  i.  p.  120,  figures  one  found  in  London. 
MXed  by  G.  F.  Black,  in  **  Scottish  Charms  and  Amulets,"  in  Proc. 
\ni.  Scot.  vol.  xxviL,  a>  taken  from  A',  and  Q.  1st  series,  vol.  ii.  p.  435. 
^cotti^  Charms  and  Amulets"  there  are  given  a  considerable  number 
e»  and  references  lo  mailer  concerning  the  Three  Kings  and  superstitious 
ranees  cc»nnrcte<l   wuh  ihcni. 

aoted   in   **Scoiii5h  Charms  and  Amulets"  as  taken  from    N.  and  Q, 
:rics,  vol.   ii.   p.   248,  and  Jones,   Finger- Ring  Lore^  p.   144. 


86  Collectanea. 

So  widespread,  indeed,  was  the  belief  in  their  magical  powers 
that  during  the  latter  part  of  the  Middle  Ages  the  names  of 
the  Holy  Kings,  with  that  of  Christ,  were  worn  by  Jews  upon 
their  arms,  like  phylacteries,  as  amulets.^  And  in  Catholic 
Southern  Germany  there  may  yet  be  seen  a  survival  of  such 
beliefs,  consisting  in  the  writing  of  the  initial  letters  of  the 
names  of  the  Kings,  separated  by  crosses,  over  the  doors  of 

It  is  curious,  in  view  of  the  importance  attached  to  these 
three  names,  to  find  that  not  only  are  they  not  given  either 
by  S.  Matthew  or  by  the  writer  of  the  apocr3rphal  "Gospel 
of  the  Infancy/'  but  that  they  (or  their  ordinary  variations: 
Caspar,  Caspar,  Jaspar,  laspar ;  Balthazar,  Baltasar,  Belteshazzar ; 
and  Melchior)  were  not  introduced  until  a  comparatively  late 
period,  and  superseded  a  considerable  number  of  others  which 
had  been  at  one  time  or  another  commonly  accepted.^ 

During  their  long  stay  in  Siena  the  German  soldiers  of  the 
Emperors  Sigisround  and  Ladislas  introduced  into  Italy  the 
cult  of  the  Three  Kings,  and  the  use  of  their  medals,  which 
were  at  that  time  employed  especially  against  sorcery.  A 
silver  medal  of  this  kind,  with  the  invocation  in  German  on 
the  reverse  side,  and  with  an  "Adoration"  upon  its  face,  is  in 
the  Bellucci  collection  of  amulets  at  Perugia,  where  it  was 

At  a  later  date  the  German  medals,  with  the  invocation 
changed  into  Latin,  were  copied  in  brass  at  Siena,  and  were 
given  out  on  request  by  the  Capuchin  monks  there.^  The  late 
C.  G.  Leland^  says  of  these  medals,  that  in  the  Tuscan  Romagna 

^Berliner,  Aus  dem  Leben  der  Deuischen  Juden  im  MUttlaUer,  pp.  97 
and  loi ;  quoted  in  The  Jewish  Encyclopedia^  heading  *' Amulet.*' 

'See  Smith's  Did,  of  the  Bible ^  "Magi,"  for  some  of  these  names,  and 
for  numerous  references  to  the  Magi  Kings.  Also  C.  W.  King's  "Talismans 
and  Amulets,"  in  Arch,  four,^  1869,  vol.  xxvi.,  for  much  relating  to  the 
origin  of  the  names.  The  names  now  in  use  appear  on  a  rude  sculpture 
over  the  door  of  the  Church  of  Sant*  Andrea  of  Pistoia,  date  11 66.  (Mrs. 
Jameson,  Legends  of  the  Madonna.) 

'Bellucci,  Catologo  Descrittivo^  Perugia,   1898,  p.  10 1. 

*Nencini,  Riv,  d.   Trad,  Pop,  Ital,,  1898,  p.  386. 

^Etruscan  Roman  Remains y  Lond.,  1892,  p.  299. 

Collectanea.  87 

crtun  old  Roman  coins  were  long  believed  to  be  a  sure  pro- 
Ktioo  against  witchcraft,  for  children  especially,  and  that  to 
ombat  this  proliEUie  idea  the  priests  had  these  medals  of  the 
Inee  Kings  made,  which  became  known,  like  the  ancient  coins, 
t  ** witch  medals"  (medagiie  delle  streghe).  They  were  worn 
J  grown  persons  as  well  as  by  children,  but  more  frequently 
f  the  latter.  It  has  been  reported  that,  within  the  past  few 
eais»  the  issue  of  the  "witch  medals'*  has  been  prohibited  by 
be  Church  authorities,  and  that  they  are  no  longer  distributed. 

W.    L.    HiLDBURGH. 

Amulkts  used  in  Limcolnshirs. 

L  R.  TELLS  me  that  charms  made  of  bog-oak,  locally  called 
cv-ottk,"  are  considered  lucky.  One  of  her  brothers  has  a 
Bsall  beait-shaped  one,  an  inch  and  a  quarter  in  length,  with 

bofw  for  suspension  to  the  watch  chain,^  which  was  given  to 
im  by  an  old  Mrs.  Nichob  or  Nicholson,  who  lived  in  Blyton- 
if,  and  was  eighty-six  when  she  died.     At  the  time  she  gave 

away,  not  long  before  her  death,  she  said  she  knew  it  was 
lade  of  car-oak,  and  was  much  older  than  she  was,  "because^ 
be  had  it  from  her  grandmother  when  she  was  a  girl."  She 
dded  that  farm-lads  used  to  make  such  charms  to  give  to  their 
ireethearts  on  Valentine's  Day.  I  have  myself  seen  more 
lodem  ones  cut  out  of  cocoa-nut  shell. 

A.  R.  says  that  farm-men  sometimes  wear  brass  buttons  with 
lanks,  and  little  knife-shaped  charms,  on  their  watch-chains. 
Tiesc  latter  "look  like  mother-of-pearl,  and  are  made  from 
sells,  or  pieces  of  shells,  which  are  sometimes  ploughed  up," 
probably  oyster-shells,  carted  on  to  the  land  with  refuse).  Old 
JTO- labourers,  and  other  elderly  countrymen,  who  cling  to  ancient 
Lshions,  still  like  wearing  seals,  miniature  corkscrews,  horse's 
»ih  (which  they  have  found),  or  miniature  horse-shoes,  on  their 
atch-chains.      A   coin   with  a  hole  in  it,  or  a  cowrie-shaped 

'  Kxhibiicd  at  Meeting,  KXh  Nov.   1907.     See  p.   I. 

88  Collectanea, 

shell,  may  also  be  seen.  The  horse's  tooth,  the  horse-shoe,  and 
the  coin,  are  no  doubt  generally  lucky.  As  to  the  shell,  A.  R. 
says  her  grandfather  told  her  it  was  to  prevent  its  owner  from 
being  drowned.  Personally  I  have  always  imagined  that,  origin- 
ally at  least,  it  was  a  love-charm.  The  Cyprmda  and  shells  of 
similar  form  are  used  in  love-magic  iu  some  parts  of  Europe. 

Mabel  Peacock:. 

Sundry  Notes  from  West  Somerset  and  Devon. 

The  belief  in  "overlooking''  and  witchcraft  generally  does  not 
pass  away,  though  no  special  forms  »have  come  under  my  notice. 
Some  five  and  twenty  years  ago  a  "hammer  and  nail"  charm 
against  overlooking  was  used  by  an  old  woman  living  near 
Combwich.  The  then  vicar  was  scandalised  to  see  the  old 
lady  hammering  a  large  nail  into  the  footprint  of  another  woman 
who  had  just  passed  down  the  lane,  and  was  informed  that 
the  maker  of  the  footprint  had  overlooked  the  operator,  and 
that  this  proceeding  would  counteract  the  spell. 

An  old  woman  living  on  Farringdon  Hill  up  to  a  few  years 
ago  was  always  credited  with  uncanny  powers,  and  it  was  said 
to  be  usual  for  horses  to  misbehave  when  passing  near  her 
cottage.  She  also  overlooked  the  moving  from  one  cottage  to 
another  of  a  neighbour,  with  the  result  that  almost  immediately 
after  she  had  passed  the  door  a  dresser  full  of  chma,  carefully 
set  in  place,  overbalanced  and  fell. 

This  firm  belief  in  overlooking,  I  may  add,  is  one  with 
which  the  village  doctor  has  to  reckon,  as  the  belief  by  a 
nervous  patient  that  she  is  being  so  treated  has  an  immensely 
retarding  effect  on  a  possible  recovery. 

In  the  matter  of  folk-medicine,  Taunton  Museum  preserves 
two  specimens  of  young  ash-trees  split  for  the  purpose  of  passing 
children  suffering  from  congenital  hernia  through,  one  having 
been  used  within  the  last  twenty  years. 

A  wych-elm  by  the  road  close  to  Cannington  Park  was  made 
into  a   "shrew-tree"   not   more   than   six   years    ago,   the   scar 

Collectanea.  89 

iog  sdD  visible,  bjr  the  shepherd  then  living  in  a  near  cottage 
ote  child  bad  in&ntile  paralysis.  A  hole  was  bored  with  an 
di  anger  into  the  heart  of  the  trunk,  and  a  live  shrew-mouse 
priaooed  in  the  hole  with  a  solid  plug.  The  idea  is  that 
I  passage  of  a  shrew-mouse  across  the  affected  limb  of  the 
int  has  been  the  cause  of  the  paralysis,  and  that  a  decoction 

the  twigs  of  the  tree  which  has  caused  the  death  of  the 
Mise  will  act  as  a  remedy. 

Some  malign  power  of  a  similar  kind  is  attributed  to  the 
nunoo  slow-worm.  A  man  in  my  own  employ  has  told  me 
It  his  foot  turned  quite  brown  after  the  reptile  crawled  over 
The  local  witch  will  also  use  the  slow-worm  in  the  con- 
of  a  broth  for  the  cure  of  warts,  applying  it  with  a 
in  which  the  Name  of  the  Trinity  is  invoked. 
The  potato,  carried  until  it  gets  hard  in  the  pocket  of  the 
timty  is  firmly  believed  in  as  a  cure  for  rheumatism.  It  is 
ppoted  to  ''draw  the  iron  out  of  the  blood":  too  much 
n,  and  consequent  stiffness,  being  the  root  of  the  complaint. 
A  chann  against  haemorrhage  from  Black  Torrington  in  North 
ef€ii»  may  be  worth  recording.  In  this  case  there  is  no 
tcoipt  at  the  usual  secrecy,  the  user  of  the  charm  being 
ood  of  his  occult  power,  and  by  no  means  making  profit 

it  He  is  a  small  fanner  of  the  district,  and  claims  to  be 
e  last  person  by  whom   the  charm   can  be   effectively  used, 

it  can  only  be  handed  on  by  a  woman  who  herself  has 
e  power  of  "stenting  blood''  by  its  use.  It  came  to  him 
xn  such  a  wise  woman,  and,  so  far  as  he  knows,  he  is  the 
Jy  person  to  whom  she  transmitted  the  gift,  while  of  course 
\  is  unable  to  hand  it  on. 

The  charm  itself  consists  in  repeating  the  verse  Ezekiel  xvi.  6 
,v.\     It  is  to  some  extent  apposite,  being  a  direct  command 

an  individual  suffering  from  haemorrhage  to  "live,"  though 
ih  no  command  to  the  blood  itself.  Whether  this  may  not 
\  a  Christianised  version  of  some  older  formula  I  cannot 
nture  to  say,  but  it  is  likely.  The  descent  of  the  "stenting" 
rwer  in   the  female   line  alone  is   remarkable.     The  context 

the  verse  may  possibly  imply  that  it  was  originally  used  by 
only,  and  on  certain    emergencies;    but   this   does   not 

90  Collectanea. 

seem  probable.  At  the  present  day  the  help  of  the  "stenter" 
is  sought  in  any  case,  whether  veterinary  or  otherwise,  where 
it  is  required;  and  it  is  claimed,  and  indeed  firmly  believed 
in  the  district,  that  it  is  always  successful.  Two  such  cases 
were  cited  to  me,  one  of  a  wounded  horse,  and  the  other  of 
haemorrhage  from  the  lungs  of  a  consumptive  patient 

There  are  physical  reasons,  connected  with  the  cessation  of 
ill-directed  attempts  to  staunch  the  bleeding  during  the  absence 
of  the  messenger  in  search  of  the  "stenter,"  which  one  could 
bring  forward  to  account  for  the  usual  success  of  his  charm; 
but  they  only  accentuate  the  fact  that  his  loss  will  be  as  great 
to  the  district  as  to  the  student  of  folk-lore.  It  may  be  added 
that  the  "stenter"  does  not  visit  the  patient.  The  verse  is 
openly  pronounced  wherever  he  may  be  working  when  found, 
and  the  assurance  that  it  will  be  found  effectual  on  the  return 
of  the  messenger  is  added.  The  verse,  which  is  the  essential 
part  of  the  charm,  next  to  the  personal  element,  was  freely 
communicated  to  the  doctor  by  the  way;  there  being  no 
"professional  jealousy"  in  the  matter  on  either  side.^ 

Black  Torrington  still  keeps  up  the  ancient  custom  of 
"Skimmington  riding,"  when  some  village  scandal  is  to  be 
held  up  to  public  reprobation.  A  very  full  and  accurate 
description  of  such  a  function  may  be  read  in  the  Rev.  S. 
Baring-Gould's  Red  Spider^  the  scene  being  laid  in  a  village 
close  at  hand,  and  the  ritual  observed  being  that  still  in  use. 
Notices  for  such  a  "meet  of  the  stag-hounds,"  held  in  the 
spring  of  1906,  were  posted  in  places  so  far  distant  as  Bideford, 
the  route  to  be  taken  by  the  "hunt"  being  given  in  disguised 
writing.  I  myself  saw  the  ride,  but  imperfectly,  through  the 
"dimpsies."^  It  was  exactly  the  Red  Spider  episode,  though 
the  full  details  there  given  are  perhaps  collected  from  several 
occasions  of  the  sort. 

Akin  to  this  expression  of  popular  feeling  on  the  subject  of 
marital  inconstancy  is  the  old  Essex  custom  of  strewing  chaff 
on  the  doorstep  of  a  man  who  is  known  to  have  beaten  his 
wife,  in  token  that  his  "threshing"  is  public  talk. 

A   milder    hint    of   the    same    kind    is    the   West   Somerset 
»Cf.  ante,  p.  73.  'Twilight 

Collectanea.  91 

cnstoni  of  displaying  a  broom  over  the  door  of  a  man  whose 
wife  is  absent  for  what  seems  to  the  neighboars  to  be  an 
omeasonable  time.  It  is  said  to  be  "an  advertisement  for  a 
housekeeper."  A  broom  decorated  with  ribbons  was  foand  thas 
suspended  over  a  door  in  Watchet,  one  morning  in  the  spring 
of  1907. 

''Thicky  Twelfth  Night  is  not  the  hraight  day  for  wassailing 
of  the  arpol-drees.  Her  should  be  doned  on  Old  Twelfth 
N^ty  not  on  Old  Christmas  Day,"  said  an  ancient  sage  of 
Stockland  in  January  1908. 

C.  W.  Whistler. 

Putting  Life  into  an  Idol. 

(Cpmrnunicaied  hy  Mr.  G.  H,  Skipwith.) 

**  I  WAS  overcome  with  hunger  when  visiting  a  remote  Buddhist 
teoiple  ^  C3iina]  .  .  .  But  an  artist  who  was  regilding  the 
bdly  of  the  Buddha  of  the  Future  .  .  .  shared  his  meal  with 
me.  ...  I  learnt  from  my  friend  and  benefactor  many  curious 
(acts  as  to  idol-making.  .  .  . 

"A  conscientiously  made  idol  is  not  complete  when  the 
outward  form  and  features  are  finished.  Bags  of  white  and 
red  silk  representing  the  human  intestines  have  to  be  put  into 
the  hollow  of  the  body,  and  also  packets  of  precious  and 
ro3rsterious  substances.  Then  a  living  animal,  such  as  a  centi- 
pede or  a  mouse,  is  introduced  and  immured,  so  as  to  give 
life  to  the  image.  The  eyes  are  left  blank  until  the  divinity 
has  been  placed  in  the  position  which  he  is  going  to  occupy 
in  the  temple.  Then  the  pupils  are  painted  in,  and  the  process 
of  god-making,  or  deification,  is  complete."  ('*  Letters  from  the 
Far  East,  No.  II.,"  by  Sir  Charles  Eliot,  K.C.M.G. :  Westminster 
Gauite^  Nov.   27,    1906.) 


92  Collectanea. 

A   Pin-Offering. 

The  following  excerpt  from  the  Church  Times  of  Sep.  13th, 
1907,  is,  I  think,  worth  recording.  The  writer  after  giving  some 
description  of  the  Norman  building  called  St.  Aldhelm's  Chapel, 
Worth,  Isle  of  Purbeck,  goes  on  to  say:  "Mr.  Moule  tells  us 
that,  during  the  time  of  its  dilapidation,  it  was  the  custom  of  the 
parishioners  of  Worth,  on  Thursday  in  Whitweek,  to  visit  this 
building,  deck  it  with  flowers,  and  dance  therein;  it  used  at 
that  time  to  pass  by  the  name  of  the  Devil's  Chapel.  There  was 
an  old  custom,  still  maintained,  of  placing  a  pin  in  an  opening  of 
the  central  shaft,  accompanying  the  action  with  a  silently 
expressed  wish.  When  visiting  the  building  on  two  occasions 
last  August,  about  a  dozen  pins  were  noticed  in  the  aperture, 
which  is  not  to  be  wondered  at,  since  all  the  cheap  guide-books 
exploit  its  fame  in  this  direction.  On  my  last  visit  a  young 
lady,  apparently  of  some  refinement  and  education,  entered  the 
fabric,  at  once  proceeded  to  the  pin-hole,  and  deposited  her 
contribution,  at  the  same  moment  closing  her  eyes  with  a  rapt 
expression  of  countenance,  whilst  her  lips  moved  as  she 
mutely  made  her  wish." 

G.  Montagu  Benton. 

Cambridge  University  Museum. 

Notes  on  Some  Customs  of  the  Bangala  Tribe, 
Upper  Congo. 

I.  During  the  first  few  hours  after  the  death  of  a  woman  nearly 
all  her  female  neighbours  cry  as  though  their  hearts  were  broken, 
but  the  next  day  they  commence  dancing,  and  continue  to  do  so 
at  short  intervals,  for  five  or  six  days.  The  husband  hires  a 
professional  dancer  to  act  as  master  of  the  ceremonies. 

II.  In  the  farm  of  the  dead  woman  a  ring  is  made  by  throwing 
up  a  bank  of  earth,  and  in  this  ring  are  placed  the  saucepans, 
hoes,  mats,  and  private  property  of  the  deceased,  together  with 

Collectanea.  93 

r  fimn  produce.  No  one  would  think  of  using  the  goods,  etc, 
longing  to  a  dead  person. 

III.  One  daj  I  saw  an  old  woman  whom  I  knew  very  well 
ting  in  the  centre  of  a  ring  of  fire,  and  upon  inquiry  I  found 
it  she  had  had  much  to  do  with  preparing  a  corpse  for  burial, 
d  at  the  close  of  the  ceremony  she  was  purified  by  the  fire 
ing  lit  around  her.  In  my  unpublished  Dictionary  of  the 
pJa  language  I  have  the  following  word  and  its  explanation : 
T^tmhmftla^  to  purify  a  person  who  has  touched  a  dead  body 
'  fire.  A  ring  of  fire  made  of  small  sticks  encircles  the  person, 
10  takes  a  leai^  dries  it,  crushes  it  in  the  fist,  and  sprinkles 
OQ  the  fire,  moving  the  hands  over  the  fire  ring;  when  the 
e  goes  out  the  nganga  takes  hold  of  the  person  by  the  little 
tger  and  lifts  his  or  her  arm  (amobili  loboko\  and  the  person 
met  from  the  firecircle  purified." 

IV.  Walking  one  day  in  the  Monsembe  village  I  saw  an 
cident  that  recalled  Tam  o'  Shanter  to  my  mind.  There  had 
ien  a  death  in  the  family,  and  the  relatives  had  just  performed 
1  the  necessary  rites  and  ceremonies,  and  were  returning  to 
eir  houses.  A  small  trench  some  20  feet  long  was  dug  with 
hoe.  The  relatives  took  up  their  position  on  the  side  of 
e  trench  nearest  to  the  new  grave,  the  nganga  (witch-doctor) 
xxi  on  the  other  side,  and  his  assistant  was  placed  at  the  end 

the  trench  with  a  large  calabash  of  water.  At  a  signal  the 
uer  was  poured  into  the  trench,  and  while  it  was  running  the 
amga  took  each  person  by  the  hand  and,  mumbling  an  in- 
nution,  pulled  him  or  her  over  the  running  water.  When  all 
id  been  pulled  over  one  by  one  the  water  was  allowed  to 
tntinue  to  run  until  the  calabash  was  empty.  I  asked  the 
ason  of  the  ceremony,  and  they  told  me  that  it  was  to  keep 
e  spirit  of  their  buried  relative  from  following  them. 

V.  The  favourite  mediaeval  mode  of  injuring  an  enemy  by 
eking  pins  into  his  image  is  represented  on  the  Upper  Congo, 
fiis  I  discovered  through  two  men  quarrelling  outside  my  house 

Monsembe.  On  inquiring  into  the  cause  of  the  quarrel,  A  told 
e  that  it  had  been  reported  to  him  that  B  had  visited  a  witch- 
)ctor  in  the  bush-town,  and  had  paid  him  to  boil  a  saucepan 

"medicine"  and  to  call  up  his  (^'s)  image  in  the  saucepan,  and 

94  Collectanea. 

then  he  (B)  had  repeatedly  stabbed  the  image.  So  A  charged 
B  with  wanting  to  cause  his  death.  B  denied  the  charge  and 
wished  A  to  go  with  him  to  the  witch-doctor,  who  would  tell 
him  that  he  did  not  stab  ^'s  image  but  someone  else's. 

VI.  A  few  days  ago^  I  had  the  opportunity  of  seeing  a 
rather  complicated  discussion  and  cross-accusation  settled  to 
the  satisfaction  of  all  the  natives  present  by  the  parties  concerned 
drinking,  or  rather  eating,  the  ordeal. 

The  trial  took  place  on  neutral  ground,  Le,  in  a  section  of 
the  town  midway  between  the  sections  in  which  the  parties 
concerned  lived.  The  court  house  was  a  wide-spreading  wild 
fig-tree  that  cast  a  shade  over  the  whole  gathered  crowd,  which 
formed  an  oblong  figure.  The  plaintiff  stood  at  one  end  with 
his  supporters,  the  defendant  at  the  other  with  his,  and  the 
two  sides  were  occupied  by  neutrals  and  sympathisers.  The 
case  was  as  follows:  The  plaintiff  had  two  slaves  who  ran 
away,  and  after  some  dajrs  he  heard  that  these  slaves  had  gone 
away  in  a  canoe  belonging  to  the  defendant,  so  he  accused 
the  latter  of  aiding  and  abetting  their  escape,  and  wanted  him 
to  pay  him  for  them.  The  defendant,  on  the  other  hand,  wanted 
the  plaintiff  to  pay  him  back  a  canoe  or  the  price  of  it,  as  he 
said  it  had  been  stolen  by  the  plaintiff's  slaves.  For  three 
hours  they  discussed  the  matter  and  tried  to  arrange  an  amicable 
compromise.  This,  however,  was  impossible,  as  each  wished 
to  get  the  best  of  the  bargain.  From  the  nature  of  the  case 
it  was  impossible  to  call  witnesses,  although  many  persons  spoke 
on  either  side.  At  last  it  was  decided  that  the  parties  should  take 
the  nka  (ordeal  drug).  Each  was  so  confident  of  the  righteous- 
ness of  his  claims  that  he  was  willing  and  eager  to  eat  a 
portion  of  the  poisonous  drug  to  support  it  The  plaintiff  was 
a  short,  thick-set  young  man  troubled  with  elephantiasis,  and 
fi'om  that  and  his  apparent  nervousness  he  was  greatly  handi- 
capped in  the  trial.  The  defendant  was  a  tall,  thin,  wiry  man 
about  fifty  years  of  age,  who  had,  I  think,  often  taken  the 
nka  before,  and  was  inured  to  it 

The  nka  is  the  outer  skin  of  the  rootlets  of  a  tree  that  grows 
up  the  Lulanga  River— a  tributary  that  enters  the  Congo  River 
^WriUen  in  1894. 

Collectanea.  95 

1  the  south  some  forty  miles  below  the  Monsembe  district. 
;  is  Teiy  flufiy,  and  of  a  deep  scarlet  colour.  Two  ngangas 
repared  equal  portions  of  the  nka.  There  was  about  a  dessert- 
xxmful  in  each  portion.  The  accused  had  first  choice,  after 
hidi  each  doctor  with  the  portion  of  nka  in  the  palm  of  his 
lod  took  up  his  position  by  the  side  of  his  client,  and  at  a 
hrcn  signal  the  portions  of  nka  were  simultaneously  held  to 
le  mouths  of  the  two  opponents,  and  at  the  same  moment 
ley  began  to  chew  the  drug.  After  chewing  for  a  few  moments 
ich  washed  it  down  with  gulps  of  sugar-cane  wine. 
After  taking  the  ordeal,  the  men  are  allowed  neither  to  sit 
own  nor  to  lean  against  anything,  nor  even  to  touch  anything 
itfa  their  hands.  The  nka  given  in  the  above  quantity  blurs 
le  Tision,  distorting  and  enlarging  all  objects,  makes  the  legs 
cmble,  the  head  giddy,  and  gives  a  choking  sensation  in  the 
uoat  and  chest  In  fact  it  gives  all  the  symptoms  of  intoxica- 
on  and  a  few  more  besides.  The  one  who  first  becomes 
ttoncatcd  and  ialls  down  is  the  loser,  and  the  one  who  resists 
le  effects  of  the  drug  and  controls  himself  the  longest  is  the 

About  five  minutes  after  they  had  taken  the  ordeal,  a  native 
octor  stepped  into  the  centre  with  a  plantain  stalk  in  his 
ind,  about  two  feet  six  inches  long  and  three  inches  to  four 
ches  diameter.  He  flourished  this  stalk  about  a  little,  and  then 
laced  it  in  front  of  the  plaintiff  for  him  to  step  over.  He 
ent  forward  boldly,  stepped  over  it,  and  returned  to  his  place, 
his  was  repeated  six  tiroes  without  his  feet  once  touching 
le  stalk«  The  defendant  had  then  to  go  through  the  same 
St,  which  he  did  laughingly,  throwing  his  arms  and  legs  about 
I  all  directions.  This  was  done  occasionally  for  the  next  thirty 
inutes,  and  the  plaintiff  (the  accuser)  began  to  show  signs 
f  intoxication.  His  steps  faltered,  his  eyes  brightened  and 
iared,  and  it  was  with  difficulty  that  he  raised  his  feet  over 
ic  stalk-  Then  the  "  doctor "  began  to  mock  hiro,  pretending 
\  put  the  stalk  close  to  his  feet  and  tantalizingly  drawing  it 
ick.  Forty  minutes  after  taking  the  nka  the  climax  came, 
he  "doctor"  threw  the  stalk  to  the  defendant  (the  accused), 
ho  caught  it  in  his  hands  and  carried  it  to  the  centre,  where, 

96  Collectanea. 

firmly  fixing  his  feet  on  the  ground,  he  stooped  forward  and 
placed  the  stalk  with  both  his  hands  in  a  straight  line,  then 
raising  himself  he  went  back  to  his  place.  The  plaintiff  then 
went  to  pick  it  up,  but  no  sooner  did  he  lean  forward  than  a 
spasm  of  pain  seized  him,  and  he  would  have  fallen  had  not 
a  man,  who  for  the  last  twenty  minutes  had  followed  him  •closely, 
caught  him  in  his  arms  and  quickly  carried  him  to  his  house. 

No  sooner  did  the  crowd  of  neutrals  see  the  fall  of  one  of 
the  opponents  than  with  a  bound  they  jumped  to  their  feet; 
and  with  spears  and  knives  raised  in  the  air  they  danced, 
shouted,  and  sang  around  the  winner.  Some  rubbed  dirt,  others 
ashes,  and  others  red-camwood  powder  on  the  fellow's  face — 
a  sign  that  he  had  won  the  case.  They  then  hoisted  him  on 
the  back  of  a  friend  and  carried  him  home.  He  distributed 
four  hundred  brass  rods  among  the  crowd  of  his  admirers,  who 
said  they  had  helped  him  to  win  his  cause.  He  sat  outside  his 
hut  all  the  rest  of  the  day  with  his  face  smeared,  so  that  all 
could  see  he  had  won,  and  could  congratulate  him.  The 
plaintiff  had  to  pay  him  two  slaves  and  a  canoe  as  damages. 

The  next  day  both  accused  and  accuser  were  walking  about 
the  town,  and  seemed  none  the  worse  for  drinking  so  powerful 
and  dangerous  a  narcotic.  They  apparently  had  no  enmity 
towards  each  other,  but  chatted  freely  and  laughingly  over 
the  events  of  the  previous  day. 

When  one  remembers  the  amount  of  corruption  and  bribery 
among  these  people;  that  the  most  familiar  words  on  their  lips 
are  "lie,"  "liar,"  and  that  the  most  frequent  question  is,  "Is 
it  true  ? "  and  the  answer,  "  It  is  true  or  cut  my  throat," — the 
wonder  is  that  they  can  settle  a  palaver  in  any  way. 

To  drink  the  ordeal  and  be  either  right  or  wrong  according 
to  its  action  settles  the  affair  once  for  all,  ends  all  possible 
deadly  feuds  and  bloodshed,  and  saves  many  a  man  from  what 
is  worse  than  death,  viz.  an  ever-present  anxious  fear  of  what 
bis  enemy  or  enemies  may  do  to  him.  If  a  man  accuses  another 
o  giving  him  a  disease,  or  of  causing  the  death  of  his  wife 
by  witchcraft,  how  can  the  accused  disprove  such  a  charge? 
Not  by  talking,  no  matter  how  much  he  may  swear  that  he  is 
innocent.     If  he  calls  the  chiefs  and  headmen  together  he  knows 

Collectanea.  97 

»e  verdict  will  be  given  in  favour  of  the  one  who  pays  the 
lOft ;  if  he  runs  away  he  will  soon  be  captured  by  some  other 
IWII9  and  probably  sold  to  furnish  a  cannibal  feast;  if  he  runs 
I  a  friendly  town  he  will  lose  caste,  he  will  be  treated  with 
DOtempl  as  a  coward,  and  his  life  be  rendered  miserable.  So 
e  boldly  steps  forth  and  takes  the  nka^  and  the  afifair  is 
sttled.  Is  the  ordeal  in  his  favour?  Then  he  claims  and 
eli  heavy  damages.  Does  the  ordeal  go  against  him?  Then 
e  pays  the  damages,  if  wealthy  enough ;  or,  if  poor,  sells  him- 
elf;  or,  if  a  slave,  his  master  pays  for  him.  But  whatever  be 
le  fcnilt,  that  palaver  is  decided  once  for  all. 

No  stigma  attaches  to  a  man  who  is  found  guilty,  for  "one 
■n  have  witchcraft  without  knowing  it."  Moreover,  no  one 
l^itly  brings  a  charge  of  witchcraft  against  another,  for,  if  the 
rdeal  test  goes  against  the  accuser,  the  damages  are  so  very 
cavy  as  to  deter  frivolous  accusations. 

J.  H.  Weeks. 

Congo  Free  State. 


The  Progress  of  Folklore  Study  in  Finland. 
{Ante^  p,  2.) 

In  the  current  session  at  Helsingfors  University  an  extension- 
course  has  been  commenced  for  students  of  folklore.  There  are 
ninety  adherents,  half  of  whom  are  subsidised  by  the  State. 
My  brother  Ilwari  Krohn,  Doctor  of  Music,  teaches  them  music 
on  a  new  system,  and  my  lectures  deal  with  the  collection  and 
sifting  of  folklore  materials. 

During  the  summer  I  travelled  in  Scandinavia,  Germany,  and 
Bohemia,  and  saw  many  good  MS.  collections,  especially  at 
Copenhagen  and  Mecklenburg.  A  Folklore  Federation  is  pro- 
posed, to  facilitate  the  exchange  of  copies  from  other  collections. 

During  the  course  of  the  present  year  we  have  received  all  the 
songs,  proverbs,  riddles,  and  notes  relating  to  superstitions,  from 
the  collections  of  the  late  Esthonian  pastor.  Dr.  Jacob  Hurt, 
which  have  been  copied  out  for  us.  The  tales  from  the  same 
source  have  not  yet  reached  us;  nevertheless,  our  collections 
have  been  nearly  doubled,  and  will  supply  scientific  materials  for 

Dr.  Niemi  is  printing  variants  of  the  Kalevala  from  Russian 
Karelia,  and  it  is  hoped  that  the  first  volume  will  shortly  be 

The  first  part  of  a  Danish  translation  of  the  Kalevala^  by 
Adjutant  F.  Obst,  with  a  historical  analysis,  will  shortly  appear 
in  Denmark. 

Kaarle  Krohn. 
Helsingfors,  Sept.  i8,  1907. 



Thx  SoaoLOGY  or  the  Arranda  and  Chingalbb  Tribes 
(Northern  Territory  Australia). 

The  following  Table  gives  the  names  of  sixteen  persons,  or 
{fat  married  coaples,  personally  known  to  one  of  my  most 
Nopetent  correspondents  in  the  Arranda  (or  Arunta)  country, 
iiidi  reaches  from  about  Macumba  River  to  Alice  Springs 
id  the  Upper  Finke  River),  together  with  the  section  (or  class) 
imes  of  the  husband,  the  wife,  and  their  bsue;  also  the 
ctioos  of  their  fathers.  The  Arranda,  as  is  well  known,  is 
le  of  the  ** eight-class"  Australian  tribes. 



lodivklual-Hittbuid  or  WUe. 

SectKHi  of 




Proper  Name 




































}  Ngala 
1  Purula 
1  PalUra 

The  Chingalee  tribe,  about  Powell's  Creek  and  Daly  waters, 
lo  possess  eight  subdivisions.     I  requested  an  old  friend,  who 



has  resided  many  years  in  their  country,  to  famish  me  with  a 
list  of  marriages  of  individuals  personally  known  to  him,  and 
sent  him  a  form  on  which  to  tabulate  the  information.  He 
has  accordingly  supplied  the  particulars  of  about  twenty  marriages, 
from  which  I  have  selected  the  following  seventeen  persons  as 
examples.  I  have  given  the  English  name  by  which  each 
native  is  known  among  the  European  residents,  so  that  any 
other  investigator  can  readily  check  my  work. 


Father  of 

Mother  of 

Individual  answering  the  questions. 

Child  of 




Proper  Nanie. 
































Long  Dick 

Jimmy  Miller 


Fat  Tommy 


Long  Tommy 
HU  wife 


First  wife 
Second  wife 











>No  Umily 
\No  fiunily 


In  1899  I  published  in  the  Proceedings  of  the  American  Philo- 
sophical Society  of  Philadelphia  (xxxviiL  p.  76)  a  table  of  the 
intermarrying  sections  of  the  Arranda  tribe,  as  follows. 































Each  of  these  two  qrdes,  it  will  be  seen,  reproduces  its  own 
four  sections  of  women  in  a  certain  rotation,  and  this  order 
of  succession  is  repeated  for  ever. 

In  the  same  way  the  sections  of  the  Chingalee  (or  l^ingilli) 
tiibe  may  be  arranged  as  follows,  as  I  showed  in  the  American 
Amikropolcgist  in  1900  (vol.  ii.  N.S.  p.  495). 


yde         Wife 











B    rChiraitcha 











The  women  of  each  of  these  cycles  have  perpetual  succession 
in  a  prescribed  order,  just  the  same  as  the  Arranda. 

I  submit  that  the  evidence  of  actual  and  ascertained  marriages 
which  I  now  give,  confirms  my  previous  arrangement  in  cycles 
<**j)hrairies")  of  the  sections  (or  "classes'*)  of  these  two  tribes 
and  my  statement  that  the  descent  of  the  children  in  each 
case  is  reckoned  through  the  mothers ;  rather  than  the  view 
of  Messrs.  Spencer  and  Gillen,  who  {Northern  Tribes^  pp.  100,101) 
divide  the  classes  into  phratries  in  such  a  manner  as  to  make 

I02  Correspondence. 

it  appear  that  in  these  tribes  descent  is  reckoned  through  the 

If  we  take  the  first  name  in  Table  II.  it  wiU  serve  as  an 
illustration  of  all  the  rest  Chimitcha's  "  tabular  "  or  normal  wife 
is  Chungalee,  whom  we  shall  call  No.  i.  He  can,  instead,  marry 
Chula,  whom  we  may  denominate  his  "alternative"  wife,  or 
No.  2.  Or  he  can  take  a  Chuna  woman,  distinguished  as  No.  3, 
or  a  Chimitcha  (No.  4).  Looking  at  the  table  we  see  that  two  of 
Chimitcha's  possible  wives  belong  to  Cycle  B  and  two  to  Cycle  A, 
and  it  is  manifest  that  the  denomination  of  his  children  must 
depend  upon  the  woman  he  takes  for  his  wife. 

The  names  of  different  degrees  of  relationship,  of  which  I  have 
collected  many,  give  no  clue  to  the  cycle  or  section  to  which  the 
person  addressed  belongs.  In  the  Chingalee  tribe  a  person's 
father  is  keeta.  Minnie,  No.  la  in  Table  II.,  would  address  her 
father  as  keeta^  although  he  is  not  Chemara,  as  in  Table  IV.,  but 
Tungaree,  and  so  belongs  to  the  opposite  cycle  to  Chemara. 

It  is,  in  fact,  a  question  whether  there  is  any  well-defined  law  of 
exogamy  in  the  social  structure  of  the  Australian  aborigines.  It  is 
impossible  to  divide  a  tribe  having  the  Chingalee  constitution  in 
such  a  way  that  the  two  parts  shall  be  quite  independent,  so  that 
the  men  of  one  part  or  cycle  shall  marry  the  women  of  the  other 
cycle,  and  such  women  only.^  The  same  observation  applies  to 
the  four-class  tribes,  Kamilaroi,  Wongaibon,  Ngeumba,  and  others, 
in  New  South  Wales,  as  I  have  abundantly  shown  elsewhere.* 

The  peculiar  totemic  system  of  the  Arranda  is  shared  by  the 
Chingalee,  Wombaia,  and  other  tribes.  In  each  local  division  of 
a  tribe  there  are  persons  bearing  the  names  of  animals,  trees,  etc 
People  whose  totems  belong  to  any  of  these  departments  of  the 
universe  roam  about  together.  There  are  certain  spots  scattered 
up  and  down  at  short  intervals  in  their  territory  which  are 
traditionally  haunted,  some  by  one  animal  or  object  and  some  by 
another,  from  which  the  children  receive   their  totemic  names 

^See  my  articles:  American  Antiquarian,  xxriiL  p.  I46.  American 
Anthropologist,  N.S.  vii.  p.  302.  Queensland  Geog,  Joum,  zx.  pp.  69,  70. 
Bulletin  Soc.  ctAnthrop,  de  Paris,  t.  viL  s^rie  v.  p.   173. 

"^Joum.  Roy,  Soc,  N,S,W,  xxxix.  pp.  116,  117.  American  Antiquarian^ 
xxviii.  p.  86.     Man,  voL  viii.  p.  24. 

Correspondence.  103 

ittoul  of  fipom  the  mother.  When  a  woman  first  feels  the 
lovements  of  the  fotius  in  the  womb,  she  reports  to  her  friends 
lat  one  night  recently  when  she  and  her  husband  were  camped 
1  the  yidnity  of  a  certain  rock-hole,  she  dreamt  that  she  saw 

number  of  very  tiny  children  playing  about  and  singing  among 
le  leaves  of  one  of  the  trees  close  to  the  rock-hole.  Her 
osband  will  also  say  that  just  before  daylight  he  heard  an 
i£uat  coming  down  out  of  the  tree,  laughing  as  it  came,  when 

appcoached  him  and  pulled  his  hair  or  his  whiskers,  asking 
im  to  find  a  mother  for  it,  after  which  it  vanished,  and  was 
dieved  to  have  entered  the  woman's  body.  When  the  child 
(  bora  it  is  given  the  totem  belonging  to  the  locality  where 
le  mother  or  father  had  the  alleged  dream.  For  example,  if 
le  q)ot  be  traditionally  known  to  be  haunted  by  Wallaby  spirits, 
le  newly-born  child  would  get  the  totem  of  the  Wallaby,  quite 
respective  of  the  totemic  name  of  either  the  woman  or  her 

The  hunting-grounds  of  every  Australian  tribe,  and  consequently 
f  all  the  partitions  and  re-partitions  of  the  tribe,  descend  from 
le  fiithers  to  the  sons  for  ever.  And  the  children  of  every 
lairiage  belong  to  the  father's  tribe,  no  matter  whether  the 
Mems  descend  through  the  mothers  or  the  fathers,  or  are 
rquired  by  the  accident  of  locality. 

.Again,  in  all  Australian  tribes,  whether  the  descent  of  the 
rcles  and  sections  is  maternal  or  paternal,  the  privilege  of 
orking  incantations,  making  rain,  performing  initiation  ceremonies 
3d  other  important  functions,  descends  from  the  men  of  the 
ibe  to  the  sons.  This  law  is  the  same  in  the  Kamilaroi, 
''iradjuri,  Chingalee,  Arranda,  and  other  tribes,  and  is  no  evidence 
:  all  of  paternal  descent  in  other  matters.  Moreover,  all  the 
^^emonies  in  connection  with  the  totems  are  likewise  handed 
[>wn  through  the  men,  quite  irrespective  of  how  the  totems 
escend.  In  summarizing  the  social  laws  of  the  aborigines, 
hether  in  the  Northern  Territory,  New  South  Wales,  or  in  the 
iher  Stotes,  we  discover  that  although  they  vary  in  all  sorts  of 
etails  yet  they  agree  in  their  main  lines  of  organisation. 

R.  H.  Mathews. 

I04  Correspondence. 

Folklore  Fiction:  a  Warning. 

Probably  some  of  the  readers  of  Folklore  may  have  been,  like 
myself,  interested  in  articles  in  the  Christian  World  for  October 
3rd,  1907,  describing  the  finding  of  the  Corn-baby  in  the  North 
Riding  of  Yorkshire  in  the  twentieth  centiuy,  and,  to  judge  by  the 
language,  in  the  present  year.  It  is  important  for  archaeologists, 
who  may  be  misled  by  the  account,  to  know  that  the  incident 
described  is  a  fiction,  and  that  the  writer  reports  to  myself,  and 
to  the  Christian  Worlds  that  he  never  intended  that  it  should  be 
taken  seriously. 

Rendel  Harris. 

The  Fifth  of  November  and  Guy  Fawkes. 
(Vol.  xviii.,  p.  450.) 

My  attention  has  been  drawn  to  your  editorial  note  above 
referred  to,  asking  for  an  account  of  the  '*  Guy  Fawkes "  observ- 
ances in  the  island  of  Guernsey. 

To  the  best  of  my  belief  there  were  neither  November  bonfires 
nor  Guy  Fawkes  celebrations  in  Guernsey  until  the  beginning  of 
the  nineteenth  century.  What  customs  may  have  prevailed  over 
here  in  the  days  before  the  introduction  of  the  Reformation  and 
the  Puritanical  spirit,  I  do  not  know.  But  after  that  date,  in 
1565,  1567,  1581,  1582,  and  1611,  "Ordonnance"  after  "Ordon- 
nance ''  was  passed  by  the  Royal  Court  forbidding  songs,  dances, 
and  all  "  jeux  inlicyte,"  under  penalty  of  the  culprits  having  to  do 
penance  in  church  on  the  following  Sunday,  with  bare  heads,  legs, 
and  feet,  wrapped  in  a  winding  sheet  and  holding  a  lighted 

These  restrictions,  which  were  framed  to  put  an  end  to  aught 
that  savoured  of  "la  superstition"  as  well  as  of  "le  viel  levain 
de  la  Papaulte,"  effectually  put  a  stop  to  all  our  primitive  festival 

Correspondence.  105 

In  the  eighteenth  and  early  nineteenth  centuries,  on  New  Year's 
Eve,  hoyt  still  dressed  up  a  grotesque  figure,  which  they  called  the 
"▼ieox  boat  de  Tan,"  and  buried  or  burnt  with  mock  ceremonies 
in  some  retired  spot.  But  that  practice  also  fell  into  abeyance 
imtil,  some  time  in  the  second  quarter  of  the  nineteenth  century, 
an  English  £unily  of  small  farmers  started  a  Guy  Fawkes  cele- 
bration in  the  island. 

To  the  country  people  the  name  "  Guy  Fawkes ''  meant  nothing, 
while  they  had  a  confused  recollection  of  the  earlier  "  bout  de 
fan"  cdebrations;  so  to  them  the  "Guy"  was  invariably  known 
as  **boat  de  I'an"  or  "budloe"  (as  they  spelt  it),  though  without 
any  real  idea  of  what  the  name  conveyed.  Therefore,  I  think 
diat  it  was  the  veriuble  '*  bout  de  I'an  "  of  New  Year's  Eve  which 
it  refened  to  in  the  term  "  bout  de  Tan,"  and  that  any  November 
-if  any  there  were — had  been  abolished  &r  too  long  to  be 

I  send  an  illustnuion  (PL  II.)  of  our  Guy  Fawkes  procession 
as  it  appeared  in  1905,  and  of  the  accompanying  appeal.  The 
grotesque  garments  of  the  riders  as  the  horses  wended  their  way 
by  torchlight  were  exceedingly  picturesque.  But  the  squibs  and 
crackers  thrown  about  by  the  rank  and  file  of  the  procession  were 
considered  a  menace  to  traffic,  and  I  am  sorry  to  say  the  Royal 
Court  have  recently  abolished  the  whole  ceremony. 

Edith  H.  Carey 

(Editor  •*  Guernsey  FolMhre"). 
Copy  of  Handbill  : 

Wk  now  uice  the  liberty  of  calling  your  attention  to  our  annual  GuY  Fawkbs 
Dkmonstration,  which  takes  place  this  evening.  We  need  scarcely  repeat 
the  particulars  of  the  origin  of  Gun  Powder  Plot,  or  the  part  played  by  the 
traitor  Guy  Fawkes,  who  was  captured  whilst  attempting  to  blow  up  the 
House  of  I^arliamcnt,  together  with  the  King,  Lords,  and  Members.  Althoogh 
this  erent  took  place  some  years  ago,  we  consider  it  a  mark  of  loyalty  as  wdl 
as  amusement  to  thus  exhibit  our  hatred  of  traitors.  Trusting,  kind  friends, 
to  your  liberality  to  assist  us  in  this  demonstration, — We  remain,  years 
faithfully,  The  St.  Martin's  Torchlight  Procession. 

God  sAvg  thk  King. 

io6  Correspondence. 

Folklore  of  Aristotle. 
(Vol.  xviii.,  pp.  212-215.) 

In  reply  to  queries  in  Folk-Lore  for  June,  1907,  I  have  received 
the  following  information,  much  of  which  will  be  of  great  use 
to  me: 

(i)  Mr.  G.  C.  Zervos,  writing  from  Caljrmnos  on  Oct  23rd, 
1907,  says :  **The  sponge  is  considered  to  be  an  animal^  because 
the  sponge  fishermen  say  that  i^l^rfrav  ra  o-^uyyapui  =  the 
sponges  have  become  dead.  Now,  this  word  ^^t>^  is  used  in 
modern  Greek  to  denote  the  death  of  animals  only."  Dr.  W.  H. 
D.  Rouse  also  says  :  '*  In  modem  Greece  the  sponge  is  spoken  of 
in  terms  which  would  suit  an  animal,  as  17  itAva  is  the  lower 

(2)  According  to  The  Cyclades^  or  Life  among  the  Insular 
Greeks^  by  Jas.  Theodore  Bent,  1885,  p.  439 :  "It  is  deemed  very 
unlucky  to  sneeze  at  the  cheese  Sunday  banquet  [in  Lent]; 
anyone  who  does  must  tear  his  coat  to  avert  disaster.  Greeks,  in 
common  with  other  nationalities,  regard  sneezing  with  superstition  ; 
if  you  are  a  layman  they  wish  you  good  health,  if  you  are  a  priest 
they  say  'safety';  why  this  distinction  I  could  not  find  out'' 

Dr.  W.  H.  D.  Rouse  says  :  "  Sneezing  is  an  omen,"  and  Mr.  G. 
C  Zervos  says  :  "  When  a  person  sneezes  it  is  said  that  people  are 
speaking  of  him." 

(3)  Mr.  G.  C  Zervos  says  that  the  same  superstition  still  exists 
that  "  Men  also,  very  rarely,  have  milk  produced  in  their  breasts," 

Mr.  VV.  F.  Kirby  informs  me  that  there  are,  among  recorded 
instances  of  lactation  in  males,  (i)  that  of  Thorgils,  the  Icelander, 
in  Baring-Gould's  book  on  Iceland,  chap.  22 ;  (2)  that  of  a  South 
American  settler,  in  Humboldt  and  Bonpland's  Personal 
Narrative^  book  iii.  chap.  6 ;  (3)  that  of  a  he-goat,  in  Hanover, 
recorded  in  the  chapter  just  quoted;  and  (4)  that  recorded  by 
Anna  Blackwell  in  her  "  Testimony  of  the  Ages,"  published  some 
years  ago  in  a  periodical  called  Human  Nature, 

Notes  and  Queries,  Dec  7ih,  1889,  p.  442,  contains  a  reference 
to  the  case  of  a  young  Chipewyan  who  suckled  his  own  child  after 
the  death  of  its  mother. 

Correspondence.  107 

(4)  Mr.  W.  F.  Kirby  refers  me  to  Barrow's  Account  of  Travds 
mio  thi  interior  of  Southern  Africa  in  the  years  1797  and  1798, 
LoodoDy  1801,  vol.  i.,  pp.  312-319;  on  p.  313  is  a  figure  of  the 
bead  of  a  ODe-homed  Antelope,  copied  from  a  Bosjeman's  drawing 
m  a  cavern  wall,  and  Mr.  Kirby  sajrs :  "  But  the  figure  represents 
the  horn  as  over  the  eye,  which  looks  as  if  it  was  either  taken  in 
profile  or  from  an  animal  in  which  the  left  horn  was  broken  off  or 

(5)  I  have  not  received  any  information. 

(6)  I  should  be  glad  to  receive  fiirther  detailed  information. 

(7)  Notes  and  Queries  (or  Mbj 7 1  i887,p.37o,shows  that  about  the 
fear  1850,  whilst  the  new  road  and  bridge  across  the  Thames  from 
Old  Windsor  to  Datchet  was  in  course  of  construction,  the  navvies 
working  on  the  line  of  road  unearthed  one  morning,  a  foot  or  two 
bdow  the  surface,  human  skeletons,  etc.  The  writer  of  the  note 
goes  on  to  say,  "  I  was  present  at  the  unearthing,  and  was  more 
interested  in  a  number  of  living  and  moving  '  anatomies '  found 
with  the  bones,  all  not  thicker  than  a  hair,  apparently  without 
bead  or  tail,  and  each  one  mixed  up  so  that  each  convolution 
could  be  easily  traced.  .  .  .  The  men  who  first  came  across  them 
made  no  bones  about  setting  them  down  at  once  as  animated 
hairs,  the  theory,  as  far  as  I  could  understand  it,  being  that  the 
river  often  overflowing  the  spot,  or  the  ground  being  otherwise 
kept  moist  by  it,  hairs  ultimately  developed  into  *them  there 
kind  o'  eels,  a  wery  common  thing  about  the  water  in  these  parts, 

(8),  (9)  and  (10).  I  should  be  glad  to  receive  further  detailed 

T.  East  Lones. 
Dudley  House, 
Upper  Highway,  King's  Langley. 

[The  points  on  which  Mr.  Lones  still  desires  information  are 
homed  snakes,  the  use  of  astragali  in  divination,  the  fish  called 
Echeneis^  and  the  belief  that  the  eyes  of  snakes  and  swallows 
will  grow  again  if  they  are  blinded.     £d.] 

io8  Correspondence. 

Opening  Windows  to  Aid  the  Release  of  the  Soul. 
(Vol.  xviii.,  p.  215.) 

In  Folk-Lore  for  June,  1907,  Mr.  H.  Krebs  sAys  that  he  should 
be  interested  to  hear  of  localities  where  this  death-bed  custom 
is,  or  has  been,  observed. 

I  beg  to  quote  the  following  from  Sir  John  Rhys'  Celtic  Folk- 
LorCy  page  601  : 

"  I  well  remember  that  when  a  person  was  djdng  in  a  house, 
it  was  the  custom  about  Ponterwyd,  in  North  Cardiganshire,  to 
open  the  windows.  And  a  farmer  near  Ystrad  Meurig,  more 
towards  the  south  of  the  county,  told  me  some  years  ago  that 
he  remembered  his  mother  dying  when  he  was  a  boy  \  a  neigh- 
bour's wife  who  had  been  acting  as  nurse  tried  to  open  the 
window  of  the  room,  and  as  it  would  not  open,  she  deliberately 
smashed  a  pane  of  it  This  was  doubtless  originally  meant  to 
facilitate  the  escape  of  the  soul." 

May  I  add  that  it  was  also  once  a  custom  in  West  Wales 
to  open  the  door  of  the  death-chamber,  so  that  the  spirits  which 
were  supposed  to  be  present  might  leave  the  room. 

Jonathan  Ceredig-Davies. 
Dyflfryn  Villa,  Llanilar,  Aberystwyth. 

Fishers'  Folklore. 

The  fishermen  of  both  North  and  South  Cornwall  believe 
that  saffron  brings  bad  luck,  and  that  saffron-cake  carried  in 
a  boat  spoils  the  chance  of  a  catch.  Can  any  reader  suggest 
a  probable  explanation  of  these  ideas? 

D.  Townshend. 


Frbdbrick  Thomas  Elworthy. 

I^B  regret  to  have  to  record  the  death  at  his  residence,  Foxdown, 
iTeUio^on,  Somerset,  13th  December,  1907,  of  Mr.  Frederick 
iMmas  Elworthy,  formerly  and  for  a  considerable  time  a  member 
f  the  Coancfl  of  the  Folklore  Society.  He  made  his  reputation 
iBt  as  a  linguist,  by  a  work  of  great  authority  on  the  dialects 
f  Somersetshire,  and  afterwards  devoted  himself  to  the  systematic 
tody  of  matters  more  closely  connected  with  folk-lore.  His 
00k  on  the  Evil  Eye,  published  in  1895,  conuins  a  critical 
avestigation  of  the  evidence  relating  to  the  superstitions  based 
>n  the  supposed  malignant  influence  of  the  earnest  gaze  of  one 
CTSon  on  another.  His  subsequent  work,  Horns  of  Honour ^ 
published  in  1900,  dealt  with  certain  species  of  charms,  amulets, 
ad  other  prophylactics  against  the  influence  of  the  Evil  Eye. 
iis  Studies  for  these  subjects  led  him  into  several  by-ways  of 
earning.  In  1898  he  exhibited  to  the  Society  of  Antiquaries, 
ud  later  to  the  Folk-lore  Society,  a  large  number  of  casts  of 
erra  cotta  stamps  or  moulds  found  at  Taranto,  Italy,  known 
J  dischi  scuri.  He  was  elected  a  Fellow  of  the  Society  of 
^tiquaries  in  1900,  and  in  1905  he  read  before  it  a  paper  on 
he  Mano  Pantea  or  so-called  Votive  Hand,  which  he  maintained 
ras  by  no  means  technically  votive,  but,  on  the  contrary, 
lisdncily  prophylactic  and  propitiatory,  appealing  for  protection 
o  powerful  divinities  against  ever-threatening  danger.  This 
nper,  like  the  previous  one,  was  illustrated  by  many  examples 
)f    the    curious    objects    referred    to.      In   another  paper,    "A 

no  Obituary. 

Solution  of  the  Gorgon  Myth,"  read  before  the  Folk-lore  Society 
in  1902,  he  endeavoured  at  once  to  show  that  the  myth  of  the 
Gorgon  originated  in  the  cuttle-fish  of  the  Mediterranean,  and 
to  connect  the  Medusa-legend  with  the  Evil  £ye  superstition. 
He  joined  the  British  Association  at  the  Manchester  meeting 
in  1887,  and  in  1893  became  a  member  of  the  General  Com- 
mittee. In  1895  ^^  ''^^  *  paper  on  Horns  of  Honour  and 
Dishonour  and  of  Safety,  and  in  1896  two  papers  on  Some 
Pagan  Survivals,  and  on  an  Ancient  British  Interment  on  the 
top  of  Culbone  Hill,  Somersetshire,  belonging  to  the  early  bronze 
age,  not  later  than  the  second  millennium  b.c.  He  attended  the 
meeting  at  Toronto  in  1897,  and  read  a  paper  on  some  old-world 
Harvest  Customs  in  Egypt  and  Thessaly,  and  in  various  parts 
of  the  United  Kingdom,  discussing  their  significance  as  survivals 
of  an  animistic  corn-cult.  It  was  on  this  occasion  that  the 
present  writer,  on  the  voyage  out  and  during  the  stay  in 
Canada,  had  the  good  fortune  to  improve  hb  previous  slight 
acquaintance  with  Mr.  Elworthy  into  an  intimate  fiiendship,  and 
learned  to  look  upon  him  as  a  man  of  many  accomplishments^ 
of  varied  learning,  and  of  high  and  sensitive  honour. 

E.  B. 


'JL  FoLK-LoRB  DB  FRANCE,  par  Paul  SiBiLLOT.     Tome  iv.     Le 
People  et  I'Histoire.     Paris:  E.  Guilmoto,  1907. 

if.  SiBiLLor's  great  task  is  finished,  and  we  have  at  last,  in 
xmx  octavo  volumes,  a  fairly  complete  account  of  the  folklore 
if  Fnmce  and  French-speaking  peoples.  The  interest  of  the 
ttUectioo  has  in  no  way  diminished  as  it  approached  its  term. 
>D  the  contrary  some  of  the  chapters  of  the  final  volume  are 
JDong  die  most  enthralling.  Such,  for  instance,  are  those 
elating  to  the  observances  connected  with  megalithic  remains, 
Niflding  rites,  churches,  and  the  whole  of  the  third  book 
lealing  with  the  various  orders  of  society  and  the  historical 

It  is  very  difficult  to  select  any  of  these  for  special  mention,  so 
idmirably  has  the  distinguished  author  arranged  his  material^ 
o  carefully  and  yet  succinctly  has  he  presented  it.  Nor  has 
le  been  content  merely  to  be  a  compiler.  He  has  exercised 
ipon  it  a  well-trained  critical  faculty  and  has  thus  enhanced 
^ry  considerably  the  value  of  his  work.  An  excellent  example 
A  his  critical  treatment  is  afforded  by  the  section  on  the 
egends  of  human  sacrifices.  We  know  from  Caesar  (De  Bell, 
"Jail,  vi.  16)  that  the  Druids  offered  human  sacrifices  and 
ven  great  holocausts;  and  it  is  natural  to  suppose  that  these 
bloody  rites  would  strike  the  imagination  of  the  people,  and 
hat  their  memory  would  be  preserved  with  horror  for  generations 
iter  they  had  passed  away.  In  fact,  we  do  find  in  different 
larts   of   France,   stones   pointed    out   as  the   altars  on   which 

1 1 2  Retnews. 

human  sacrifices  were  offered.  M.  S6billot,  however,  traces 
these  traditions  from  their  earliest  mention,  and  comes  to  the 
conclusion  that  they  are  anything  but  genuine.  So  far  as 
the  evidence  at  present  goes,  they  are  all  derived  from  anti- 
quarian speculations,  which,  having  started  in  the  eighteenth 
century  from  a  vague  tradition  of  sacrifice  (not  mentioning 
human  sacrifices),  took  specific  form  at  the  banning  of  the 
nineteenth  century  as  an  assertion  localizing  not  merely 
sacrifices  but  human  sacrifices  at  these  stones.  Thence  the 
tradition  in  various  forms  has  been  scattered  over  the  country 
under  the  influence,  as  M.  Sebillot  conjectures,  of  tourists  and 
savants^  who,  visiting  them,  have  repeated  in  the  hearing 
of  the  country-people  the  theories  in  favour  on  the  subject 
during  the  former  half  of  the  last  century. 

The  description  of  the  old  towns  of  France,  until  recent  years 
but  little  changed  by  the  march  of  events,  with  their  ancient 
buildings,  many  of  them  identified  with  the  scene  of  some 
strange  or  marvellous  tale,  and  the  vdlUes^  when  these  tales 
and  other  chronicles  of  the  place  were  told,  will  charm  the 
student  all  the  more  because  the  author  draws  to  some  extent 
upon  his  personal  reminiscences.  The  English  reader  will 
perhaps  turn  to  the  pages  recording  the  traditions  of  which 
the  English  are  the  subject,  and  he  will  be  amused  to  see 
how  his  countrymen  and  the  wars  they  waged  so  long  in 
France  look  through  the  eyes  of  the  French  "folk."  One  of 
the  most  interesting  points  made  by  M.  Sebillot  is  that,  while 
the  memory  of  William  the  Conqueror  is  still  living  in 
Normandy,  while  an  ancient  object  is  said  to  be  of  the  time  of 
King  Guillemot,  and  an  ancient  statue  is  that  of  Duke  William, 
while  the  recollection  of  his  birth  remains,  and  of  his  violent 
acts — among  them  the  tradition  of  his  savage  courtship— the 
expedition  to  England,  so  remarkable  in  its  circumstances  and 
almost  miraculous  in  its  good  fortune,  as  well  as  momentous 
in  its  results,  has  left  in  the  popular  memory  not  a  single  trace. 
Henry  IV.,  the  Revolution,  and  Napoleon  are  of  course  remem- 
bered. But  M.  Sebillot  has  been  imable  to  find  any  episode 
of  the  disastrous  year  of  1870  in  a  well-marked  legendary  form. 
He  has   made  diligent   enquiry  also  (coming   down    to    more 

Reviews.  113 

recent  times  still)  for  any  folklore  connected  with  the  separa- 
tioii  of  Church  and  State  a  year  or  two  ago  and  the  taking 
of  the  fiunoas  inventories — such  as  the  weeping  or  sweating 
of  statues,  apparitions  of  saints,  and  all  the  various  prodigies 
which  ordinarily  accompany  events  in  which  the  clergy  are 
interested;  but  nothing  of  the  sort  could  be  found.  Popular 
imagination  on  the  subject  is  dulled:  more  than  one  influence 
has  doubtless  affected  it 

The  volume  closes  with  a  very  full  index  to  the  entire  work. 
I  have  not  found  everything  that  I  have  looked  for  in  it ;  but  I 
ciD  testify  from  personal  experience  to  the  difficulty  of  making 
an  efficient  index  to  a  book  of  folklore.  Though  not  flawless, 
bovever,  it  will  be  of  great  value  to  any  one  who  desires  to 
ooosiih  a  book  which  must  be  indispensable  to  the  student 
The  volumes  are  a  monument  of  learning  and  research,  guided 
bf  the  experience  and  judgement  of  one  who  has  himself 
contributed  in  no  small  degree  to  the  goodly  collections  of 
Ficnch  folklore.  Those  collections  will  still  need  to  be  con- 
sulted as  the  authority  for  most  of  the  facts  here  collated.  To 
Li  JMk'lAre  de  Frana  we  must  turn  not  merely  as  to  a  catalogue 
rmtMemmi  but  also  as  containing  M.  S^billot's  ripe  conclusions 
OQ  many  debatable  questions,  arrived  at  after  thirty  years  of 
study  given  to  the  subject  which  owes  so  much  to  him. 

E.  Sidney  Hartland. 

The  Jataka,  or  Stories  of  the  Buddha's  former  Births, 
translated  from  the  Pali  by  various  hands,  under  the  editor- 
ship of  Prof.  E.  B.  Cowell.  Vol.  VI.  Translated  by 
Prof.  Cowell  and  Dr.  VV.  H.  D.  Rouse.  Cambridge: 
the  University  Press,   1907. 

All  students  of  folk-lore  will  congratulate  Dr.  Rouse  and  his 
colleagues  on  the  completion  of  this  undertaking,  the  trans- 
lation of  the  great  Corpus  of  Buddhist  folk-tales,  known  as 
the  Jataka.     The   translation    now   finished   is   to   be  provided 


114  Reviews. 

with  a  final  volume  coDtaining  indexes,  and,  it  may  be  hoped, 
an  analysis  of  the  tales  and  incidents.  Now  that  the  transla- 
tion is  in  the  hands  of  scholars,  it  remains  for  them  to  under- 
take the  serious  task  of  elucidating  the  immense  store  of 
materials  provided  for  them.  In  some  of  the  earlier  volumes 
an  attempt  was  made  to  supply  parallels  to  the  stories  from  the 
classical  folk-lore  of  India  and  from  modem  collections.  This 
it  has  been  found  impossible  to  provide  in  the  later  volumes, 
the  notes  to  which  are  mainly  philological.  The  true  value  of 
the  Jataka  will  be  to  some  extent  obscured  until  it  is  brought 
into  relation  with  the  other  collections  of  tales,  such  as  the 
Panchatantra^  Hitopadesa^  Katha  Kofo^  and  Katha  Sarit  Sagara^ 
with  the  epic,  legal,  and  dramatic  literature  of  India,  and  with 
the  series  of  modem  popular  tales,  of  which  large  numbers 
have  been  collected  and  printed  in  recent  years. 

The  present  volume  is  perhaps  not  quite  so  interesting  as 
some  of  its  predecessors.  It  contains  a  vast  amount  of  rather 
dreary  didactic  verse,  through  which  Dr.  Rouse  has  ploughed 
his  way  with  admirable  patience.  At  the  same  time  there  is 
naturally  much  of  great  value.  Thus,  in  tale  No.  539  we  have 
a  curious  account  of  the  Bodhisatta  being  chosen  as  king  by  a 
magic  car  which  halts  before  him,  and  of  the  Swayamvara  or 
selection  of  a  bridegroom  by  a  series  of  tests.  In  No.  543 
there  is  a  fine  tale  of  the  fascinations  of  a  Naga  seamaiden, 
and  No.  545  gives  a  second  good  Naga  story.  Snakes  through- 
out play  an  important  part,  as  in  No.  540,  where  water  drops 
from  the  bodies  of  the  Kinnaras  on  a  serpent,  which  in  its 
wrath  puffs  out  its  breath  and  strikes  them  with  blindness.  In 
No.  546  the  Bodhisatta  treads  on  the  shadow  of  a  hawk  and 
causes  it  to  drop  a  piece  of  meat ;  and  in  the  same  story  there 
is  a  series  of  curious  tests  to  try  the  devotion  of  a  bride.  In 
the  same  tale  we  have  instances  of  gifted  speaking  birds;  a 
curious  account  of  an  underground  tunnel  excavated  to  give 
access  to  a  beleaguered  city,  and  of  the  Battle  of  the  Law,  in 
which,  when  two  kings  meet,  he  that  is  induced  to  salute  the 
other  is  hailed  the  victor. 

The  book,  in  its  completed  form,  is  the  most  important 
recent  contribution  to  the  study  of  Indian  religion  and  folk 

Reviews.  115 

lore,  and  when  its  treasures  are  duly  arranged  and  analysed  it 
win  be  indispensable  to  all  investigators  of  comparative  popular 

W.  Crooke. 

Ceadlb    Tales    of    Hinduism,    by    the    Sister    Nevedita 

(Margaret  £.  Noble).  London:  Longmans,  1907. 
This  is  a  pleasant  version  of  a  selection  of  tales  from  the 
older  Hindu  literature,  distributed  into  eight  cycles — Snake 
Tales ;  the  Story  of  Siva ;  Indian  Wifehood,  including  the  stories 
of  Sayitri  and  of  Nala  and  Damayanti;  Episodes  from  the 
Ramayana;  Krishna;  the  Devotees;  Tales  of  Great  Kings; 
and,  lastly,  a  cycle  from  the  Mahabharata.  For  those  who  are 
gnacgnainted  with  the  original  authorities  they  furnish  a  useful 
intiodaction  to  the  study  of  Hindu  mythology,  which  may 
tempt  the  reader  to  study  the  vast  body  of  sacred  literature 
now  for  the  most  part  available  in  English  translations.  Un- 
fcrtonately  English  scholars  have  as  yet  done  little  to  classify 
and  popularize  the  Hindu  traditional  religious  literature.  Books 
like  Moor's  Hindu  Pantheon^  and  Coleman's  Hindu  Mythology 
are  now  out  of  date;  and  Professor  Dowson's  Classical  Dic- 
tionary is  in  many  ways  unsatisfactory.  Biihler's  Grundriss  der 
Indo-Arischen  Philologie  und  Altertumskunde,  which  promised  to 
fill  the  gap,  is  making  slow  progress.  It  is  quite  time  that  a 
combination  of  English  scholars  attempted  to  do  for  India 
what  Preller-Robert,  Famell,  and  Miss  Harrison  have  supplied 
for  Greek  mythology.  In  particular,  there  is  a  crying  need  for 
a  book  giving  illustrations  of  Hindu  cult-images,  which  the 
Indian  Archaeological  Survey  could  readily  supply. 

W.  Crooke. 

ii6  Reviews. 

Folk  Tales  from  Tibet,  with  Illustrations  by  a  Tibetan 
Artist  and  some  Verses  from  Tibetan  Love-Songs.  Col- 
lected and  Translated  by  Capt  W.  F.  O'Connor. 
London:   Hurst  and  Blackett,  1906. 

This  is  a  collection  of  twenty-two  tales  and  a  few  verses,  made 
during  the  British  expedition  to  Tibet  in  1903-4,  by  the  Secretary 
and  Interpreter  of  the  Mission.  Tales  Nos.  XV.,  XVII.,  and 
XX.  have  already  appeared,  but  condensed  and  evidently  in  a 
form  much  less  close  to  the  original,  in  Mr.  Perceval  Landon's 
Lhasa  (Appendix  G).  The  last  of  these  three  tales  is  here 
told  of  a  tortoise  and  monkey,  whereas  Landon  telb  it  of  a 
lizard  and  monkey.  The  latter  version  is  probably  the  com- 
moner, as  several  species  of  lizards  are  known  and  abundant 
in  Tibet  In  the  present  collection  the  tortoise  is  said  to 
attempt  to  climb  a  coco-nut  tree.  In  the  Katilahrwa-Dimnah 
the  tale  is  told  of  a  tortoise  and  an  ape. 

Ten  of  the  stories  are  beast-tales,  and  the  list  of  animals 
referred  to  in  the  collection  as  a  whole  is  interesting.  The 
hare  and  tiger  each  bear  parts  in  six  stories,  the  hare  (the 
woolly  hare  or  Ltpus  aiostolus)  taking  the  lead  as  a  clever 
trickster,  as  might  be  expected  in  a  country  where  it  is  the 
symbol  of  Buddha  and  the  hare-in-the-moon  replaces  our  man- 
in-the-moon.  Other  animals  named  and,  like  the  hare,  native 
to  Tibet,  are  the  fox,  mouse,  goat,  wolf,  sheep,  cat,  duck, 
musk  deer,  kyang,  crow,  dog,  frog,  raven,  sparrow,  and  spider. 
Foreign  animals  named  are,  in  addition  to  the  tiger,  the  elephant 
(of  which,  however,  the  Dalai  Lama  had  a  single  specimen  at 
Lhasa),  lion,  buffalo  doe,  tortoise,  jackal,  baboon,  monkey,  parrot, 
and  peacock.  Knowledge  of  these  is  probably  derived  from 
India,  like  the  Tibetan  Tales  derived  from  Indian  Sources  trans- 
lated from  Schiefner's  German  by  Ralston  in  1882.  It  is  some- 
what surprising  to  find  no  reference  to  the  most  notable  animals 
of  Tibet,  the  yak  and  the  shoo  or  Tibetan  stag.  Of  fabulous 
beasts,  only  the  dragon  and  gryphon  appear.  The  first  tale, 
"How  the  Hare  Got  his  Split  Lip,"  is  a  "Just-So  Story"  of 
tricks  played  by  the  hare,  who  was  so  amused  by  the  mischief 
wrought  "that  he  leaned  back  on  a  handy  stone,  and  laughed 

Reviews.  117 

0  SQcb  an  extent  that  he  actually  split  his  upper  lip.  And  it 
las  remained  split  to  thb  very  day."  Hare-lip  is  common  in 
ribet,  and  many  cases  were  treated  by  the  surgeon  to  the 

The  features  peculiarly  Tibetan  in  the  stories  are  less  numerous 
lian  might  have  been  expected,  especially  as  Capt.  O'Connor 
ippears  to  have  omitted  many  of  the  best-known  stories  as 
laving  been  imported  bodily  from  India  or  China,  and  also 
ttories  unsuitable  for  a  popular  book.  It  is  to  be  hoped,  how- 
sver,  that  the  latter  stories  will  be  made  accessible  to  students, 
IS  he  states  that  they  are  some  of  the  very  best  and  most 
±aractenstic  In  "The  Story  of  the  Homebred  Boy,"  the 
licro  pretends  by  juggling  with  a  pig's  head  to  find  a  lost 
turquoise,  after  the  failure  of  many  famous  sorcerers ;  the  fifteenth 
iay  of  the  sixth  month  is  named  as  very  auspicious ;  a  period  of 
dvee  years,  three  months,  and  three  days  is  given  for  mourning; 
ind  water  is  sprinkled  on  a  green  cloth  and  a  drum  beaten  to 
liecoy  out,  by  pretences  of  spring  rains  and  thunders,  spiders 
vhich  have  taken  up  their  abode  in  a  lad/s  head.  In  ''The 
Story  of  the  Two  Neighbours"  the  envious  neighbour  imitates 
the  action  of  his  kind  neighbour,  and  the  magic  grain  brought 
to  him  by  a  sparrow  sprouts  and  ripens,  not,  as  he  expects, 
into  jewels,  but  into  a  truculent  apparition  with  a  bundle  of 
papers  who  announces  himself  as  a  creditor  in  a  former  exist- 
ence and  seizes  all  the  envious  man's  possessions.  "The  Story 
[>f  the  Foolish  Young  Mussulman"  refers  as  a  Tibetan  custom 
to  the  bridegroom  becoming  a  member  of  the  bride's  family, 
ind  to  the  turning  yellow  of  the  soles  of  the  feet  as  a  sure 
lign  of  imminent  death.  The  same  story  has  also  an  incident 
of  the  Alnaschar  type.^  In  the  story  of  "The  Country  of  the 
Mice"  a  multitude  of  grateful  mice  destroys  the  weapons  and 
provisions,  etc.,  of  an  invading  army,  and  the  Tibetan  custom 
oi  presenting  a  silk  scarf  at  a  ceremonial  visit  is  mentioned. 
Another  story  relates  to  the  "country  of  Room,"  and  Nepal  is 
the  scene  of  "The  Story  of  the  Mouse's  Three  Children,"  in 

*  Foe  other  incidents  in  this  story,  cf.  Stokes,  Indian  Fairy  Tales  (The 
Story  of  a  Foolish  Sachuli,  and  note  thereon) ;  Dracott,  Simla  Villagt  Tales 
Shok  Chilh) ;  and  Knowlcs,  Folk-TaUs  of  Kashmir  (All  for  a  Pansa). 

ii8  Reviews. 

which  hairs  and  feathers  are  used  to  summon  helpful  animal 
relatives,  and  an  elephant  is  destroyed  by  a  mouse  running  up 
its  trunk.  Other  familiar  folktale  incidents  in  the  collection 
are  that  of  the  trapped  tiger,  who  proposes  to  eat  his  liberator, 
but  is  decoyed  back  into  his  prison  by  the  chosen  arbiter  in 
order  to  show  the  original  position  of  affairs ;  ^  and  that  of  the 
youth  unable  to  ride,  who  is  tied  upon  a  horse,  and  terrifies  the 
enemy  into  surrender  by  being  carried  amongst  them  brandishing 
a  rotten  branch  at  which  he  has  clutched  to  check  his  horse.' 
In  "The  Jackals  and  the  Tiger,"  the  tiger,  who  has  been 
frightened  from  his  own  den  by  hearing  the  father  jackal 
promise  his  children  hot  tiger's  meat,  is  brought  back  by  a 
baboon,  .who  twists  his  tail  round  the  tiger's  to  give  him  a 
feeling  of  support.  This  is  curiously  similar  to  "Why  Old 
Baboon  has  that  Kink  in  his  Tail"  in  Vaughan's  Old  HendrWs 
Tales  (1904).  In  the  Hottentot  story  the  jackal  frightens  into 
panic  flight  the  wolf,  who  comes  with  his  tail  tied  to  that  of 
Old  Baboon,  by  promising  wolf  meat  to  his  squalling  child, 
and  in  both  stories  the  jackal  greets  the  baboon  as  a  friend 
bringing  meat.*  In  "  The  Story  of  the  Boy  with  the  Deformed 
Head"  the  hero  snares  a  white  fairy  drake,  who  is  released 
on  promising  his  middle  daughter  as  the  boy's  bride.  After 
nine  years  the  fairy  wife  returns  to  her  father's  heaven,  but  is 
followed  and  brought  home,  to  become  a  mortal  thereafter.  In 
^*The  Prince  and  the  Ogre's  Castle,"  after  the  failure  of  the 
lamas  to  procure  an  heir  for  the  king,  a  disguised  black  ogre 
furnishes  pills  which  cause  the  birth  of  triplets  to  the  king's 
wife,  horse,  and  dog.  In  fulfilment  of  the  king's  promise,  the 
youngest  prince,  horse,  and  dog  are  sent  to  the  ogre,  and  the 
prince  discovers  in  the  castle  an  enchanted  princess,  who  tells 
him  how  to  find  and  destroy  the  ogre's  life-index  (Tibetan  "  la," 

*  Cf.  Frere,  Old  Deccan  Days  (The  Brahman,  The  Tiger,  and  the  Six 
Judges) ;  Robinson,  Tales  and  Poems  of  South  India  (A  Narrow  Escape), 
p.  372  ;  and  Steel  and  Temple,  Wideawake  Stories  (The  Tiger,  the  Brahman, 
and  the  Jackal,  and  note  thereon). 

^Cf.  Frere,  op,  cit,  (The  Valiant  Chattee-Maker) ;  Dracott,  op,  cit,  (The 
Weaver) ;  and  Kingscote  and  Sdstri,  Tales  of  the  Sun  (The  Story  of  Appayya). 

'  Cf.  also  Steel  and  Temple,  op,  cit,  (The  Close  Alliance). 

Reviews.  119 

wUch  Capt  O'Connor  translates  << mascot'').  The  life-index  is 
m  bqjr  bearing  a  goblet  of  liquid,  each  drop  of  which  is  a  man's 
life.  In  another  story  an  ogre  has  a  green  parrot  as  his  life- 
index,  and  is  destroyed  by  a  boy  who  chases  an  enchanted 
white  doe,  and  is  a  reincarnation  of  a  very  holy  lama ;  the  boy 
changes  himself,  in  the  course  of  the  story,  into  a  talking 

The  illustrations  are  very  quaint,  and  throw  much  light  on 
the  stories ;  in  several  cases  they  show  the  existence  of  variants 
of  the  tales  in  the  text  The  folklore  student  will  find  in  the 
plots  and  incidents  of  these  stories  many  interesting  parallels 
to  those  of  better-known  countries,  and  will  get  fresh  light  on 
Tibetan  character  from  their  conspicuous  humour  and  the  satire 
00  officials  and  priests.  He  will  both  thank  the  author  for 
this  valuable  collection  and  hope  for  the  early  appearance  of 
Jt  second  volume  containing  the  other  stories,  which,  it  appears 
from  the  preface,  the  author  has  kept  back  as  requiring  further 
levisicHi  or  elucidation. 

A.  R.  Wright. 

The  Welsh  Fairy  Book.     By  W.  Jenkyn  Thomas.     With  100 
Illustrations  by  \V.  Pogany.     Fisher  Unwin,   1907. 

In  his  preface  Mr.  Jenkyn  Thomas  notes  "that  the  practice  of 
narrating  fairy  stories  has  certainly  almost  died  out  of  Wales," 
and  that  "when  schoolmastering  in  Wales"  he  found  pupils 
"with  few  exceptions,  ignorant  of  the  Fair  Family  and  other 
legends  of  Wales."  To  "deprive  Welsh  school  children  of 
the  defence  put  forward  by  my  quondam  scholars"  (that  no 
Welsh  fairy  book  had  been  compiled)  he  has  therefore  prepared 
this  collection  of  "  Welsh  variants  of  the  universal  folk-tales." 
He  winds  up  by  saying  that  "nothing  has  been  inserted  that 
is  not  genuinely  traditional." 

These  statements  involve  questions  of  interest  for  storyologists 
generally,  and  in  particular  for  students   of  British   storyology, 

1 20  Reviews. 

which  justify  some  consideration  being  given  to  a  book  which 
otherwise  does  not  deserve  it  Mr.  Jenkyn  Thomas'  preface  is 
sufficient  to  show  that  he  has  no  idea  of  the  true  nature  of  the 
task  he  has  essayed,  no  competence  for  performing  it  satisfactorily. 

Fairy  stories  fall  into  two  groups:  little  romances  of  which 
fairies  are,  more  or  less,  the  dramatis  personam — &iry-tales  in 
English,  Mdrchen  in  German  terminology ;  and  anecdotes  about 
fairies,  which  are  to  some  extent  regarded  as  true,  and  which 
belong  to  the  class  of  narrative  styled  Sage  by  the  German. 
Now  it  is  true  that  whereas  Mdrchen  have  been  collected  in 
modem  times  from  every  European  district,  and  in  unexampled 
wealth  from  the  Gaelic-speaking  districts  of  Ireland  and  Scotland, 
practically  none  have  been  collected  from  Celtic-speaking  Wales, 
and  such  as  have  been  gathered  within  the  Welsh  geographical 
area,  e,g,  those  by  F.  H.  Groome  from  John  Roberts,  in  so  far 
as  they  have  any  special  Celtic  impress  at  all,  show  no  kinship 
with  the  specific  Gaelic  (whether  Irish  or  Scotch)  form  of  the 
common  European  Mdrchen,  Mr.  Jenkyn  Thomas'  collection 
will  not,  however,  remedy  this  deficiency,  as  it  does  not  contain 
one  single  genuine  Mdrchen^  and  when  the  compiler  flatters 
himself  that  his  collection  may  be  regarded  as  a  Welsh  Grimm 
or  Campbell,  it  is  only  because  he  entirely  ignores  the  facts 
I  have  just  stated. 

If  we  enquire  whether  Wales  has  always  been  in  the  same 
Mdrchen-ltss  condition  as,  apparently  she  is  to-day,  we  find  the 
very  reverse  to  be  the  case.  In  the  Teutonic  and  Romance- 
speaking  areas  of  Europe  we  can  postulate  the  existence  in 
mediaeval  times  of  Mdrchen,  allie  to  those  now  current,  by 
the  appearance  in  mediaeval  romantic  literature  of  Mdrchen 
themes  and  incidents,  nay,  of  sequences  of  incident  which  to 
all  intents  and  purposes  are  genuine  Mdrchen.  It  is  the  same 
in  Wales.  In  Welsh  literature,  whether  vernacular  or  in  Latin, 
of  the  eleventh  to  thirteenth  centuries,  we  have  a  Mdrchen  store- 
house which  is  only  second  in  richness  to  that  of  mediaeval 
Ireland,  and  which,  in  picturesqueness  of  matter  and  form,  is 
second  to  none  in  any  literature.  In  the  MaHnogion  and 
kindred  vernacular  stories,  in  the  Latin  Arthurian  literature,  in 
the  Christian  hagiological  form  (extant  in  Latin  chiefly)  which 

Reviews.  121 

many  older  stories  assumed  in  Wales  as  they  did  elsewhere, 
there  is  matter  and  to  spare  for  a  skilful  compiler  to  put 
together  a  collection  noteworthy  alike  for  its  beauty  and  interest 
The  adaptations  from  the  MabinogUm  to  be  found  in  Mr.  Jacob's 
C€Uu  and  More  Celtic  Fairy  Tales  (ignored  by  Mr.  Jenkyn 
Thomas  as  he  ignores  other  books  to  which  he  might  have 
referred  his  pupils)  show  that  the  length  of  the  originals  is  no 
insurmountable  obstacle.  Mn  Jenkyn  Thomas'  competence  is 
sufficiently  exhibited  by  the  fact  that  absolutely  nothing  has  been 
taken  from  the  Mabinogion  save  one  incident  in  Kulkwch  and 
Olwen^  detached  from  its  context  and  spoilt  in  the  retelling.  The 
LAtin  Arthurian  literature  is  equally  neglected;  those  "Welsh 
variants  of  universal  folk-tales  "  which  Geoffrey  has  preserved,  in 
howsoever  deplorable  a  form,  are  ignored,  as  is  also  Professor 
Kittredge's  find  of  Arthur  and  Gorlagan^  a  genuine  Marchen. 
Welsh  hagiology  has  been  drawn  upon  to  somewhat,  but  still 
very  little  better  purpose. 

Of  what,  then,  does  the  book  consist  ?  For  the  most  part  of 
poor,  fragmentary,  and  ill-told  versions  of  stories  about  fairies : 
the  changeling;  the  midwife's  visit  to  fairyland;  the  partaker 
in  £airy  revels;  the  magic  flight  of  time  in  fairyland;  the  fairy 
wife  and  the  taboos  to  which  she  is  subject.  In  scarcely  a 
single  case  is  the  form  drawn  from  direct  popular  narration; 
it  has  frequently  filtered  through  the  minds  of  Welsh  antiquaries 
of  the  lolo  Aforgamvg  type,  who  wrote  the  debased  form  of 
Johnsonese  which  was  accounted  "elegant  English"  a  hundred 
years  ago,  or  by  writers  in  the  vernacular  such  as  Isaac  Hughes, 
who,  whilst  undoubtedly  having  recourse  to  oral  tradition,  used 
the  themes  they  drew  thence  with  as  much  freedom  as  Hans 
Christian  Andersen,  but  without  a  tithe  of  his  instinctive  feeling 
for  the  tnie  nature  of  folk-narration. 

Finally,  by  way  of  comment  upon  Mr.  Jenkins'  assertion  that 
nothing  has  been  inserted  that  is  not  "genuinely  traditionary," 
it  should  be  noted  that  the  **  Drowning  of  the  Bottom  Hundred  " 
is  abridged  verbally,  ("stripped  of  its  irony!")  from  The  Mis- 
fortunes of  Elphtn.  Now  Peacock's  tale  is  one  of  the  two 
roo^t  delightful  of  its  kind  in  the  language,  the  other  being 
Maid  Marian,     But  what   would   be   thought  of  the  editor  of 

122  Reviews. 

an  English  folk-tale  collection  who  should  "  strip  "  Maid  Marian 
**of  its  irony,"  and  present  it  as  a  "traditional"  form  of  the 
Robin  Hood  cycle? 

Thus,  if  it  were  possible  to  revive  the  MarcAen-teMing  habit  in 
Wales  by  means  of  the  printed  page,  Mr.  Jenkyn  Thomas'  book 
would  be  the  last  one  to  be  recommended  for  the  purpose  by 
any  one  possessing  real  knowledge  of  and  real  love  for  popular 
story  telling.  One  can  only  wonder  afresh  why  Mdrchetty  and 
not  only  Mdrchefiy  but  nearly  all  forms  of  folk-narration  should 
have  suffered  as  they  have  done  in  Wales.  Loss  of  the  ver- 
nacular, weakening  of  racial  sentiment,  substitution  of  industrial 
for  rural  culture — these  causes,  which  elsewhere  have  been  held 
responsible  for  the  disappearance  of  the  old  folk-culture  on  its 
romantic  side,  have  not  been  operative  in  Wales,  and  yet  that 
culture  has  vanished  as  completely  as  in  the  most  industrialised 
districts  of  England.  What  is  the  explanation?  I  can  only 
suggest,  tentatively  and  with  great  diffidence,  that  the  Eisteddfod 
and  Sunday  School  are  the  culprits.  Both  of  those  institutions 
have  succeeded,  to  a  greater  extent  probably  than  in  any 
European  community,  in  diffusing  among  the  Welsh  masses  a 
very  real  intellectual  and  artistic  culture,  such  as  in  most  other 
communities  could  only  be  parallelled  among  the  "classes,"  but 
it  is  a  culture  not  derived  from,  and  standing  in  no  organic 
connection  with,  the  old  traditional  folk-culture  which  it  has 
ousted  and  practically  killed. 

There  is  one  protest  in  connection  with  Mr.  Jenkins'  book 
which  should  be  made,  and  which  I,  as  an  Englishman  who 
loves  Celtic  romantic  tradition  and  has  spent  the  best  part  of 
his  life  in  striving  to  make  it  familiar  to  his  countrymen,  am 
entitled  to  make.  Mr.  Jenkins  has  received  warm  commendation 
not  only  in  the  London  press,  the  reviewing  in  which  is  so 
often  incredibly  ill-informed  and  fatuous,  but  in  the  neo-Celtophilic 
press.  The  London  hack  who  thinks  it  modish  to  gabble  about 
"  Celtic  glamour  "  has  at  least  the  excuse  of  ignorance,  but  what 
shall  be  said  of  Welshmen  and  Irishmen  who  repeat  this 
nonsense?  of  the  writer  in  Ceitia,  for  instance,  who  (Dec.  1907, 
p.  Ill)  declares  that  this  book  contains  "many  stories  from  the 
Mabinogioftf*  when  it  does  not  contain  one,  and  that  Mr.  Jenkyn 

Reviews.  113 

recent  times  still)  for  any  folklore  connected  with  the  separa- 
tioD  of  Charch  and  State  a  year  or  two  ago  and  the  taking 
of  the  fiunoos  inventories — such  as  the  weeping  or  sweating 
of  statues,  apparitions  of  saints,  and  all  the  various  prodigies 
which  ordinarily  accompany  events  in  which  the  clergy  are 
interested;  but  nothing  of  the  sort  could  be  found.  Popular 
imagination  on  the  subject  is  dulled:  more  than  one  influence 
has  doubtless  affected  it 

The  volume  closes  with  a  very  full  index  to  the  entire  work. 
I  have  not  found  everything  that  I  have  looked  for  in  it ;  but  I 
can  testify  from  personal  experience  to  the  difficulty  of  making 
an  efficient  index  to  a  book  of  folklore.  Though  not  flawless, 
however,  it  will  be  of  great  value  to  any  one  who  desires  to 
ooosnlt  a  book  which  must  be  indispensable  to  the  student 
The  volumes  are  a  monument  of  learning  and  research,  guided 
by  the  experience  and  judgement  of  one  who  has  himself 
cootributed  in  no  small  degree  to  the  goodly  collections  of 
French  folklore.  Those  collections  will  still  need  to  be  con- 
sulted as  the  authority  for  most  of  the  facts  here  collated.  To 
Li  F^lk'Ijore  de  France  we  must  turn  not  merely  as  to  a  catalogue 
rnsemmi  but  also  as  containing  M.  S^billot's  ripe  conclusions 
00  many  debatable  questions,  arrived  at  after  thirty  years  of 
study  given  to  the  subject  which  owes  so  much  to  him. 

E.  Sidney  Hartland. 

The  Jataka,  or  Stories  of  the  Buddha's  former  Births, 
translated  from  the  Pali  by  various  hands,  under  the  editor- 
ship of  Prof.  E.  B.  Cowell.  Vol.  VI.  Translated  by 
Prof.  Cowell  and  Dr.  VV.  H.  D.  Rouse.  Cambridge: 
the  University  Press,   1907. 

All  students  of  folk-lore  will  congratulate  Dr.  Rouse  and  his 
colleagues  on  the  completion  of  this  undertaking,  the  trans- 
lation of  the  great  Corpbs  of  Buddhist  folk-tales,  known  as 
the  Jataka,     The   translation    now   finished   is   to   be  provided 


124  Reviews. 

Popular  Handbooks  of  Religions. 

I.  J.  Abrahams,  "Judaism";  2.  E.  Anwyl,  "Celtic  Religion 
IN  Pre-Christian  Times";  3.  C  Bailey,  "Religion  of 
Ancient  Rome";  4.  L.  D.  Barnett,  "Hinduism";  5. 
W.  A.  Craigie,  "Religion  of  Ancient  Scandinavia"; 

6.  W.  M.  F.  Petrie,  "Religion   of  Ancient   Egypt"; 

7.  T.  G.  Pinches,  "  Religion  of  Babylonia  and  Assyria"  ; 

8.  C.   Squire,    "Mythology  of  Ancient   Britain   and 
Ireland."    London :  Constable  &  Co.,  1906-7. 

It  is  a  welcome  indication  of  the  growing  interest  in  the  study 
of  comparative  religion  that  demand  has  arisen  for  this  excellent 
cheap  series  of  popular  manuals.  The  names  of  the  writers 
furnish  a  guarantee  that  the  information  is  supplied  in  a 
scholarly  form,  and  that  the  manuals  embody  the  results  of 
the  most  recent  investigations.  The  volumes  naturally  vary  in 
interest  and  value.  Where  the  writer  has  to  deal  with  a  well- 
defined  collection  of  beliefs,  like  those  of  Judaism  and  Islam, 
each  of  which  refers  for  its  authority  to  a  sacred  Canon  which 
has  now  been  finally  closed,  the  task  is  naturally  easier  than 
in  the  case  of  an  amorphous  creed  like  that  of  Hinduism. 
Limitations  of  space  have  in  many  of  these  volumes  prevented 
the  exposition  from  being  little  more  than  a  bald  summary,  and 
no  room  has  been  left  for  a  treatment  of  the  subject  on  philo- 
sophical lines.  Literary  form,  again,  except  in  the  case  of  Mr. 
Anwyl's  account  of  Celtic  Religion,  and  Mr.  Bailey's  essay  on 
that  of  Ancient  Rome,  has  become  of  secondary  importance. 
In  some  cases  the  method  of  treatment  is  hardly  satisfactory. 
In  the  case  of  Hinduism,  for  instance.  Dr.  Barnett  has,  it  is 
true,  given  a  good  summary,  so  far  as  it  goes,  of  its  leading 
phases;  but  it  seems  open  to  question  whether  a  different 
method  would  not  have  been  more  effective.  The  explorer  has 
to  force  his  way  through  a  jungle  of  sectarian  gods  and  their 
myriad  cults,  while  it  would  have  been  more  useful  to  the 
student  new  to  the  subject,  to  explain  with  more  clearness 
that  the  development  of  the  faith  took  the  form  of  an  evolution 
within  the  boundaries  of  the  faith  itself,  from  Vedism  to  Brah- 
manism,  and  thence  to  worship  of  the  sectarian  gods ;  to  exhibit 

Reviews.  125 

I  g;refttcr  detail  the  effect  of  caste  on  religion,  the  growth  of 
le  principle  of  metempsychosis  and  pantheistic  beliefs;  to 
take  it  more  evident  that  Buddhism  and  Jainism  were  not 
dent  reforms  enfcmred  by  agencies  foreign  to  Hinduism;  to 
cpUin  why  these  movements  arose  in  western  Bengal,  and  why 
le  impulse  which  led  to  the  reformed  neo-Brahroanism  came 
oiD  southern  India.  But  this  is  only  to  say  that  such  a  line 
r  treatment  was  not  the  immediate  object  of  the  writer,  and 
as  impossible  under  the  general  scheme  of  the  series,  and 
ithin  the  narrow  limits  assigned  to  him.  In  some  cases  the 
ibUographies  might  have  been  with  advantage  extended,  and 
sly  one  volume,  that  on  Egypt,  is  provided  with  an  index. 
to  the  whole  thb  series  of  popular  manuals  will  serve  a  useful 
nrpose,  if  they  do  not  encourage  in  the  general  reader  the 
elief  that  each  contains  all  that  is  worth  knowing  on  the  vast 
ibject  with  which  it  deals,  and  if  the  study  of  them  leads  him 
^  investigate  the  original  literature  to  which  they  supply  an 
Icquate  introdaction. 

W.  Crooke. 

Short  Bibliographical  Notices. 

^olkskundliche  Zeitschriftenschau  fur  1904,  herausgegeben  im 
Auttrage  der  hessischen  Vereinigung  fQr  Volkskunde  von 
L.  Dietrich.     Leipzig :   Teubner,  1907.     Pp.  328. 

'his  bibliography  maintains  the  promise  of  its  predecessor,  and 
says  much  for  the  Veteinigung  that  the  lamented  death  of 
tof.  Strack  has  simply  delayed  the  appearance  of  a  single 
Dnual  issue.  The  contents  are  classitied  into  fifteen  sections, 
lus  one  of  addenda,  according  to  the  character  of  the  periodical 
nalysed.  Then  follow  indexes  of  periodicals,  books,  and  sub- 
lets. The  volume  is  already  large,  and  perhaps  an  index  of 
LJthors  is  impossible,  but  one  is  certainly  desirable. 
The  campu  rendu  of  each  article  follows  the  title,  and  this 
rrangement  makes  it  impossible  either  to  glance  through  the 
tter  or  to  arrange  the  former  under  subject  headings.     It  is  a 

126  Reviews. 

matter  for  consideration  whether  it  would  not  be  a  more  con- 
venient plan  to  give  a  list  of  titles  (with  references)  and  add 
the  "  Referate,"  after  the  manner  of  the  Boianisches  Jahrbuch^ 
under  a  separate  heading;  this  would  permit  of  a  classification 
of  the  latter  without  compelling  any  alteration  in  the  present 
classification  by  periodicals,  reference  from  title  to  "Referat'^ 
being  made  by  means  of  numbers. 

N.  W.  Thomas. 

Transactions  of  the  First  Annual  Congress  of  the  European  Theo- 
sophical  Society^  held  at  Amsterdam^  1904.  Edited  by 
JOHAN  VAN  Mauen.  Amsterdam,  1906.  Second  Congress^ 
London^  1905-  London,  1907.  Third  Congress^  Paris^ 
1906.     London,  1907. 

Unless  attention  is  specially  called  to  these  volumes,  they  may 
escape  the  notice  of  folklorists;  but  they,  especially  the  later 
ones,  deal  with  many  subjects  pertinent  to  Folklore  study,  and 
contain  papers  which  should  by  no  means  be  overlooked. 
Department  B.  includes  the  subjects  of  Religion,  Mysticism, 
Myths  and  Legends,  and  Folklore ;  while  several  papers  in  the 
sections  of  Philosophy,  Science  and  Art,  bear  upon  various 
points  more  or  less  connected  with  folklore.  The  following  su% 
some  of  the  most  interesting  and  important  papers  from  this 
point  of  view. 

Trans,  /.,  Amsterdam, 

E.  Weise,  Fraternity  as  found  in  the  Laws  of  Primitive  Races, 
(Marriage-laws,  taboo,  totemism,  etc.) 

D.  v.  Hinlasper,  Labbertav  Kitab  Tasaref  (A  Dutch  paper, 
relating  to  a  curious  Javanese  philosophical  work.) 

Trans,  11,^  London, 

A.  von  Ulrich,  The  Religion  of  our  Forefathers  ;  The  Mythology 
of  Germany  in  the  Light  of  Theosophy,  (Deals  chiefly  with  the 
Eddas  and  the  Sagas  connected  with  them.) 

Reviews.  127 

Trans,  11/.,  Paris. 

George  M.  Doe,  Same  Folklore  Gleanings^  principally  from 
Ueoomskire.  (An  important  paper,  including  notes  on  Omens 
md  Warnings,  Charms  and  Incantations,  Witchcraft,  and 
Bdie6  and  Customs.) 

A,  von  Ulrich,  The  Religion  of  our  Forefathers  in  the  Slavonic 
Race.  (Some  of  the  remains  of  old  religious  beliefs  to  be 
(Dtuid  among  the  Lithuanians,  Russians,  Bohemians  and  Poles, 
ind  the  Wends  and  Prussians.) 

M.  U.  Green,  Some  Notes  on  the  Voyage  of  Bran^  with 
tpecial    references    to    other    Planes    and    States    of    Being. 

Ed.  Bailly,  Invocation  aux  Dieux  Planitairts. 

W.    F.   KiRBY. 

Jrkmey  and  Shetland  Old  Lore,  vol.  i.,  1907,  and  vol  ii., 
part  i.,  January,  1908:  together  with  Diplomatarium 
Orcadense  et  Hialtlandense.  Collected  and  edited  by 
ALntRD  W.  Johnston,  Amy  Johnston,  and  J6n  Stb- 
fXnsson.  London  :  Printed  at  the  King's  Weigh  House 
for  the  Viking  Club. 

Phis  new  venture  of  the  Viking  Club  promises  to  be  an  excellent 
ocal-histoncal  publication,  of  which  the  second  section — the 
egal  documents — especially  should  prove  useful  to  historians. 
Fhe  only  articles  bearing  on  folklore  in  the  first  volume  are 
m  account  of  the  ancient  system  of  dividing  seaweed  (for  use 
L$  manure)  among  the  farms  in  Orkney  (pp.  33,  34),  the 
inglc-refrain  of  a  spinning-song  (p.  89),  and  an  excellent 
ranslation  of  a  legend  from  the  Fljdtsdaela  Saga  (pp.  72-77, 
>6-io5),  which  relates  the  rescue  by  a  young  Icelandic  hero, 
irmed  with  a  magic  sword,  of  a  maiden — the  Earl  of  Shetland's 
iaughtcr — from  the  cave  of  a  giant  in  the  face  of  a  sea-cliff, 
fhe  giant  had  cut  steps  in  the  rock  to  avoid  wetting  his  feet 
\  correspondent  asks  (p.  120)  whether  giants  usually  objected 
o  wet  feet  Reference  to  County  Folklore,  vol.  iii.  (Orkney 
ind  Shetland),  p.  260,  would  show  him  one  in  Shetland  itself 
rho   provided   himself    with   a   stepping-stone  for   this  reason. 

128  Reviews. 

Grimm  (Z>.  M,y  ed.  1843,  pp.  499  sqq,)  tells  of  a  giant  of  Riigen 
who  tried  to  dam  up  the  Baltic  that  he  might  cross  to  Pomerania 
dry-shod.  The  Roman  road  over  the  moors  in  the  North 
Riding,  known  as  "Wade's  Causeway,"  is  said  to  have  been 
made  by  the  giant  Wade  for  his  wife's  convenience  in  going 
to  milk  her  cow  {County  Folklore^  vol.  il,  Yorkshire,  p.  9). 
Whether  any  similar  tradition  attaches  to  the  Giant's  Causeway 
in  Ireland  is  unknown  to  the  present  writer.  But  we  may  ask 
in  turn,  why  is  it  assumed  that  this  Perseus  story  must  be  a 
Celtic  one?    As  well  say  it  must  be  Phoenician. 

It  is,  we  believe,  intended  to  give  more  attention  to  folklore 
in  the  current  volume.  The  first  number  contains  some  mis- 
cellaneous folklore  jottings  from  the  notebooks  of  the  Secretary, 
Mr.  A.  W.  Johnston  (p.  161),  a  version  of  the  well-known  story 
of  the  seal-wife  (p.  173),  and  a  full  and  first-hand  account  of 
Orkney  Bonfires  by  Mr.  Magnus  Spence,  who  has  himself  taken 
part  in  these  celebrations  (p.  T79).  This  last  includes  details 
worth  noticing. 

We  wish  the  new  venture  of  the  Viking  Club  every  success. 


Books  for  Review  should  he  addressed  to 
The  Editor  of  Folk-Lore^ 

c/o  David  Nutt, 
57-59  Long  Acre,  London. 



Vol.  XDL]  JUNE,  1908.  [No.  a. 

WEDNS8DAT,  FEBBUABT  19th,   1908. 

The  President  (Dr.  Gaster)  in  the  Chair. 

The  minutes  of  the  December  Meeting  were  read  and 

The  election  of  Sir  Lewis  Tupper  and  the  Rev.  T.  Lewis 
as  members  of  the  Society  was  announced. 

The  deaths  of  Mr.  P.  F.  S.  Amery,  Mr.  F.  T.  Elworthy, 
and  Sir  A.  Baldwin,  M.P.,  and  the  resignations  of  the 
Lady  Edith  Campbell  and  Mr.  H.  Ling  Roth  were  also 

Dr.  A.  C.  Haddon  gave  a  lantern  lecture  on  **The 
Morning  Star  Ceremony  of  the  Pownee,"  and  in  the 
discussion  which  followed  Mr.  Calderon,  Mr.  N.  W. 
Thomas,  and  the  Chairman  took  part 

The  meeting  terminated  with  a  vote  of  thanks  to 
Dr.  Haddon  for  his  lecture. 

VOL.    XIX. 

130  Minutes  of  Meetings. 

WEDNESDAY,  MARCH  ISth,  1908. 

The  President  (Dr.  Gaster)  in  the  Chair. 

The  minutes  of  the  last  Meeting  were  read  and 

The  election  of  Mr.  Paul  Kelly  and  Mrs.  T.  L.  W. 
Wilson  as  members  of  the  Society  and  the  admission  of 
the  Mercantile  Library  of  Philadelphia  and  the  Sigma 
Fraternity  of  Willesley,  Mass.,  U.S.A.,  as  subscribers  were 
also  announced. 

The  resignation  of  Mr.  E.  Marston  was  also  announced. 

Mr.  Cecil  J.  Sharp  delivered  a  lecture  on  Folk-Music 
[p.  132],  which  was  illustrated  by  folk-songs,  sung  by 
Miss  Mattie  Kay.  In  the  discussion  which  followed 
Miss  Bume,  Mr.  Gomme,  Mr.  Calderon,  Mr.  Thomas,  and 
the  Chairman  took  part 

The  meeting  terminated  with  votes  of  thanks  to 
Mr.  Sharp  for  his  lecture  and  to  Miss  Mattie  Kay  for 
her  songs. 

WEDNESDAY,   APRIL  15th,   1908. 

Mr.  G.  L.  Gomme  (Vice-President)  in  the  Chair. 

The     Minutes    of  the     last    Meeting    were    read    and 

The  election  of  the  Rev.  M.  Wolsey  as  a  member  of 
the  Society  and  the  enrolment  of  the  Woolwich  Public 
Library,  the  North- Western  University  Library,  Evanston, 
111.,  U.S.A.,  the  Califomian  University  Library,  Berkeley, 
U.S.A.,  and  the  Swarthmore  Public  Library  as  subscribers 
to  the  Society  were  announced. 

Minutes  of  Meetings,  131 

The  deaths  of  Mr.  J.  W.  Crombie,  M.P.,  the  Rev. 
father  Magri,  and  the  Very  Rev.  Timothy  Lee  were  also 

Miss  Isabel  Dickson  read  a  paper  entitled  ''  The  Burry- 
nan,"  and  in  the  discussion  which  followed  Miss  Bume, 
Kr.  Calderon,  Mr.  Dames,  and  the  Chairman  took  part 
\  vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  Miss  Dickson  for  her 

Mr.  W.  L.  Hildburgh  exhibited  a  number  of  Flemish 
md  Portuguese  amulets,  and  read  papers  thereon  [pp. 
KX>,  213].  He  also  exhibited  a  case  of  Italian  amulets, 
irith  which  he  compared  the  Portuguese.  In  the  dis- 
ruaston  which  followed  Mr.  Tabor,  Mr.  Lovett,  Mr.  A.  R. 
iVright,  Miss  Bume,  and  the  Chairman  took  part. 

The  Meeting  terminated  with  a  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr. 
Hildburgh  for  his  exhibition  and  his  paper. 



{Read  at  Meeting,  i8tA  March,  1908.) 

Folk-music  is,  of  course,  merely  one  of  the  numerous 
branches  of  Folk-lore.  It  is,  however,  a  very  large  and 
important  one,  so  important  indeed  that  it  has  been  found 
convenient  to  found  a  special  association — The  Folk-song 
Society — for  its  investigation.  It  would,  however,  be  a 
great  mistake  to  overlook  the  close  connection  between  the 
two  societies,  and  it  would  be  a  thousand  pities  if  they 
were  to  remain  entirely  separate,  each  pursuing  its  own 
work  independently  of  the  other. 

Folk-song  collectors,  from  the  very  nature  of  their  work, 
must  continually  be  stumbling  upon  facts  which,  although 
they  may  have  no  direct  bearing  upon  folk-music,  may  be 
of  the  utmost  value  to  the  folk-lorist  And,  per  contrd,  the 
folk-lorist  in  his  investigations  must  often  make  discoveries 
which  concern  the  folk-song  collector  more  directly  than 
himself.  Obviously,  therefore,  as  the  two  societies  are 
working  on  parallel  lines,  it  is  of  the  utmost  importance 
that  they  should  keep  in  close  touch  with  each  other,  and 
be  ready  to  co-operate  wherever  possible.  I  venture,  there- 
fore, to  express  the  hope  that  the  example  which  you  have 
set  by  inviting  a  member  of  the  Folk-song  Society  to 
address  you  on  the  subject  of  Folk-music  will  be  taken 

S^^ms  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music.   133 

iS  a  precedent  and  will  lead  to  the  frequent  interchange 
4  views  between  the  two  societies. 

The  analysis  of  Folk-music  seems  to  me  to  be  a  peculiarly 
ahiable  branch  of  Folk-lore  work.  For,  apart  from  the 
Dtrinsic  interest  of  the  subject  to  the  musician,  the  results 
hat  are  obtained  must  inevitably  throw  a  flood  of  light 
ipon  the  vexed  question  of  origins,  not  only  of  folk-music 
D  particular,  but  of  all  folk-products  as  well. 

With  r^ard  to  the  origin  of  the  Folk-tune  there  are  two 
listinct  schools  of  thought,  more  or  less  opposed  to  one 

On  the  one  hand,  there  are  many  who  believe  that  the 
blk-tune  has  been  composed  by  the  individual,  just  like 
my  other  tune;  that  there  is  no  distinct  line  of  cleavage 
Ktween  folk-music  and  art-music;  that  anonymity  of 
iiithorship  is  a  mere  accident  and  of  no  scientific  con- 
lequence;  and  that  the  popular  song  is  popular  not  in 
Migin  but  in  destination. 

On  the  other  hand,  there  are  those  who  afhrm  that  folk- 
Dnsic  can  be  sharply  distinguished  from  art-music;  that 
he  former  is  music  sui  generis.  They  contend  that  the 
blk-tune  is  not  the  output  of  the  single  individual,  but 
lie  evolved  product  of  a  community  of  makers ;  that  the 
process  of  evolution  is  continuous,  lasting  as  long  as  the 
ife  of  the  song  itself ;  that  the  anonymity  of  the  folk-song, 
io  far  from  being  a  mere  accident,  is  the  necessary  con- 
lequence  of  the  peculiar  method  of  its  creation  ;  and  that, 
inally,  it  is  a  popular  song  in  its  origin,  that  is  to  say, 
t  has  proceeded  from  the  common  people  themselves, 
md  has  not  simply  been  addressed  to  them  from  the 

Neither  side  can  produce  any  direct  evidence  in  support 
>f  their  contention,  simply  because  no  one  has  ever  wit- 
lessed  the  actual  creation  of  a  folk-song,  and  now,  of 
rourse,  no  one  ever  will.  All  arguments  must  therefore  be 
inferential,  must  be  based  upon  collateral  evidence  obtained 

134   Some  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

by  the  observation  of  the  folk-song  collector  when  in  close 
contact  with  the  folk-singers^  or  upon  the  analysis  of  the 
folk-tunes  themselves. 

If,  for  example,  the  musical  analyst  can  show  that  folk- 
music  possesses  technical  musical  peculiarities  which  are  not 
to  be  found  in  art-music,  then  surely  he  raises  a  powerful 
presumption  in  favour  of  the  communal  origin  of  the 
folk-song,  i^.  the  second  of  the  two  theories  just  now 

I  hope  to  be  able  to  convince  you  this  evening  that  this 
is  so,  by  calling  your  attention  to  certain  characteristics  of 
folk-music  which  I  believe  are  peculiar  to  the  musical 
creations  of  the  folk,  and  are  absent  from  the  composed 
music  of  the  skilled  and  educated  musician.  I  can,  of 
course,  in  a  single  evening  place  before  you  only  a  few  of 
the  salient  and  most  clearly  defined  characteristics  of  folk- 

The  first  and  most  important  point  about  English  folk- 
music  is  that  a  great  deal  of  it  is  cast  in  the  modes,  ix.  in 
scales  which  have  been  obsolete,  so  far  as  art-music  is  con- 
cerned, for  fully  three  centuries.  Anterior  to  the  year  i6cx>, 
skilled  musicians  were  not,  strictly  speaking,  tune-makers 
at  all ;  they  were,  for  the  most  part,  engaged  in  learning 
how  to  manipulate  themes,  not  in  originating  them.  In 
their  eves  the  tunc  was  simply  the  g^roundwork  upon  which 

Sawu  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music.    135 

soostrnction  of  melody.  This  will  necessitate  a  preliminary 
flivestigation  into  the  technical  nature  of  tunes. 

All   the  seven  natural  notes  are   represented   in   the 
Following  air: — 

Example  I. 


^^     Mt^9r, 

j"j  ir-  err  ic  i:\^ 


The  same  seven  natural  notes  occur  in  this  tune  also : — 
Example  II. 











With  very  few  exceptions  all  English  folk-tunes  are  alike 
n  this  respect;  />.,  so  far  as  their  note-material  is  concerned 
hey  are  identical.  The  natural  notes,  i>.  the  white  notes 
>f  the  pianoforte,  form  what  is  called  the  diatonic  scaU^ 
vhich  may  be  defined  as  a  scries  of  notes  arranged  in 
iltemate  groups  of  two  and  three  tones  respectively,  each 

136   Some  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

group  being  separated  from  its  neighbours  by  the  interval 
of  a  semi-tone. 

English  folk-airs  are  therefore,  as  a  general  rule,  diatonic 
tunes.  This,  however,  is  a  very  wide  classification.  If  we 
are  to  subdivide  any  further  we  must  discover  another 
principle  in  tune-construction. 

The  seven  notes  of  a  tune  are  not  all  equal  in  value 
and  importance.  There  is  always  one  note  which  exercises 
a  dominating  and  controlling  influence  over  the  remaining 
six ;  i.e.,  every  tune  has  a  centre  of  gravity  \  or,  to  put  it 
in  another  way,  the  seven  notes  of  a  tune  may  be  likened 
to  a  solar  system,  six  of  them — planets — revolving  round 
and  owning  allegiance  to  the  seventh — the  sun. 

In  The  Seeds  of  Love,  the  central  sun  is  clearly  C\ 
in  The  Princess  Royal  it  is  as  clearly  A, 

This  note  is  called  the  Key  note  or  Tonic^  and  is  usually 
the  final  note. 

It  is  this  principle  which,  more  than  anything  else 
perhaps,  gives  unity  to  a  tune  and  makes  it  intelligible. 
That  the  primitive  musician  has  always  felt  the  need  of 
a  constant  reference  to  the  predominant  tonic-note  is 
shown  by  the  large  number  of  folk-airs  which  may  be 
classed  as  drone-tunes,  i.e,  tunes  that  either  are  or  might 
be  accompanied  throughout  by  a  single  sound.  The 
drone-note  is,  of  course,  actually  sounded  in  bag-pipe 
airs,  and  more  than  suggested  in  tom-tom  and  pipe-and- 
tabor  tunes ;  whilst  in  many  folk-song  airs  the  reference 
to  the  tonic,  though  only  implied,  is  very  strong.  In  the 
following  tunes — Green  Bushes,  an  English  folk-song,  and 
The  Sherborne  Jig,  a  pipe-and-tabor  dance-air — the  note 
G  may  be  sounded  throughout  without  producing  any 
unpleasant  sound-combinations. 

S^m    Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music.    137 

Example  III. 


jiljIJ  JJlj  JJIrc^JJlJJ.^IJJ 





jj  J  /3|j  PJ^rj  J  ^ir  [J 

Example  IV. 



f^  iTj  I  ^  Jg^f '7j  '7^  I  ^ 



Diatonic  tunes  may  thus  be  divided  into  seven  groups 
5r  species,  viz.,  those  which  have  respectively  A,  B,  C, 
D,  E,  F,  or  G,  for  their  tonics.  These  groups  are  called 

Obviously  they  differ  very  materially  from  one  another. 
For  the  relationships  between  the  six  notes  of  a  tune  and 
its  tonic  will  vary  with  every  change  of  tonic  Thus  each 
mode  represents  a  different  species  of  solar  system,  in 
wrhich  the  distances  between  the  six  planets  and  their  sun 

138   Sotne  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

are  distinctive  and  peculiar.  Imagine,  for  instance,  that  in 
our  own  solar  system  Jupiter  were  to  become  the  Sun, 
and  our  present  Sun  were  to  become  Jupiter,  each  retaining 
its  present  position  in  space.  Then  at  once  every  planet, 
including  our  own  world,  would  be  governed  by  a  new 
power  and  begin  to  describe  a  different  orbit  This  is 
precisely  what  happens  when  a  change  of  tonic  is  made 
in  the  diatonic  scale,  when  for  instance  A  is  substituted 
for  C.  In  this  way  each  mode  possesses  its  own 
peculiar  character ;  and  this  character  is  reflected  in  every 
tune  which  is  cast  in  that  mode.  Every  melody,  there- 
fore, whatever  its  melodic  curve  may  be,  is  tinged  with 
a  certain  characteristic  colour,  which  it  derives  solely 
from  the  mode  in  which  it  is  cast ;  {e.g.,  Major  and  Minor 

The  three  following  examples  will  serve  to  illustrate 
this  point.  Although  they  are  differently  named,  and  in 
musical  detail  they  vary  very  considerably,  they  are,  I 
believe,  but  variants  of  one  and  the  same  musical  idea. 
Their  differences  are  due  mainly  to  the  fact  that  they  are 
cast  in  three  different  modes,  viz.,  Major,  Mixolydian  and 

Example  V. 

Sam4  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music.    139 

Example  VL 



j*tJ  J^jp-J-ffirr'j  I J  J^f-i4J^ 

^'' "  J  ^  ^  JTMj  ■  .oiJ  ^  ^j:a^ 

Example  VII. 







All  diatonic  tunes  may  therefore  be  classified  according 
to  their  modes. 

One  of  these  seven  modes  is  identical  with  the  modem 

140  Some  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music, 

major  mode,  viz.,  that  which  has  C  for  its  tonic  Another 
of  the  seven,  viz.,  the  B-mode,  is  useless  for  tune-making, 
because  of  the  imperfect  character  of  the  interval  between 
the  tonic  and  its  fifth  note.  The  remaining  five  are 
customarily  called  the  modes.  By  a  modal  air  then  is 
ordinarily  meant  an  air  which  is  constructed  in  one  or 
other  of  the  five  modes  which  have  respectively,  D,  E,  F,  G, 
or  A,  for  their  tonics.  (The  Minor  mode  is  not,  strictly 
speaking,  a  diatonic  mode  at  all.) 

The  modes  may  be  called  the  natural  scales.  The 
intuitive  and  instinctive  music — i.e,  the  folk-music — of  many 
nations,  in  Asia  as  well  as  in  Europe,  is  like  our  own  in 
being  diatonic  and  modal.  This  wide  distribution  of  the 
diatonic  modes  indicates  their  independent  invention  by 
the  folk  of  many  different  and  widely  separated  nations. 
It  is  true  they  are  commonly  called  the  Greek  modes.  But 
this  is  merely  because  the  Greeks  were  the  first  to  analyse 
them  and  to  distinguish  them  by  giving  to  them  the 
Greek  tribal  names  which  we  still  use:  viz,^  D — Dorian, 
E — Phrygian,  F — Lydian,  G — Mixolydian,  A — Aeolian. 

I  do  not  intend  to  analyse  the  peculiarities  of  these 
modes  at  great  length.  I  would,  however,  point  out  that 
of  the  intervals  between  the  six  notes  of  each  mode  and 
its  tonic,  two  are  the  same  in  every  mode,  viz.,  the  4th 
and  5  th,  which  are  always  perfect 

Som    Ckaractenstics  of  English  Folk-Music.    141 

have,  of  course,  held  sway  down  to  the  present  time. 
The  change  came  about  owing  to  the  technical  difficulty 
which  musicians  in  the  early  days  of  their  art  found  in 
barmonislng  modal  airs.  The  change  was  inevitable,  and 
ffcwlted  in  immense  gain  to  music ;  though  it  was  not  all 

But  this  revolution  did  not  affect  the  folk.  They  con- 
tinued to  make  their  own  music  in  their  own  way  inde- 
pendently of  the  art-musicians,  just  as  they  have  preserved 
dietr  own  forms  of  folk-speech  and  dialects  in  the  face  of 
the  literary  exploits  of  cultivated  people. 

It  is  obviously  a  great  error  to  imagine  that  the  folk 
borrowed  their  modes  from  either  the  secular  or  ecclesi- 
astical musicians.  The  Church  inherited  the  modes,  or 
at  any  rate  their  modal  theories,  from  the  Greeks,  who, 
wc  must  presume,  themselves  derived  them  from  the  folk. 
What  little  traffic  there  has  been  between  the  folk-  and 
the  art-musician  has  been  mainly  on  the  side  of  the 
latter.  That  is,  the  folk-musician  has  been  the  ^rporter 
rather  than  the  importer. 

Nor,  of  course,  is  the  modal  character  of  folk-music 
any  evidence  of  its  date.  The  mode  was  ever  the  natural 
musical  idiom  of  the  folk,  and  is  so  still.  It  has  never 
been  superseded.  Many  folk-singers  of  the  present  day 
show  a  marked  preference  for  the  modes  over  the  major 
or  minor  scales,  and  I  have  heard  them  transpose  modem 
major  and  minor  tunes  into  their  favourite  modes.  To 
say,  therefore,  that  a  modal  folk-tune  must  of  necessity 
be  of  an  earlier  date  than  1600  is  wholly  to  mistake  the 
relationship  between  folk-  and  art-music. 

The  modes  most  in  favour  with  English  folk-singers 
are  the  Dorian,  Mixolydian  and  Aeolian.  Phrygian  is 
very  rarely  met  with.     Lydian  still  more  rarely. 

Modis  then  are  the  first  and  most  distinctive  feature 
of  folk-  as  compared  with  art-music.  The  characteristic 
which  is  second  in  importance  is  the  irregular  time  and 

142   Same  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

rhythm  of  folk-music.  Folk-music,  it  must  be  remembered, 
is  natural  music  In  its  making  it  is  not  controlled  by 
the  conscious  application  of  conventional  rules  and  restric- 
tions. The  folk-musician  invents  non-selfconsciously.  He 
is  ignorant  of,  and  therefore  unhampered  by,  the  laws 
which  guide  and  control  the  art-musician«  He  sings 
what  seems  to  him  and  to  his  fellows  to  be  pleasing  and 
satisfying.  So  long  as  his  music  fulfils  these  requirements 
he  is  content  Consequently,  tunes  in  irregular  time  and 
rhythm  are  of  very  frequent  occurrence  in  folk-music. 
As  this  is  an  important  characteristic  of  folk-music,  im- 
portant not  only  scientifically  but  aesthetically  as  well, 
the  collector  should  be  very  careful  to  note  down  the 
songs  exactly  as  he  hears  them.  It  is  the  failure  to  do 
this  in  olden  days  which  has  made  the  records  of  past 
collectors  of  little  value. 

Here  is  a  good  example  of  an  irregular  folk-air : — 

Example  VIII. 



%  €3    m  ^f 



J  liJ  i 

1  J  J    J     I    1 

-^ — H 

%■  4  *T 




^'^        **^J 


^  0 

Although  its  irregular  barring  makes  it  look  very 
complex  on  paper,  this  tune,  w^hen  it  is  sung,  sounds 
simple  and  natural  enough. 

Tunes  in  5 -time  are  but  rarely  met  with  in  art-music, 
but  they  are  very  frequently  sung  by  folk-singers.  Here 
is  a  good  example: — 

Same  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music.    143 

Example  IX. 




(i)  As    I  went  out    one  May  morning, One  May  moming  be  •   time,  I 



o-yer-taked   a    handsomemaid,  Just  as  the  sun     did  shine. 


What  makes  you  rise  so  soon,  my  dear, 

Your  journey  to  pursue  ? 
Your  pretty  little  feet  they  tread  so  sweet. 

Strike  off  the  morning  dew 

I'm  going  to  feed  my  father's  flock. 

His  3roung  and  tender  lambs. 
That  oyer  hills  and  oyer  dales 

Lie  waiting  for  their  dams. 

O  stay !  O  stay  I  you  handsome  maid, 

And  rest  a  moment  here, 
For  there  is  none  but  you  alone 

Thai  I  do  love  so  dear. 


How  gloriously  the  sun  do  shine, 

How  pleasant  is  the  air, 
I'd  rather  rest  on  a  true-love's  breast, 

Than  any  other  where. 

For  I  am  thine,  and  thou  art  mine, 

No  man  shall  uncomfort  ihee  ; 
We'll  join  our  hands  in  wedded  bands. 

And  a-marricd  we  will  be. 

I  print  the  words  of  this  song  partly  because  they  are 
cry  beautiful  and  offer  a  fine  example  of  folk-poetry,  but 

144   Some  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

also  because  they  show  the  subsidiary  accent  on  the  third 
beat  of  every  bar. 

The  three-time  bar  at  the  junction  of  the  two  phrases 
of  this  tune  is  a  very  characteristic  feature  of  the  folk- 
air.  It  must  be  attributed,  I  think,  to  the  disinclination 
of  the  singer  to  break  the  continuity  of  his  song  by 
waiting  the  prescribed  number  of  beats  on  the  last  note 
of  his  phrase.  In  art-songs  the  pauses  at  the  subdivisions 
of  the  melody  are  covered  up  by  the  instrumental  accom- 
paniment ;  but  the  folk-singer,  having  no  accompaniment, 
becomes  impatient  and  moves  on  at  once. 

The  third  peculiarity  of  folk-music  is  the  non-harmonic 
passing  note,  which  gives  rise  to  several  very  character- 
istic melodic  figures.  The  ist,  4th,  5th  and  8th  notes 
were  the  fixed  points  in  the  primitive  scale,  and  they  are 
still  the  more  stable  notes  in  the  scale  of  the  English 
folk-singer.  The  position  of  the  intermediate  notes 
between  the  tonic  and  subdominant,  and  between  the 
dominant  and  tonic  above,  are  still  more  or  less  vag^e 
and  undefined  sounds  in  the  mind  of  the  average  folk- 
singer.  Consequently,  when  he  is  proceeding  downwards, 
say  from  subdominant  (4th)  to  tonic,  and  wishes  to  con- 
nect the  two  notes  with  a  single  intervening  sound,  he 
will  almost  invariably  choose  the  note  nearest  to  the  one 
which  he  is  singing,  and  which,  therefore,  he  has  clearest 
in  his  mind,  i.e,  the  upper  one,  thus: — 

jf'mj  II 

Harmonic  usage,  on  the  other  hand,  would  dictate 

If,  however,  he  were  proceeding  in  the  reverse  direction. 

Same  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music.    145 

le  would,  acting  on  the  same  principle,  use  the  lower  of 
be  two  intennediate  notes  for  his  passing  note,  thus: — 






IS  Ae  cultivated  musician,  guided  by  harmonic  consider- 
itioos  would  elect 

These  non-harmonic  passing  notes  occur  in  a  very  large 
lumber  of  folk-tunes.  The  notes  marked  with  asterisks 
11  Old  Heddon  of  Fawsley  and  London  Pride  are  non- 
lannonic  passing  notes. 

1\ift  fourth  and  last  characteristic  of  folk-music  to  which 
[  can  call  your  attention  in  this  paper,  is  one  note  only  to 
tach  syllable  of  the  words.  This,  of  course,  makes  for 
Jeamess  of  enunciation,  a  point  to  which  the  folk-singer 
ittaches  the  highest  importance.  Rather  than  break  this 
rule  the  singer  will  often  interpolate  a  syllable  of  his  own, 
specially  when  the  word  in  question  contains  the  letter 
'L"  The  first  verse  of  High  Germany  was  once  sung  to 
me  as  follows  : — 

O  abroad  as  I  was  wordelkifC 

I  was  walking  all  alone, 
When  I  heard  a  couple  tordelkin\ 

As  they  walked  all  along. 

Edilin  for  Ellen,  sntodelkin  for  smoking,  and  cadelico  for 
iudico,  are  other  instances  of  the  same  peculiarity,  and  a 
anger  once  sang  to  me 

O  saddle  to  me  my  milk/r-whit/r  steed. 

rherc  are,  however,  some  exceptions  to  this  usage,  eg.  in 
My  Bonny,  Bonny  Boy,  the  last  phrase  of  which  runs  as 
ollows : — 

146   Same  Characteristics  of  English  Folk- Music. 

Example  X. 









That  I 

built  him 

bower  in    my       breast, 




LJ- 1^^  J  J 

That  I         built  him      a      bower  in  my  breast 

This  licence  is,  no  doubt,  more  common  in  some 
counties  than  in  others.  For  instance  in  Devon,  the 
refrain  of  Sweet  Nightingale  is  sung : — 

Example  XL 








As  shesingsin  the  val-leysbe  -  low,         -        -        -        -  As  she 

whereas,  in   Somerset,  the  singers  invariably  render  the 
passage : — 


Example  XII. 


r  fir'rrJ'ia;J'Jjia.]^ 

Asshesingsin  the  val-leysbelow,below, be-low, below, be  •  low,  As  she 

*^  I  should  much  like  to  add  a  word  upon  the  evolution 
and  development  of  tunes, — a  point  which  was  taken  up 
in  the  discussion  which  followed  my  lecture.  But  it  is 
too  large  a  subject  to  enter  upon  at  the  end  of  a  paper> 
and  must  be  left  for  another  opportunity,  should  such 
present  itself 

Cecil  J.  Sharp. 

S^ime  Characteristics  of  English  Folk- Music.    147 



The  following  is  a  copy  of  the  Prospectus  of  the 


The  Rigbt  Hon.  Lord  Tennyson,  P.C,  G.C.M.G.,  LL.D. 

ir  AlxxakdsrC.  Mackenzie.  Mus.  Doc.,  D.C.L..  LL.D..  F.R.A.M.,  Priodpal 

oC  the  Royal  Academy  of  Music. 
Br  C  HiTBEST  H.  Parry.  Bart..  Mas.  Doc.,  D.C.L.,  C.V.O.,  Professor  of  Music 

in  the  UDiirersity  of  Oxford ;  Director  of  the  Royal  College  of  Music. 
Ik  Charles  Villers  Stanford,  Mus.  Doc,  D.C.L.,  Professor  of  Music  in  the 

Unrversity  of  Cambridge. 


ir  EniErr  Clarke.  Chairman. 

I^ALTEs  Ford.  Esq. 

ifn.  FRANK  W.  Gibson  (Miss 

Eugenie  Joachim). 
iiiL  G.  Laurence  Gomme. 
'BBCT  Grainger.  Esq. 
L  P.  Graves.  Esq. 

Frederick  Keel.  Esq. 
Frank  Kidson,  Esq. 
J.  A.  Fuller  Maitland,  Esq. 
Cecil  Sharp.  Esq. 
Gilbert  Webb.  Esq. 
Ralph  Vaughan- Williams,  Esq., 
Mus.  Doc. 

Hon,  Secretary. 

Miss  Lucy  Broadwood. 

84  Carlisle  Mansions,  Victoria  Street,  London,  S.W. 

Hon.  Treasurer, 
Mrs.  G.  L.  Gomme. 

This  Society  was  founded  in  1898  for  the  purpose  of 
X)llecting  and  publishing  Folk  Songs,  Ballads  and  Tunes. 

It  is  certain  that  great  numbers  of  these  exist  which 
liave  not  been  noted  down,  and  which  therefore  are  in 
langer  of  being  lost 

The  Society  publishes  in  its  Journal  such  contributions 
rf  Traditional  Songs  as  may  be  chosen  by  a  Committee 
di  Musical  experts,  and  may  from  time  to  time  hold 
meetings  at  which  these  songs  are  introduced,  and  form 
the  subjects  of  performance,  lecture  and  discussion. 
Eleven  numbers  of  the  Journal  have  appeared. 

The  Subscription  has  been  fixed  at  los.  6d.  annually 
[payable  on  June  1st  in  each  year),  on  payment  of  which 
members  will  be  entitled  to  receive  all  publications  for 
the  current  year,  and  to  attend  all  meetings,  etc,  oi^anized 
by  the  Society. 

148   Some  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

Those  wishing  to  become  members  are  requested  to 
apply  to  the  Hon.  Secretary,  Miss  LuCY  Broadwood, 
84  Carlisle  Mansions,  Victoria  Street,  London,  S.W. 




It  will  greatly  facilitate  the  work  of  those  who  under- 
take the  oral  collection  of  folk-music  if  they  will  observe 
the  following  hints  which  have  been  found  practically 
useful  by  experienced  collectors: 

In  the  case  of  songs,  it  is  better  if  two  persons  can 
join  together  in  taking  them  down — one  to  confine  his 
attention  to  the  words,  the  other  to  the  tune.  If  this 
cannot  be  managed,  it  is  advisable  for  the  collector  not 
to  encourage  the  singer  to  repeat  the  words  without  the 
music,  as  any  alteration  of  the  usual  way  in  which  the 
songs  are  delivered  is  apt  to  confuse  the  singer's  memory. 
For  the  same  reason,  if  any  repetition  of  a  part  of  the 
song  is  required,  it  is  best  to  allow  the  singer  to  start 
afresh  from  the  beginning  of  the  verse. 

It  is  suggested  that,  in  view  of  the  special  difficulty 
of  the  work  of  taking  down  songs,  the  collector  should 
make  no  attempt  to  write  down  words  or  music  until 
after  the  first  verse  has  been  gone  through.  He  will 
probably  find  that  he  is  then  able  to  grasp  the  rhythmic 
structure  of  the  tune,  the  mode  in  which  it  is  cast,  and 
to  settle  upon  a  key-signature  and  time-signature. 

Sometimes  the  collector  will  find  it  difficult  to  note 
both  rhythm  and  correct  intervals  simultaneously,  and  it 
will  be  best  therefore  for  him  to  choose  definitely  which 
of  the  two  he  will  try  to  obtain  first.  Two  or  three 
repetitions  of  a  song  may  be  necessary,  and,  after  the 
whole  tune  has  been  noted  as  carefully  as  possible,  there 
should  be  a  final  repetition  for  the  sake  of  testing  the 
correctness  of  the  transcript.  The  collector  need  not  fear 
to  call  upon  the  ballad  singer  to  repeat  a  song  many 

The  words  of  songs  should  be  taken  down  in  ordinary 
English  spelling,  exactly  as  the  singer  sang  them,  and 
with  no  alterations  for  the  sake  of  grammatical  correct- 

S^m^  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music.    149 

If  time  presses,  the  collector  should  secure  the 
nisic  of  the  songs  himself,  and  arrange  to  have  the 
rords  taken  down  by  someone  else  at  leisure,  and  sent 
)  him. 

It  very  often  happens  that  an  example  of  folk-music 
\  in  possession  of  persons  who  cannot  sing.  These  may 
e  asked  to  whistle  the  airs,  or  to  play  them  upon  a 
iolin  or  other  instrument.  Care  must  be  taken  in  such 
ases  to  ascertain  whether  the  tune  is  originally  set  to 
^ords  or  not. 

Although  folk-music  is  to  be  found  in  all  strata  of 
xicty,  the  classes  from  which  the  most  interesting 
pccimcnH  are  most  readily  to  be  obtained  are  gardeners, 
rtizans,  gamekeepers,  shepherds,  rustic  labourers,  gipsies, 
lUors^   fishermen,   workers  at  old-fashioned  trades,  such 

I  weaving,  lace-making  and  the  like,  as  well  as  domestic 
fcrvants  of  the  old  school,  especially  nurses.  Inmates  of 
POrfclloti^s  will  also  be  found  to  know  many  old  songs, 
pd  dwtllcrs  in  towns  may  best  be  able  to  carry  on  the 
wric  of  collecting  traditional  music  by  applying  to  such. 

In  making  enquiries  among  the  people  it  is  found 
dvisabtc  in  many  places  to  use  the  word  "ballad"  or 
ballet "  instead  of  "song,"  which  often  suggests  some- 
Irfng  modem.  It  may  be  necessary  to  point  out  to  them 
iiat  nothing  they  may  have  learned  at  school,  or  heard 
t  a  concert,  and  so  forth,  is  wanted  ;  and  it  is  important 
>  give  them,  if  possible,  an  example  of  the  kind  of 
^aditional  music  and  words  that  the  Society  wishes  to 

It    is  most  important  that  the  collector  should  obtain 

II  possible  information  from  the  singer  as  to  the  title 
nd  history  of  the  song  or  tune,  the  manner  in  which  it 
as  learned,  and  the  name,  age,  status,  etc,  of  the  person 
^m  whom  it  was  learned. 

The  singer  should  also  be  asked  wJuther  he  possesses^  or 
news  of  anyone  who  possesses,  old  song-books  or  ballad- 
keets,  as  these  {more  especially  the  latter^  are  tnost  valuable 
f  ccmnection  with  the  subject  of  Folk-songs,  In  some 
arts  of  the  country  the  word  "ballet"  is  synonymous 
ith  "ballad-sheet." 

In  all  cases  the  name,  full  address  and  occupation  of 
le  sinj^er  or  performer  (together  with  all  other  interesting 
iformation    obtainable)    should    be   carefully   noted    and 

150   Some  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

affixed  to  the  transcripts  before  they  are  sent  to  the  Folk 
Song  Society. 

Just  as  it  is  desirable  that  the  words  of  a  ballad  should 
be  given  exactly  as  they  are  repeated,  so  it  is  essential 
that  the  tunes  should  represent  what  the  collector  hears. 
Many  a  fine  and  characteristic  tune  has  been  spoilt  by 
being  submitted  for  correction  to  some  local  musician, 
who,  in  the  attempt  to  reduce  it  to  orthodox  form,  has 
allowed  the  individual  character  to  escape.  It  is  far 
better  to  send  in  the  tune  even  in  a  rough,  unbarred 
condition  than  to  endanger  its  authenticity  by  such  an 
expedient  as  is  here  referred  to. 

Either  the  staff  or  tonic  sol-fa  notation  may  be  used 
in  taking  down  the  tunes.  Those  who  do  not  feel  them- 
selves competent  to  note  down  the,  music^  may  still  do  useful 
work  by  discovering  singers,  making  a  list  of  the  songs 
that  the  latter  can  sing,  and  communicating  with  the 
Hon.  Secretary  of  the  Society,  who  will  then,  if  possible, 
send  an  expert  to  note  down  the  songs.  When  collected, 
the  songs,  etc.,  may  be  sent  to  the  Hon.  Secretary  of 
the  Folk  Song  Society,  who  will  bring  them  before  the 
Publication  Committee  of  the  Society. 

Under  Rule  XH.  of  the  Society,  all  matter  contributed 
thereto,  cw  published  in  the  Folk  Song  foumal,  is 
considered  by  the  Society  to  be  the  property  of  the 
contributor,  and  the  Society  shall  not  reprint  such  con- 
tributions without  his  consent. 

Leaflet  issued  to  Clergy. 


Dear  Sir, 

You  are  doubtless  aware  of  the  growing  interest 
which  is  being  taken  in  English  Folk-song.  Twenty 
years  ago  it  was  customary  for  musicians  to  say  that 
England  had  no  folk-music,  with  the  result  that  while 
foreign  countries  have  been  at  great  pains  to  preserve 
their  traditional  music  as  a  public  duty,  in  England  the 
work  has  been  left  to  a  few  private  enthusiasts. 

The  Folk  Song  Society  was  founded  in  1898  in  order 
to  rescue  the  remnant  of  the  peasant  songs  of  old  time 

Sam  '  of  English  Folk-Music.    151 

irliicii  in  after  jrears  are  likely  to  be  extinct;  and  the 
Efforts  of  its  members  in  noting  down  folk-music  have 
met  with  success  beyond  the  wildest  hopes  of  its  pro- 

The  extraordinary  beauty  and  individual  character  of 
Sie  melodies  actually  taken  down  from  the  lips  of  un- 
sdacated  country  people  conclusively  prove  that  English 
blk-music  is  in  no  way  inferior  to  that  of  other  countries. 
But  the  number  of  melodies  as  yet  noted  is  small. 
rhough  upwards  of  one  thousand  have  already  been 
x>llccted  and  published  it  is  believed  that  this  number 
represents  only  a  very  small  portion  of  those  that  stiU 
Exist  This  is  proved  by  the  very  rich  harvest  yielded 
in  those  parts  which  have  up  to  the  present  time  been 
Explored.  Laige  parts  of  Sussex,  Somerset  and  Devon- 
difane  have  been  thoroughly  searched,  and  smaller  districts 
rf  Dorset,  Hereford,  Eisex,  Norfolk  and  Yorkshire  have 
likewise  received  attention,  while  valuable  but  desultory 
irork  has  been  done  elsewhere ;  yet  there  is  an  immense 
Bekl  still  to  be  worked. 

We  believe  that  the  district  in  which  your  parish  lies 
is  practically  untouched.  The  clergy  have  exceptional 
opportunities  of  winning  the  confidence  of  the  older  people 
iHio  are  likely  to  retain  the  "  old  songs  *'  in  their  memories. 
Of  course  the  folk-song  will  not  come  unsought.  In  many 
:ases  an  intimate  acquaintance  with  country  people  has 
stopped  short  of  a  knowledge  of  their  songs ;  so  we  beg 
->{  you  not  to  conclude  that  folk-songs  no  longer  exist 
n  your  parish  because  you  have  not  heard  them  behind 
iie  plough,  or  in  the  cottages.  They  live  in  the  minds 
>f  the  older  people,  and  must  be  sought  with  care  and 
:act,  but  experience  leads  us  to  believe  that  no  village 
n  England  is  without  its  store  of  traditional  song. 

We  need  hardly  point  out  the  historical  and  antiquarian 
mportance  of  folk-songs,  but,  in  addition  to  this,  their 
ntrinsic  musical  beauty  makes  it  imperative  that  they 
should  be  preserved.  You  would  do  a  great  national 
service  by  helping  our  search,  especially  by  finding  out 
singers  and  noting  down  the  names,  or  first  lines,  of 
:he  songs  they  know.  Any  such  information  will  be 
^tefully  received  by  the  Honorary  Secretary.  It 
A^ould  be  possible  then  to  find  out  whether  the  Society 
las  a  record  of  the  songs   in  question   and,  if  not,  we 

152    Some  Characteristics  of  English  Folk-Music. 

should  ask  you  kindly  to  facilitate  the  work  of  a  member 
of  the  Society  who  would  come  down  to  note  the  songs. 
If,  however,  your  interest  in  the  matter  leads  you  to 
note  tunes  or  words  yourself,  we  venture  to  impress  upon 
you  the  necessity  of  writing  them  down  exactly  as  they 
are  sung,  otherwise  the  result  will  be  valueless.  The 
curious  musical  intervals  and  the  irregular  rhythms  of 
much  folk-music  are  puzzling  to  those  unaccustomed  to 
them,  and  collections  of  folk-songs  are  often  spoilt  by 
the  alteration  of  what  ignorant  collectors  imagine  to  be 
"  mistakes."  We  enclose  our  "  Hints  to  Collectors,"  which 
may  be  useful  to  you  if,  as  we  hope,  you  decide  to 
undertake  a  search. 

The  experiment  is  being  made  of  approaching  all  the 
clergy  of  a  particular  district,  in  the  hope  that  by  this 
means  it  may  be  thoroughly  explored  ;  and  if  the  venture, 
to  which  we  invite  your  kind  co-operation,  should  prove 
successful,  it  is  proposed  to  extend  the  scheme  to  a 
larger  area. 

N,B, — The  collecting  of  traditional  dance-tunes  and 
singing-games  is  equally  important. 

Yours  faithfully, 

Lucy  E.  Broadwood,  Hon.  Sec. 





{Continued  from  p,  yy,) 

As  wc  have  already  seen,  Homer  carefully  selects  the 
traditions  which  he  uses,  and  though  he  has  omitted 
much,  he  has  provided  us  with  a  large  number  of  Sagas 
and  Marchen  ;  the  former  being  tales  told  of  supernatural 
personages,  of  heroes  and  heroines  who  have  definite 
names  and  are  supposed  to  have  once  actually  existed, 
or  are  attached  to  definite  places ;  the  latter  being  vague, 
impersonal,  indefinite,  in  short,  more  in  the  manner  of 
the  fairy  tale.  Some  critics  have  attempted  to  draw  a 
distinction  between  the  two  epics — that  the  Iliad  is  made 
up  of  Sagas,  the  Odyssey  of  Marchen.  But  this  statement 
is  not  entirely  accurate.  Thus  the  main  subject  of  the 
Odyssey  is  the  Saga  of  the  Absent  Husband,  who  recovers 
his  wife  after  many  adventures,  in  which  Tokens  of 
Recognition,  like  the  bed  of  Odysseus,  the  scar  left  by 
the  boar,  the  facts  known  to  Penelope  and  Laertes  alone, 
form  a  leading  part.^  Here  it  may  be  remarked  that 
in  tales  of  this  class  the  hero  is  very  often  recognised 
by  his  skill  in  cooking.  In  the  Mahabharata,  Nala  is 
recognised  in  this  way,  and  the  same  incident  occurs 
in  the  Arab  tale  of  Nur-al-din  AH  and  his  son  Badr- 
al-din  Hasan,  where  he  is  identified  by  his  skill  in  cooking 
the  pomegranate  conserve.^     It  is,  in  this  light,  suggestive, 

>  Od.  iiiii.  i8o  ff.  ;  xix.  467  ff.  ;  xxiv.  330  ff.         'Burton,  Nights,  i.  224. 

154       Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

that  when  Odysseus  offers  to  serve  the  Wooers  he  says, 
"  No  mortal  may  vie  with  me  in  the  business  of  a  serving- 
man,  in  piling  well  a  fire,  in  cleaving  dry  faggots,  and 
in  carving  and  roasting  flesh  and  in  pouring  of  wine."^ 
In  the  same  category  is  the  testing  of  the  hero's  skill 
in  the  competition  of  shooting  through  the  rings  of  the 
axes,  which  also  occurs  in  the  Pan  jab  tale  of  Rasalu, 
while  in  the  Ramayana  Rama's  arrow  flies  through  seven 
palm  trees  and  through  the  hill  behind  them.* 

Tales  of  the  Absent  Husband  type  are  to  be  found 
in  a  Chinese  Saga ;  in  a  Greek  tale  from  Kato  Sudena ; 
in  an  Italian  story ;  in  one  of  Grimm's  German  tales ; 
largely  in  ballad  literature,  as  in  those  of  Hind  Horn 
and  King  Horn ;  and  in  the  Arabian  Saga  of  Kamar- 
alzaman  and  Badaura.^  These  tales  seem  to  fall  into 
two  groups— one  where  the  separation  is  caused  by  a 
misunderstanding;  the  other,  where,  as  in  the  German 
story,  the  hero  goes  away  for  some  other  reason.  With 
this  is  combined  in  the  Odyssey  the  Saga  of  the  Wooing 
and  the  means  by  which  the  faithful  wife  baflles  her 
importunate  lovers.* 

In  the  Saga  of  Bellerophon^  we  have,  first,  the  only 

*  Od,  XV.  319  flf. 

^Swynnerton,  Romantic  TakSy  213;  Cambridge  Jataka^  ▼.  68;  Griffidi, 
RamayaUy  228,  338. 

'  Dennys,  Folk-lore  of  China^  i6i ;  Von  Hahn,  Griechische  und  Aliatusische 
Mdrchen^  i.  266;  Pitr^,  Biblioteca  delle  Tradiziom  Popolare  Sicilianiy  v. 
146 ;  Grimm,  Household  Tales,  No.  loi ;  Child,  English  and  Scottish 
Popular  Ballads y  vol.  i.  ;  Burton,  Nights ^  iii.  I  fF.  For  these  references  I 
am  indebted  to  Mr.  Sidney  Hsutland.  See  also  Lang,  Homer  and  the 
Epicy  226  f. 

^This  I  have  already  discussed  in  Folk-lore^  ix.  97  ff.  Mr.  Monro 
{Odyssey y  ii.  302)  objects  to  my  solution  on  the  ground  that  Telemachus 
claims  the  right  to  dispose  of  his  mother's  hand.  This  does  not  seem 
relevant.  Naturally  he  does  so  as  head  of  the  house  in  the  absence  of 
his  father.  But  we  find  that  pressure  is  put  upon  her  by  his  parents 
and  brethren  also  {Odyssey y  xv.  16,  xix.  158). 

*//.  vi.   155  ff.  [ii.  A]. 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.        155 

mention  of  writing  in  the  epics.  It  is  remarkable  that 
in  the  Ramayana  also,  the  " kernel"  of  which  was 
composed  before  $00  B.C.,  we  have  only  one  mention 
of  writing  in  the  form  of  marks  on  arrows,  which  were 
probably  spells  to  make  them  reach  their  mark.^  Recent 
enquiries  show  that  various  forms  of  writing  were  current 
in  the  eastern  Aegean  at  a  date  much  earlier  than  is 
commonly  supposed.  Cuneiform  characters  were  probably 
in  use  in  Cyprus  about  1500  B.C;  the  Babylonian  custom  of 
writing  on  clay  tablets  passed  as  far  west  as  Crete,  and 
it  was  adopted  by  the  Mycenaeans  of  Knossos  for  their 
pictographic  script ;  a  system  independent  of  this  seems 
to  have  been  in  use  in  Mycenae.'  "The  clay  archives 
of  the  palace  of  Knossos,'*  says  Mr.  A.  J.  Evans,  "con- 
clusively show  that  in  the  Aegean  world  there  existed, 
at  least  as  early  as  the  15th  century  B.C.9  a  highly 
developed  form  of  linear  script  containing  a  series  of 
forms  practically  identical  with  those  in  use  down  to  a 
much  later  date  by  the  Greeks  of  Cyprus."  In  the 
Homeric  passage  which  we  are  discussing  it  is  worth 
while  to  notice,  first,  that  the  contents  of  the  tablet, 
'•  many  deadly  things  "  {dv/jLOipOopa  xoXXa),  seems  to  imply 
that  writing  was  then  regarded  as  a  semi-magical  art; 
secondly,  I  would  venture  to  suggest  a  view  which  I 
have  not  seen  in  any  of  the  commentaries  which  I  have 
been  able  to  consult,  that  the  phrase  describing  the  tablet 
(cF  irtywci  TTTVKTU)),  which  implies,  as  Mr.  Leaf  says,  a 
double  wooden  tablet  with  tlie  writing  inside,  and  sealed 
up,  may  have  been  an  imitation  of  the  method  in  use 
among  the  Babylonians  of  protecting  valuable  documents 
within  an  outer  envelope  of  clay.* 

*  Griffith,  Famajran^  ^oj. 

Mlale.  TA^  O/dtsi  Chnlisaiufn  in  Greece,  138  flf.  ;  A.  J.  Evans,  Joumml 
I/flUnU  Studies,  xvii.  327  ff.,  xxi.  339;  Flinders  V^\Ti%  Journal  AmtkfpO' 
Ugical  Institute,   xxix.    204  f.,    xxx.    2 1 7. 

'See  an  illastration  in   Maspero,   Dawn  of  CiznJisaiumj  732. 

156        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

In  this  Saga  we  have  also  the  Letter  of  Death,  which 
the  hero  was  to  show  to  the  father  of  Anteia  that  he 
might  be  slain.  We  are  reminded  of  David's  letter  to 
Joab  :  "  Set  ye  Uriah  in  the  forefront  of  the  hottest  battle 
and  retire  ye  from  him,  that  he  may  be  smitten  and 
die " ;  of  Somadeva's  tale  of  Adityavarman,  who  directs 
his  ally  to  slay  the  wise  minister,  Sivavarman,  or  of  the 
treacherous  queen,  Kavya-lankara,  who  plans  in  the  same 
way  the  death  of  the  gallant  princes,  the  sons  of  her 
rival;  of  Grimm's  German  story  of  the  Devil  with  the 
Golden  Hair,  where  the  king  writes  in  a  letter  to  the 
queen,  **  As  soon  as  the  boy  arrives  with  this  letter, 
let  him  be  killed  and  buried,  and  all  must  be  done 
before  I  come  home " ;  of  Ahmed  the  Orphan  in  the 
Seven  Wazirs,  where  the  bearer  hands  the  letter  to 
another,  who  suffers  in  his  stead,  whence  it  was  adopted 
into  the  Gesta  Romanorum,  in  the  tale  where  the 
innocent  lad  delays  to  hear  Mass,  and  the  contriver  of 
the  plot,  who  bears  the  fatal  letter,  is  flung  into  the 
furnace.^  The  incident,  in  fact,  is  so  familiar,  that  in 
oriental  folk-lore  such  letters  have  acquired  a  special 
name,  "those  of  Mutalammis,  the  poet."* 

We  find,  again,  in  the  Saga  of  Bellerophon  the  very 
common  tale  of  seduction  successfully  resisted  by  the 
continent  hero,  which  we  meet  in  Semitic  literature  in 
the  tale  of  Joseph  and  Potiphar's  wife,  the  Yusuf  and 
Zuleikha  of  the  more  modern  East,  itself  derived  from 
the  old  Egyptian  tale  of  the  two  brothers,  Satu  and 
Anapu.*  Buddhist  story-tellers  adopted  the  incident  in 
the    tales    of    Kunala    and    the   wife    of   the    Emperor 

*II.  Samuel,  xi.  14;  Tawney,  Katha,  i.  27,  383;  id,  JCatkdkofa,  172; 
Grimm,  Household  Tales,  i.  120 ;  Clonston,  Popular  Tales,  ii.  465 ;  id, 
Sindibad,  138;  Temple-Steel,  Wideawake  Stories,  410;  North  Indian  Notes 
and  Queries,  iv.  85;   Knowles,  Folk  Tales  of  Kashmir,  48. 

>  Burton,  Nights,  xii.  68  f. 

'Lang,  Myth,  Ritual,  and  Religion  (ed.  1899),  ii.  318  ff. ;  Erman,  Life 
in  Ancient  Egypt,  378. 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        157 

\soka,  Sarangdhara  and  his  step-mother  Chitrangi, 
Sunasarman  and  the  wife  of  King  Mahasena,  while  the 
Babylonians  used  it  in  the  story  of  Ishtar's  charge 
igainst  Gisdhubar.^  In  classical  literature  it  appears  in 
iic  legend  of  Phaedra  and  Hippolytus,  who  was  wor- 
diipped  as  a  god  at  Troezen,  where  he  was  regarded  as 
I  god  of  healing,  and  to  him  maidens  before  marriage 
>flered  their  hair.  It  would  be  natural  that  the  seduction 
myth  should  be  connected  with  him  to  emphasise  his 

The  Bellerophon  Saga  diverges  into  another  cycle, 
Jiat  of  Tasks  imposed  upon  the  hero.  The  king  of 
Lyda  orders  him  to  slay  Chimaira,  to  fight  the  Solymi 
ind  the  Amazons.  Finally,  when  the  hero  succeeds,  and 
escapes  from  an  ambush  laid  for  him,  he  receives  the 
liand  of  the  king's  daughter,  the  last  an  incident  very 
common  in  the  folk-tales  and  suggesting  descent  in  the 
Female  line.'  We  find  in  the  epics.  Tasks  imposed  on 
Ac  hero  in  the  case  of  Herakles  forced  by  Eurysthcus 
bo  bring  from  Erebus  the  hound  of  loathed  Hades,  and 
in  the  story  of  Neleus,  who  would  give  his  daughter  to 
none  save  he  who  could  drive  off  the  kine  of  mighty 
Ephicles.*  Of  such  Tasks  we  have  many  instances 
throughout  the  whole  range  of  folk-lore.  Like  Herakles, 
Hans  in  the  Lithuanian  tale  of  Strong  Hand  and  Strang 
Peter  overcomes  Cerberus  and  the  Devil.*  In  a  Gypsy 
tale  from  Transylvania  the  test  is  to  recover  a  ring 
from  a  fountain  of  boiling  water.'  In  the  Eyrbyggja 
Saga,  Styr  says:   "Thou  shalt  form  a  path  through  the 

^Qouston,  Papular  Tales,  ii.  499;  Waddell,  Buddhism  of  Tibet,  29; 
Saycc,  Hihbcrt  Ltctures,  24S ;  North  Indian  Notes  and  Queries,  iv.  85 ; 
Burton,  Nights ,  v.  42 ;  Boccaccio,  Decameron,  Day  ii.  Novel  8. 

'  Miss  Harrison,  Mythology  and  Monuments,  Intro,  cllv. 

*Fraxer,  Lectures  on  Kingship,  231  ff. 

•i7.  riii.   362  ff.  [iii.  b]  ;    Od,  xi.  621  ff.,  288  ff.,  xv.  231  ff. 

'  lianland.  Legend  of  Perseus,  i.  48  ff.  •  Ibid,  iii.  I02. 

158       Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

rocks  at  Biarnarhaf,  and  a  fence  between  my  property 
and  that  of  my  neighbours;  thou  shalt  also  construct 
a  house  for  the  reception  of  my  flocks,  and  these  tasks 
accomplished  thou  shalt  have  Adisa  to  wife."^  Homer 
does  not  mention  the  Task  imposed  upon  Herakles  of 
cleaning  the  Augean  stable;  but  this  is  one  of  the 
three  Tasks  the  Giant  in  the  Highland  tale  of  the 
Battle  of  the  Birds  requires,  the  others  being  to  bring 
the  eggs  of  the  magpie  unbroken  from  a  lofty  tree, 
and  to  thatch  the  byre  with  bird's  down.*  In  another 
form  of  the  story  the  Tasks  are  byre-cleaning,  byre- 
thatching,  and  swan-watching.*  So  in  Nicht^  Nought^ 
Nothing  the  Giant  requires  the  boy  to  clean  his  byre, 
to  drain  a  lough,  and  to  fetch  eggs  from  a  tree.*  In 
these  cases,  as  in  Lady  Featherflight!^  the  hero  is  aided 
by  the  friendly  daughter  of  the  Giant,  an  incident  which, 
as  we  shall  see,  appears  in  the  Homeric  tale  of  Proteus. 
The  records  of  this  cycle  of  tales  displays  infinite  variety. 
In  one  of  Somadeva's  Hindu  stories  the  Task  is  to  sow 
an  immense  quantity  of  sesame,  while  in  an  Arabian 
story  the  lover  is  obliged  to  sift  a  g^eat  pile  of  this 
same  grain  mixed  with  clover  seed  and  lentils.*  In  the 
Italian  versions,  besides  the  usual  physical  Tasks,  a 
higher  form  of  cultured  life  has  suggested  the  winning 
of  the  bride  by  solving  a  riddle.^ 

The  Chimaira,  which  appears  in  this  Homeric  Saga — 
"the  unconquerable  one,"  "of  divine  birth  was  she  and 
not  of  men,  in  front  a  lion  and  behind  a  serpent,  and 

*  Mallet,  Northern  Antiquities,  526. 

3  Campbell,  Popular  Tales  of  Western  Highlands,  i.  29  £ 

•Maclnnes-Nutt,  Waifs  and  Strays  of  Celtic  Tradition,  436  £. 

^Lang,  Custom  and  Myth,  90.  ^Folk-lore  Congress  Report,  40  ff. 

•Tawney,  Katha,  i.  360;   Burton,  Nights,  xi.   159. 

^  Crane,  Italian  Popular  Tales,  66  f. ;  Max  MUller,  Contributions  to  the 
Science  of  Mythology,  i.  So  ff.  For  Tasks  generally,  McCuUoch,  Childhood 
of  Fiction,  17,  392. 

Same  Notes  an  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        159 

dM  breathed  out  dread  fierceness  of  blazing  fire,"  in 
laother  place  called  "the  bane  of  many  a  man"^ — ^is 
lie  ooly  Homeric  example  of  the  fell  beasts  of  later 
Sreek  and  oriental  mythology.  Such  were  the  fantastic 
Donsters  of  Eg3rpt  and  Babylonia.'  By  some  she  has 
wen  less  probably  identified  with  a  volcano,  and  Pliny' 
eUs  of  a  Lydan  mountain  of  that  name  which  poured 
brth  fire  continually.  But  she  seems  rather  akin  to  the 
ribe  of  monsters,  like  the  later  Harpies,  Cerberus,  the 
Sydra  of  Lema,  and  the  Sphinx. 

This  leads  us  to  the  Centaurs.  Homer  does  not 
Bcntion  the  horse  Centaurs,  which  were  a  creation  of 
ater  writers;  and  Ixion,  their  reputed  father,  is  not 
lamed  in  the  epics,  where  he  might  have  been  classed 
ridi  those  famous  criminals,  Sisyphus  and  Tantalus,  who 
xpiate  their  crimes  in  the  underworld.  Homer  seems 
o  regard  the  Centaurs  as  men.  He  speaks  of  the 
imous  heroes  who  destroyed  the  Pheres,  or  wild  men 
i  the  mountain  caves;  he  tells  how  the  renowned 
lentaur,  Eurytion,  went  to  the  Lapithae,  and  how  when 
lis  soul  was  darkened  with  wine  he  wrought  foul  deeds 
n  the  house  of  Peirithous,  how  the  heroes  mutilated 
dm  with  the  sword,  and  ever  after  with  darkened  mind 
«  bare  about  with  him  the  burden  of  his  sins  in  the 
£X>lishness  of  his  heart*  Hence  arose  the  feud  between 
he  Centaurs  and  the  sons  of  men.  Of  this  remarkable 
nyth  many  explanations  have  been  suggested.  Some 
ave  supposed  that  it  describes  the  contest  between 
ivilised  man  and  the  aborigines ;  others  see  in  it  a 
omparison  of  the  mountain  torrents  with  galloping 
orses.  To  one  school  of  mythologists,  now  in  disrepute, 
:  was  sufficient  to  derive  the  name  from  the  Gandharva 

*//.  vi.    179  ff.  [ii.  a],  xvi.  325  ff.  [i.]. 

•  Maspero,  Dawn  of  Civilisatum^  84,  539,  582 ;  Renoaf,  Hibbtrt  Ltchtru^ 
JITO.  20;    Sayce,  Ibid.  392. 
^Nat.  Hiii.  ii.   106,  v.  2S.  *//.  I  266  flf.  \\\  u.  742  pv.]. 

i6o       Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

singers  of  Hindu  myth,  though  Cheiron  alone  is  said 
to  have  been  skilled  in  music.  This  derivation  is  now 
generally  abandoned.^  The  connexion,  again,  of  the 
Centaurs  with  Thessaly  has  been  supposed  to  imply 
horse  worship,  while  others  suggest  an  ass  cult*  Recently 
a  more  plausible  explanation  has  been  suggested  by 
Professor  Gardner,  that  they  are  forest  or  mountain 
spirits,  a  common  folk  belief  representing  that  the 
devastation  caused  by  hurricanes  is  due  to  the  conflict 
of  these  spirits  when  they  hurl  tree-trunks  and  rocks  at 
each  other.  "  The  appropriateness  of  the  form  of  the 
horse,  or  of  association  with  the  horse,  to  spirits  that 
ride  the  storm,  is  both  obvious  in  itself  and  attested  by 
numerous  instances  from  folk-lore ;  but  the  peculiar  form 
taken  by  this  association  in  the  earliest  Greek  Centaurs, 
which  are  merely  men  with  a  horse's  body  and  hind 
quarters  growing  out  of  their  back,  is  probably  due  to 
some  accidental  association,  or  to  some  too  literal  inter- 
pretation of  a  metaphor  used  by  an  early  poet."* 

Next  comes  the  tale  of  the  Amazons.  Professor  Geddes 
remarks  that  they  appear  only  in  what  he  calls  the 
Ulyssean  cantos  of  the  Iliad^  where  he  finds  frequent 
indications  of  oriental  influence.*  Priam  says  that  he 
was  an  ally  of  the  men  of  Phrygia  when  the  Amazons 
came,  and  the  third  task  imposed  on  the  Lycian 
Bellerophon  was  to  slay  the  Amazons,  women  peers  of 
men.  According  to  one  theory,  the  legend  of  these 
warrior  women  is  based  on  the  hosts  of  female  slaves 
employed  in  the  temples  of  Asia  Minor  and  the  further 
east^     But  against  this  it  may  be  urged  that  the  legend 

^  Macdonell,   VecUc  Mythology^  137. 

'  Geddes,  Problem   of  the   Homeric   Poems^    246  f. ;    foumal    HelUnic 
Studies^  xiv.  90. 

^Journal  Hellenic  Studies^  xvii.  301. 

^  Problem^  284  f.  ;  //.  iii.  189  [ii.  B],  vi  186  [ii.  A]. 

•  Sayce,  Hibbert  Lectures^  235 ;   MUller,  Dorians^  E.T.  i.  405. 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        i6i 

las  a  much  wider  provenance,  and  the  stories  of  the  many 
dngdoms  in  which  women  by  the  law  of  succession  and 
otherwise  asserted  superiority  over  men  may  be  con- 
iccted  with  the  matriarchate  or  with  crude  ideas  of 
xmception,  such  as  those  adopted  by  the  Australian 
Vrunta.^  Stories  of  this  kind  are  current  in  South 
\merica,  which  are  supposed  to  be  based  either  on  the 
rarlike  character  of  the  women  of  some  tribes  or  on 
he  effeminate  appearance  of  the  men.^  In  the  east  we 
neet  many  stories  of  a  Kingdom  of  Women,  such  as 
hat  of  Rdma  Paramita  in  the  Mahabharata^  which  also 
ippears  in  Chinese  tradition,  and  in  the  "  Island  of  Wak  " 
ind  the  "City  of  Women"  in  the  Arabian  Nights?  Among 
I  people  beyond  Cathay  the  women  were  said  to  have 
cason  like  men,  while  the  males  were  great  hairy  dogs ; 
rven  nowadays  in  Assam  there  is  a  tale  of  a  village 
n  which  only  women  dwell;  near  Sumatra  is  an  island 
4  women,  who,  like  the  mares  in  VirgiFs  Georgics, 
onceive  by  the  agency  of  the  wind.*  The  same  legend 
Ippears  in  North  Europe,  where  in  the  Celtic  land  of 
he  Everliving  "  there  is  no  race  but  women  and  maidens 
Jone."*  It  is  current  among  the  Ainos  of  Japan ;  in 
Africa  it  is  supported  by  accounts  of  the  female  body- 
^ard  of  the  kings  of  Dahome  and  Ashanti ;  and  North 
\merican  tradition  tells  of  an  island  in  which  the  men 
ire  ruled  by  a  tall,  fair  woman.*     The  story  is,  in  short, 

*  Spencer-Gillcn,    Tribes  of  Central  Australia^  663. 

'Bates,  A  Saturalist  on  the  Kiver  Amazon^  i.  215  n.  ;  Frazer,  Pausanias^ 

*  Ynlc,  Marco  Polo^^  ii.  396 ;    Burton,  Nights ^  vi.  217,  vii.  252. 

*Yule,  Cathay  and  tht  Way  Thither^  i.  Intro.  129;  Gait,  Assam  Census 
\tfcrt^   1S91,  i.   250;    Marsden,  History  0/  SumcUra^  297. 

*  Rhys,  Celtic  Folk  lore,  ii.  661  ;  Borlasc,  Dolmens  of  Inland^  iii.  777 ; 
inkcrton,    Voyage s,  iii.   704. 

*  Chamberlain,  Aino  folk  Tales,  37 ;  Bancroft,  Natitft  Races  of  the 
^anf(  States,  iii.  153;  Burton,  Mission  to  Gaiele^  ii.  63;  Im  Thnm, 
\m9ng  tht  Indians  of  Guiana,  385. 


i62        Samu  NaUs  on  Homeric  Falk-Lare. 

a  vorld-wide  mydi  iriiidi  vas  adopted  \xf  Gredc  story- 

Another  tale  of  tbe  same  kind  reported  by  early 
mariners  appears  in  Homers  account  of  the  Cranes* 
who  with  approaching  winter  wing  their  flight  to  the 
streams  of  Ocean,  bearing  slaughter  and  &te  to  the 
Pygmy  racei*  The  orderly  flight  of  the  cranes  in  the 
direction  of  the  great  African  lakes  naturally  gave  rise 
to  the  belief  that  they  marched  as  an  army  does  to 
attack  an  enemy,  and  this  enemy  could  cmly  be  the 
P3rgmies,  whom  recent  explorations  have  made  familiar 
to  us.  Accounts  of  them  must  at  an  early  date  have 
reached  the  Greeks  through  the  Egyptians,  to  whom 
diey  were  familiar.*  Such  travellers'  tales  did  not  lose 
in  the  telling,  and  the  story  was  more  generally  believed 
in  Europe  as  these  Pygmies  came  to  be  connected  with 
the  tiny  fairies  which  occupy  the  burial  mounds.  The 
course  of  the  mjrth  was  perhaps  from  west  to  east ;  and 
so  they  come  into  the  tale  of  Sindibcul  the  Seaman,  and 
even  the  matter-of-fact  traveller,  Marco  Polo,  identified 
them  with  the  apes  of  Java.' 

Iphimedeia,  wife  of  Aloeus,  bore,  we  are  told,  twin  sons 
to  Poseidon,  Otos  and  Ephialtes.  Doomed  to  enjoy  but 
short  life,  they  were  far  the  tallest  men  that  earth  ever 
reared,  and  the  iroodlfcst  after  Orion,     At  nine  years  of 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        163 

larkened  with  the  bloom  of  youth.^  In  another  passage 
re  learn  that  they  tried  to  bind  Ares,  a  legend  which 
\  have  elsewhere  discussed.*  They  are  by  affiliation 
ikin  to  the  Moliones  and  Polyphemus,^  a  fact  which 
ndicates  that  some  attempt  was  made  to  include  them 
n  the  Olympian  dynasty,  the  story  of  the  descent  from 
jvers  being  here  replaced  by  the  fatherhood  of  Poseidon  ; 
lie  same  transition  shows  itself  in  the  curious  tale  of 
Tyro,  whom  Poseidon  wooes  in  the  form  of  Enipeus, 
he  river  god.*  Secondly,  like  so  many  Homeric  demi- 
pxls,  they  appear  in  pairs,  like  Podaleirios  and  Machaon, 
Peisandros  and  Hippolochos,  Lykaon  and  Polydoros, 
Krdthon  and  Orsilochos.  The  same  idea  appears  in  the 
nroi  groups  of  Achilles-Patroclus,  Theseus-Peirithoos, 
Phaethon- Helios,  Pelias-Neleus,  Prometheus-Epimetheus, 
[)dysseus-Telemachus,  Eteokles-Polyneikes,  and  the  Dio- 
icurL  In  Rome  we  have  Romulus-Remus;  in  India  the 
two  Asvins,  Rama-Lakshmana,  Krishna-Balarama,  Yama- 
Ifaml,  Yajna-Dakshina,  Pushan-Indra.  Similarly  related 
ire  the  Norse  Odinn-Loki,  the  Egyptian  Osiris-Set,  the 
Huron  loskeha-Tawis,  the  Persian  Ormuzd-Ahriman.  In 
these  pairs  of  male  gods  their  association  possibly  points 
rithcr  to  the  syncretism  of  allied  cults,  or  to  the  develop- 
ment of  new  cults  out  of  a  primitive  cult  epithet ;  where 
iie  pair  are  male  and  female  it  suggests  the  union  of 
lie  male  and  female  principles. 

Thirdly,  in  this  legend  we  have  the  familiar  tale  of 
Jie  attempt  to  scale  the  heavens.  In  the  Hindu  version 
lie  Asuras  build  a  fire-altar  in  the  hope  of  reaching  the 
iky.  Each  of  them  placed  a  brick  on  it,  and  Indra, 
massing  himself  off  as  a  Brahman,  added  one  for  him- 
self. At  last  Indra  pulled  out  his  brick,  and  the  Asuras 
ell  down  and  were  turned  into  spiders,  except  two  of 
liem,  who  flew  away  to  heaven  and  became  the  heavenly 

»  0<L  xi.  305  ff.  "  Folh-hre,  viii.  325  flf, 

•//.  xi.  750  ff.  [iv.];   Od,  ix.  412.  •  CW.  xi.  235  ff. 

164       Sofne  Notes  an  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

dogs.  The  bricks  here  may  be  compared  to  the  moun- 
tains in  the  Greek  myth.^  So  the  Egyptian  story  tells 
of  an  ascent  to  heaven  by  a  tower,  the  Babel  of  Semitic 
tradition,  or  the  attempt  of  Nimrod  to  climb  to  the 
sky.*  In  the  common  European  version  we  have  Jack 
and  the  Beanstalky  where  the  boy  climbs  to  the  sky 
and  robs  the  Giant  of  his  treasures,  a  tale  of  the  class 
in  which  the  culture-hero,  like  Prometheus,  steals  some- 
thing necessary  to  mankind  from  the  people  of  the 
other  world.  The  motif  has  been  moralised  in  the 
remarkable  Indian  tale  of  Sedit  and  the  Two  Brothers 
HuSy  in  which  the  brothers  abandon  the  attempt  on 
the  ground  that  theirs  is  a  mistaken  ideal,  and  that  it 
is  better  for  men  to  live  and  work  on  earth  rather 
than  enjoy  the  passive  repose  of  heaven.* 

Fourthly,  we  have  the  tale  of  the  Precocious  Children. 
In  the  Homeric  Hymn,  Apollo  new-bom  tastes  the 
nectar  and  ambrosia,  leaps  from  his  swaddling-clothes, 
begins  to  speak,  and  wanders  through  the  land.  In 
the  Norse  tale,  Vali,  when  one  night  old,  sallies  forth 
to  avenge  the  death  of  Balder;  and  Magni,  when  three 
years  old,  flings  the  enormous  foot  of  the  Giant  Hrungnir 
off  his  father,  and  would  have  beaten  the  monster  to 
death  with  his  fists.*  The  Hindus  tell  equally  marvellous 
tales  of  the  might  of  the  infant  Krishna,  and  the  Dayaks 
have  a  divine  child  in  Seragunting.*  Robert  the  Devil 
bites  off  the  paps  of  his  nurse,  is  fed  through  a  horn, 
and  surpasses  in  strength  and  wisdom  all  the  children 
of  his  age;  and  Tom  Hickathrift,  ''at  ten  years  old, 
was  six  feet  high  and  three  feet  across,  with  a  hand 
like    a    shoulder    of   mutton,   and    everything  else  pro- 

^  Sacred  Books  of  the  East,  xii.  286,  xlii.  500. 

^Maspero,  Life  in  Egypt^  212;  Sale,  UToran,  269  n.  I.     For  the  Malay 
version,  Skeat-Blagden,  Pagan  Races^  ii.  300. 
^Folk-lore,  x.  344  ff.  *  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mythology,  i.  320  fc 

'  Roth,  Natives  of  Sarawak^  i.  198  f. 

S&me  Notes  an  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        165 

ortionable."^  As  St  Benedict  sang  Eucharistic  hymns 
cfore  he  was  bom,  so  the  Zulu  tale  tells  of  a  child 
^  sings  in  his  mother's  womb,  and  the  modern  Lamas 
i  Tibet  are  said  when  only  a  few  months  old  to  have 
111!  powers  of  speech.^ 

In  the  famous  tale  of  Niobe  and  her  children  we 
each  the  cycle  of  myths  based  on  the  common  belief 
Q  the  petrifaction  of  human  beings,  some  accidental 
onformation  of  mountain,  rock,  or  tree  being  accepted 
s  the  basis  of  the  story.  Of  Niobe  Homer  tells  us 
hat  Apollo  slew  her  sons  and  Artemis  her  daughters, 
or  that  she  matched  herself  with  Leto,  saying  that  the 
[oddess  bare  only  twain,  but  herself  many  children. 
fine  days  they  lay  in  their  blood  and  there  was  none 
o  bury  them,  for  Kronion  turned  the  folk  to  stone. 
iut  at  last  the  gods  buried  them: 

*'  Haply  she  now,  a  rock  amongst  the  rocks. 
Amid  the  desert  hills  of  Sipylus, 
There  where  they  say  the  Njrmphs  divine,  who  whirl 
In  dance  roand  Acheloius,  make  their  coach, 
Changed  though  she  be  to  stone,  retains  her  woe.'*' 

This  famous  rock  of  Niobe  Pausanias  tells  us  he  saw 
limself,  and  from  his  account  it  was  undoubtedly  a 
ock,  not  an  image  of  Cybele,  with  which  attempts  have 
►ccn  made  to  identify  it*  It  is  needless  to  illustrate 
his  legend  by  parallels.  But  it  may  be  noted  that 
^omer  has  other  cases  of  petrifaction,  all  probably  based 
n  the  same  idea.  Thus  the  mixing  bowls,  jars  of 
tone,  and  stone  looms  of  the  Nymphs,  which  Odysseus 
aw  in  the  Cave  of  the  Naiads,  were  probably  some 
orm    of    stalactite,   as    in    Ireland  a   group   of   dolmens 

*  Haxlitt,    Tola  and  Legends^  59,  431. 

'Callaway,  Suntry  TaUs,  i.  6;  Waddell,  Buddhism  of  Tibet,  247. 
■  //.  axiv.  602  fif.  [iii.   b]. 

*  PoMjaniaj,  i.  21,  3;  ii.  21,  9,  13,  7,  with  Frazer's  notes;  Journal 
itlUnii^  Studies,  i.  88,  iii.   39  ff.,  61  ff. 

1 66       Sotne  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

is  supposed  to  consist  of  petrified  weavers'  spools.^  The 
ship  of  the  Phaeacians  which  Poseidon  smote  into  stone 
is  probably  represented  by  the  rock  Karavi  off  the 
harbour  of  Corcyra,  if  M.  B6rard's  identification  of  this 
and  the  Cave  of  the  Cyclops  with  the  Cave  of  Sejanus 
at  Cumae,  where  two  great  obelisks  represent  the  rocks 
flung  by  the  monster,  be  accepted.  In  another  passage 
the  son  of  crooked-counselling  Kronos  turns  the  snake 
into  stone.* 

The  legend  of  Proteus  embodies  several  familiar 
incidents.  In  the  Odyss^  Proteus  is  fixed,  perhaps  by 
Cretan  sailors,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Nile,  in  Egypt.* 
Pausanias  describes  the  worship  of  "The  Old  Man  of 
the  Sea"  at  Gythium,  and  this  is  the  title  by  which  he 
is  known  in  the  Iliad^  where,  however,  no  local  habitation 
is  assigned  to  him.*  Homer  says  that  he  knows  the 
depths  of  every  sea  and  that  he  is  thrall  of  Poseidon. 
His  later  representations  suggest  his  connexion  with  a 
fish-god,  like  that  of  Nineveh,  and  Mr.  Hall  with  some 
hesitation  compares  him  to  Dagon.^  In  any  case,  he 
appears  to  be  a  disestablished  sea-god,  and  in  the  later 
accounts,  as  in  that  of  Diodorus  and  Herodotus,*  he 
seems  to  have  oriental  affinities.  Proteus,  Homer  tells 
us,  sleeps  with  his  flock  of  seals  in  a  hollow  cave;  he 
can  change  himself  into  the  shapes  of  all  manner  of 
things  that  creep  upon  the  earth,  into  water  and  burning 
fire.  When  Odysseus  seizes  him  he  becomes  successively 
a  lion,  a  snake,  a  pard,  a  boar,  running  water,  a  tall 
and  flowering  tree.^  This  power  of  transformation  is 
common  in  the  folk-tales.  In  Norse  tradition,  for  instance, 
the  TroUman  and  the  witch  could   appear  as  whales  or 

^  Od,  xiii.  105  f.  ;  Borlase,  Dolmens  of  Ireland^  iii.  769. 
»//.  ii.  319  [ii.  A].  ^Od.  iv.  365,  385. 

*//.  xviii.  140  f.  [iii.  b],  Pausanias^  iii.  21,  9,  with  Frazer's  note. 
^Layard,  Nineveh^  ii.  466  f.;  Hall,  Oldest  Civilisation^  135  n» 
^  Diod,  i.  62;  Herod,  ii.   112.  "^  Od.  iv.  384  ft 

Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore,        167 


ither  animals,  and  the  Troll  wife,  in  order  to  kill  King 
Frodiy  transforms  herself  into  a  sea  cow  and  her  sons 
iito  calves.^  In  another  tale  Hardgrip  says  to  Hadding : 
*  Be  not  moved  by  my  unwonted  look  of  size.  For  my 
mbstance  is  sometimes  thinner,  sometimes  ampler;  now 
meagre,  now  abundant;  and  I  alter  and  change  at  my 
pleasure  the  condition  of  my  body,  which  is  at  one  time 
shrivelled  up,  and  at  another  expanded ;  now  my  tallness 
reaches  to  the  heavens,  and  now  I  settle  down  into  a 
buman  being,  under  a  more  bounded  shape."'  In  his 
reluctance  to  prophesy  Proteus  is  like  other  sea  gods. 
The  tacitum,  prophetic  Marmennil  of  Germany  is  fished 
out  of  the  sea  and  requires  ^o  be  allowed  to  dive  again 
into  the  depths,  and  the  Chaldaean  Eabani,  who  pastures 
die  flocks  of  the  sea,  must  be  seized  by  wiles.' 

But  it  is  the  Transformation  Combat  which  is  most 
prominent  in  the  tale  of  Proteus.  One  of  the  best 
examples  of  this  incident  is  the  terrible  scene  in  the 
tale  of  the  ''Second  Calendar"  in  the  Arabian  Nights, 
where  oriental  fancy  reaches  the  highest  pitch  of 
tragedy,  as  the  Ifrit  becomes  successively  a  Hon,  a 
scorpion,  a  wolf,  and  a  cock,  and  finally  blazing  fire 
which  consumes  the  unlucky  princess.*  In  a  Hindu  tale 
Somada  becomes  a  black  mare,  and  Bandhumochani,  as 
a  bay  mare,  overcomes  her ;  in  the  Norwegian  tale  of 
Fartpur  Weathersky  the  youth  turns  into  a  horse  and 
is  sold,  and  when  the  farmer  seizes  the  ring  of  the 
princess  it  slips  into  the  ashes,  and  he  becomes  a  cock 
which  begins  to  scratch  in  the  ashes  in  search  of  the 
ring,  whereupon  the  boy  changes  into  a  fox  and  bites 
off  the   cock's   head.^     In  a  modern    Greek  story,  when 

'Thorpe,  Xorth^m  Mythology ^  i.   2 1 6.  ^ Saxo^  i.  21. 

•Grimm,  Teutonic  Mythology^  i.  454  ;  Maspcro,  Dcnun  of  CivUisation,  576n. 
•Burton,   \'ights^  i.    123  ff. 

•TawDcy,  Katha^  i.  342  f. ;  Harlland,  Legtnd  of  Perseus,  iL  56!  ;  Dasent, 
Po/uJar   TaJ/s,   335  f. ;  Cluuslon,   Popular   Tales,  i.   482  flf. 

1 68        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore, 

the  musician  catches  the  Nereid,  she  becomes  a  dog,  a 
serpent,  a  camel,  and  fire;  but  he  holds  on  to  her  till 
the  cocks  begin  to  crow,  when  she  resumes  her  original 
form,  follows  him  quietly,  and  becomes  his  wife.^  In  a 
German  tale  of  the  same  cycle  the  magician  finds  the 
youth  reading  one  of  his  magical  books,  and  when  he 
tries  to  seize  him  the  boy  turns  into  a  bird  of  prey  and 
flies  away.  Finally,  the  magician  becomes  a  grain  of 
corn,  which  the  boy  in  the  form  of  a  cock  promptly 
eats,  and  thus  the  career  of  the  warlock  ends.*  The 
combat,  again,  often  takes  the  form  of  a  struggle  by  the 
Giant  to  pass  his  soul  into  something  else,  in  the  course 
of  which  he  attempts  to  gain  his  purpose  by  a  series  of 
magical  transformations,  as  in  the  Highland  tales  of  the 
Young  King  of  Easaidh  or  The  Fair  Gruagach? 

This  cycle  would  naturally  connect  itself  with  Proteus, 
if  we  accept  the  theory  that  he  is  a  seal-god,  because 
this  animal,  in  virtue  of  its  semi-human  appearance,  is 
supposed  to  be  specially  capable  of  transformation.  "  In 
the  Faroe  Islands,"  says  Thorpe,*  "the  superstition  is 
current  that  the  seal  every  ninth  night  assumes  a  human 
form  and  dances  and  amuses  itself  like  a  human  being, 
until  it  resumes  its  skin  and  again  becomes  a  seal.  It 
once  happened  that  a  man  passing  by  during  one  of 
these  transformations,  and  seeing  the  skin,  took  possession 
of  it,  when  the  seal,  which  was  a  female,  not  finding  her 
skin  to  creep  into,  was  obliged  to  continue  in  human 
form,  and  being  a  comely  person  the  man  made  her  his 
wife,  had  several  children  by  her,  and  they  lived  happily 
together,  until  after  a  lapse  of  several  years  she  chanced 
to  find  her  skin,  which  she  could  not  refrain  from 
creeping  into,  and  so  became  a  seal  again."  The  tale 
thus   diverges   into   the    Swan    Maiden    cycle,   which    is 

^Frazer,  PausaniaSf  iii.  614.  ^  Grimm,  Household  Tales^  i.  431. 

•Campbell,  Popular  Tales ^  i.  21,  ii.  437. 
^Northern  Mythology^  ii.   173. 

Same  Notes  an  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        169 

often  in  Celtic  tradition  connected  with  the  seaU  In 
Gennany  the  seal  is  supposed  to  possess  the  same 
power  of  shape-changing ;  in  the  Hebrides  sailors  suppose 
that  drowned  people  turn  into  seals ;  the  South  American 
Indians  believe  that  porpoises  are  water  women,  and  the 
sea-cows  of  South  African  rivers  are  identified  with  the 

The  last  inddent  of  the  Proteus  tale  to  which  I  shall 
refer  concerns  Eidothee,  his  daughter,  who  instructs 
Odysseus  how  he  may  snare  her  father.  In  many  of 
the  tales  of  the  Outwitted  Giant  cycle  it  is  his  wife, 
mother,  or  daughter  who  has  pity  on  the  stranger  and 
points  out  a  way  for  his  escape.  Thus  in  the  German 
tale  of  The  Devil  and  the  Three  Golden  Hairs  it  is 
the  Devil's  grandmother  who  saves  the  stranger;  in  one 
version  of  The  Iron  Stove  the  cannibal's  wife  saves 
the  maiden;  in  the  Italian  tale  Thirteenth  the  ogress 
protects  the  boy  from  her  husband ;  and  it  would  have 
gone  hard  with  Jack  when  he  climbed  the  Beanstalk  if 
the  kindly  giantess  had  not  protected  him,  as  in  the 
Basque  tale  of  Errua  the  Madman,  the  old  woman 
explains  to  the  hero  how  he  may  evade  the  Tartaro.* 

The  myth  of  the  Sirens,  as  told  in  the  Odyssey,^ 
describes  them  as  a  pair  of  maidens  who  sit  in  a 
meadow  and  entice  wayfarers  by  their  singing.  Round 
them  lies  a  great  pile  of  the  bones  of  men,  corrupt  in 
death,  and  about  the  bones  the  skin  is  wasting.  Odysseus 
escapes  from  them  by  anointing  the  ears  of  his  comrades 

*  Kennedy,  Ltgendary  Fictions^  109 ;  Curtin,  Tales  of  the  Faeries ^ 
150  flP. 

•Pinkcrton,  Voya^ts^  iii.  595,  699,  788;  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mythology^  iii. 
1095  ^  I  CranU,  History  of  Greenland^  i.  339  ff. ;  O'Grady,  Silva  Gadeliea^ 
72  ;  Im  Thurn,  Amonj^  Indians,  40 ;  Rogers,  Social  Life  in  Scotland^  iii. 
219;  Rcade,  Savage  Africa^  467. 

•Grimm,  Household  Tales,  i.  122,  ii.  426,  564;  Crane,  Italian  Folk  Tales^ 
90  f.  ;  Webster,  Basque  Le^nds^  6  ff. 

*0d,  xil  39  ff.,   166  ff. 

170       Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

with  wax,  and  compelling  them  to  bind  him  to  the  ship- 
mast.  Many  interpretations  of  this  myth  have  been 
suggested — that  their  songs  are  the  sighing  of  the  wind 
in  the  trees,  like  the  music  of  Orpheus  or  the  flute  of 
the  Pied  Piper,  which  neither  beast  nor  man  can  resist; 
that  their  music  is  the  murmur  of  the  waves  amid  the 
hollow  caves  and  over  broken  rocks ;  that  they  represent 
the  belt  of  calms  so  dreaded  by  seamen ;  that  they  are 
the  witches  of  the  dangerous  shoal  water.  An  archaic 
cult  statue  of  Hera  Coronea,  described  by  Pausanias, 
shows  her  holding  the  Sirens  in  her  hand,  on  which 
Mr.  Farnell  remarks  that  "the  Sirens  are  most  commonly 
sepulchral  symbols,  emblems  of  the  lower  world,  and 
called  'daughters  of  the  earth'  by  Euripides;  and  if 
Hera  were  an  earth-goddess,  the  Sirens  would  be 
naturally  explained.  But  they  were  also  regarded  as 
the  personifications  of  charm  and  attractiveness,  and  on 
the  hand  of  Hera  they  may  simply  denote  the  fascina- 
tions of  married  life."^ 

These  witch-maidens  abound  in  other  mythologies. 
They  are  the  bird-maidens  or  Gandharvis  of  Buddhist 
tales,  who  charm  travellers  by  their  singing;*  the 
Rakshasis  or  ogresses  of  India,  who  live  on  human  flesh, 
and  change  themselves  into  lovely  maidens  who  seduce 
voyagers.  These  steel  themselves  against  their  charms 
when  they  find  the  mangled  remains  of  former  victims. 
Closer  still  is  the  analogy  of  the  Slavonic  tale,  where 
the  three  sisters  set  out  in  search  of  the  Water  of 
Life,  and  enter  the  garden  where  the  trees  sing  so 
sweetly  that  every  one  stops  to  listen,  and  is  forthwith 
turned,  like  Niobe,  into  stone;  but  the  youngest  sister, 
as  is  usual  in  myth,  escapes  by  closing  her  ears  with 
dough  and  wax,  and  thus  passes  through  the  enchanted 
garden  in  safety.^     In    an    Irish   tale   the  Druids   advise 

'^  Pausanias y  ix.  34,  3;  Farnell,  Cults ^  i.   184. 

^Indian  Antiquary^  x.  291  f.  *Frazer,  Pausanias^  v.  171. 

Some  Notes  an  Homeric  Folk- Lore.        171 

tiie  travellers  to  close  their  ears  with  wax  to  avoid  the 
fiudnations  of  the  mermaids.^ 

We  have,  again,  the  water  witches  who  annually 
demand  a  human  victim,  like  the  spirit  of  the  Fulda 
and  Nccker  in  Germany,  the  Lorelei  of  the  Rhine,  the 
Drome  in  Normandy,  Peg  Powler,  Nanny  Fowler,  Peg 
CyNell  and  Jenny  Greenteeth  of  North  England,  or  the 
Kelpie  and  its  kinsfolk  in  Scotland.*  "The  river  Dart 
every  year  claims  its  heart"  is  a  South  of  England 
saying.  Akin  to  these  are  the  Nixen  of  Germany,  the 
Holdra  which  sings  in  the  mountains,  and  the  Grim 
which  lives  by  waterfalls  and  entices  travellers  by  her 
music'  The  Norwegian  mermaid  lulls  mariners  to  sleep 
by  her  songs,  as  do  the  Morrows  of  Ireland  and  the 
Nixen  of  the  Netherlands,  who  come  out  of  rivers  and 
sing  with  magical  sweetness.^  In  one  of  the  Scotch 
ballads  a  mermaid  decoys  a  knight  to  his  doom,  and 
the  same  tale  is  told  of  Slavonian  water  sprites.^  In 
short,  dancing,  song,  and  music  are  the  delight  of  these 
fairy  denizens  of  the  water.  Of  the  Rakshasis  of  Ceylon 
the  old  Buddhist  traveller  tells  that,  like  the  Sirens, 
they  receive  travellers  with  flowers,  scents,  and  music, 
the  meadow  in  which  they  dwell  being  specially  described, 
as  in  some  of  the  Irish  versions  of  the  tale;  finally, 
they  shut  up  their  visitors  in  an  iron  prison  and  devour 
them.*  So  the  Pragangan  of  Java  live  on  the  banks  of 
streams  and  madden  men  with  their  singingJ  As  in 
the  case  of  the  Sirens,  the  power  of  prophecy,  the  inter- 
pretation of  dreams,  and  other  uncanny  arts  are  attributed 

*  O'CaiTV,  Mannrrs  and  Customs  of  the  Ancient  frisky  iii.  384. 
'HanUnd,    Legtmi  of  Perseus^    iii.   81  ff. ;    Henderson,    Folk-lore  of  the 

Sorthem  CauniieSy  265  f. ;  Denham    Tracts^  ii.  42. 

*  Thorpe,  Northtm  Mythology,  i.  246,  ii.   3,  23. 

^  IHd.  ii.   27,  iii.    199.  ^  Folk- lore  Record^  ii.   105,  iv.  62  ff. 

*  Beal,  Si-yu-ki,  ii.  240  ff. ;  Tawncy,  Katha^  ii.  638. 

*  Featbennan,  Fapuo-MelamsianSy  396. 

172        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

to  water  or  wood  sprites,  like  the  Latin  Fauni,  who 
controlled  the  rustic  oracles.^ 

Homer  evidently  recognises  something  uncanny  about 
the  Sirens,  because,  contrary  to  his  usual  practice,  he  says 
nothing  about  their  parentage  or  origin.  Hence  there  is 
much  to  be  said  for  Miss  Harrison's  theory  that  they 
were  originally  a  form  of  the  Keres  or  death  sprites,  and 
that  Homer  "  by  the  magic  of  his  song  lifted  them  once 
for  all  out  of  the  region  of  mere  bogeydom."*  Accord- 
ingly, in  later  Greek  art  they  are  represented  as  winged 
sprites  on  tombs,  probably  originally  placed  there  as  a 
sort  of  charm  to  guard  the  dead  from  evil  spirits,  and 
afterwards  regarded  as  tender  mourners  lamenting  the 
untimely  fate  of  youth  or  maiden  snatched  away  in  their 
bloom.  Their  successors  are  the  angels  on  our  sepulchral 
monuments,  who  waft  the  weary  spirit  to  its  rest 

In  the  story  of  Polyphemus,  the  Cyclops,  we  reach 
the  cycle  of  the  Baffled  Giant  This  famous  mjrth  would 
need  a  paper  to  itself;  but  as  it  has  been  considered  by 
Lauer,  Grimm,  and  Mr.  McCulloch,'  I  shall  note  only  a 
few  points  in  the  story.  In  the  first  place,  it  looks  as  if 
the  Cyclops  was  really  a  disestablished  or  semi-forgotten 
deity.  Pausanias,  speaking  of  Corinth,  says:  "There  is 
also  an  ancient  sanctuary  called  the  altar  of  the  Cyclopes ; 
and  thev  sacrifice  to  the  Cyclopes  on  it'**     He  tells  us 

Same  Notes  an  Homeric  Folk- Lore.        173 

iyed,  a  characteristic  he  shares  with  the  smith-god  of 
fapan,^  and  a  host  of  other  monsters — the  Irish  giant 
Balor,  who  had  one  eye  in  his  forehead  and  another  at 
%it  back  of  his  skull,  the  former  being  never  opened 
except  on  the  field  of  battle,  when  it  always  took  four 
nen  with  hooks  to  raise  the  lid,  and  then  his  glance 
■nfecbled  a  whole  army  of  his  enemies ;  the  same  tale 
s  told  of  the  monsters  Kabandha  and  Vaisravana  in  the 
Ramayana?'  In  a  tale  from  Syra  the  monster  is  half 
nan,  with  only  one  eye,  one  hand,  and  one  foot ;  Celtic 
egC€A  tells  of  the  Angling  Giant,  who  had  only  one  eye, 
ind  the  ocean  rose  no  higher  than  his  knee;  in  the  Irish 
ale  of  Diarmaid  and  Grainne,  as  in  the  Arthurian  story 
>f  Peridun,  the  giant,  like  the  Basque  Tartaro,  has  only 
)iic  eye  in  the  centre  of  his  forehead.' 

The  blinding  of  the  monster  with  a  red-hot  poker  need 
x>t  detain  us.  It  is  thus  that  Popelusa,  the  Hungarian 
Cinderella,  dealt  with  the  one-eyed  giant;  the  Basque 
lero  with  the  Tartaro;  and  Bissat  blinds  the  Tartar 
nonster  Depeghoz>  It  is  perhaps  a  reminiscence  of  the 
Homeric  story  that  Sindibad  in  his  Third  Voyage,  Oscar 
n  the  Highland,  and  Lug  in  the  Celtic  story  in  the  same 
*ray  deal  with  their  monsters.* 

As  to  the  escape  under  the  belly  of  the  ram — in  one  of 
iic  Russian  tales,  the  blacksmith  who  is  enslaved  by  the 
vitch  puts  on  his  pelisse  inside-out,  feigns  himself  to  be 
\  sheep,  and  passes  out  with  the  rest  of  the  flock,  as  in 
)ne  of  the  Highland  variants  the  hero  escapes  by  flaying 

*  AstoD,  Sihcnfii^  i.  8i  n. 

*0*Donovan,  Four  Masters^  i.  i8;  Joyce,  Social  HUtory^  i.  309;  Hart* 
uid,  Ltgend  of  Perseus y  i.  15  ;  Griffith,  Ramayan^  31 1. 

'  MAcInnesNutt,  Waifs  and  Strays,  263  ;  Folklore^  vii.  223  ;  Rhys,  Studies 
n  tfu  ArtkuHapt  Legend ^  92;  id.  Hibbert  Lectures ^  314;  Borlase,  [dolmens 
f  Ireland,  iii.  888 ;  Webster,  Basque  legends,  5. 

*  Miss  Cox,  Cinderella y  208,  489;  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mytkolcgy^  ii.  554; 
VebstCT,  Basque  Ligtnds^  5. 

*  Barton,  Nights^  iv.  367 ;  Campbell,  Popular  Tales,  iii.  314 ;  Rhys, 
^lUtrt  Lectures ,  3 1 7. 

174        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

the  Giant's  dog  and  puts  on  its  skin;  the  escape  under 
the  sheep's  belly  in  the  Basque  version  seems  to  be 
obviously  a  reminiscence  of  Homer's  story.^  In  the  Celtic 
Voyage  of  Maildune  we  have  another  account  of  a  similar 
escape.  The  adventurers  approach  an  island  inhabited 
by  gigantic  blacksmiths,  and  one  burly  fellow  rushes  out 
with  a  piece  of  glowing  iron  in  the  tongs,  and  flings  it 
after  the  curragh,  which,  however,  it  fortunately  misses* 
A  similar  tale  is  also  told  of  St.  Brendan.  In  some 
cases,  as  in  the  remarkable  parallel  from  Yorkshire,  in 
which  Jack  blinds  the  Giant,  skins  his  dog,  and  throwing 
the  hide  over  his  shoulder  runs  out  on  all  fours  barking 
between  the  legs  of  the  monster,  it  has  been  suggested 
that  the  tradition  is  independent  of  the  Odyssey?  Others 
see  in  this  and  the  very  similar  tale  of  Conall  Cra 
Buidhe  from  Islay  distinct  evidence  of  borrowing  from 
the  Homeric  original.*  It  is  more  probable  that  the 
Cyclops  Saga  is  made  of  very  ancient  folk-tradition, 
and  that  later  versions  were  shaped  by  the  splendid 
imaginativeness  of  Homer's  story. 

The  device  by  which  Odysseus  calls  himself  Outis  or 
"Nobody"  appears  in  the  Highland  tale  of  the  BroUichan 
who  is  scalded  by  the  woman.  She  gives  her  name  as 
"  Myself,"  and  the  goblin,  when  asked  who  scalded  him, 
answers  "Myself,"  the  same  idea  forming  the  motif  of 
the  English  story  My  own  Self  and  the  Basque  Fairy  in 
the  House!* 

^  Gubernatis,  Zoological  Mythology^  i.  408  n.  ;   Folk-lore   Congress  Report^ 
325 ;  Webster,  Basque  Legends^  5. 
'Joyce,  Social  History ^  ii.  304. 
'Henderson,  Folk-lore  of  the  N.  Counties,  195. 

*  Campbell,  Popular  Tales,  i.  I05  fF. ;  Jacobs,  More  English  Fairy  Tales, 
228 ;   ioL  Celtic  Fairy  Tales,  247. 

*  Campbell,  Popular  Tales,  i.  Intro.  47 ;  Jacobs,  More  English  Fairy 
Tales,  221  ;  Webster,  Basque  Legends,  55  ;  Clouston,  Book  of  Noodles,  194  ; 
of.  Cox,  Mythology  of  the  Aryan  Nations,  ii.  366 ;  Burton,  Nights,  xi.  31  ; 
Folk-lore,  vii.  154  f. 

I  Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.        175 

The  second  cannibal-tale  in  the  Odyssey  is  that  of  the 
L,acstT}*gons.*  Various  theories  have  been  suggested  as 
o  the  position  of  this  people.  On  the  one  hand  it  has 
Kcn  ar^ed  that  the  scene  of  the  legend  lies  in  Sicily, 
isd  that  the  curious  statement  of  the  poet — "where 
Icrdsmai]  hails  herdsman  as  he  drives  in  his  flock,  and 
kc  other  who  drives  forth  answers  the  call;  there  might 
h  slct^piess  man  have  earned  a  double  wage,  the  one  as 
lestherd,  the  other  shepherding  white  flocks ;  so  near  are 
be  outgoings  of  the  night  and  day  " — refers  to  the  danger 
rom  gadflies  which  prevents  the  cattle  from  pasturing 
9tcept  after  sundown,  while  the  sheep,  protected  by  their 
leeces,  could  feed  during  the  day.  The  reference  to  the 
^ke  rising  from  the  land'  might,  it  has  been  thought, 
le  tesed  on  an  eruption  of  Etna.  This  view  has  been 
^btly  rejected.*  Another  solution  has  been  proposed  by 
Jr,  Vcrrall  "  It  seems  more  probable  that  *  Fargate  of 
be  Lacatrygons*  is,  or  originally  was,  a  picture  coloured, 
r  not  drawn,  from  the  report  of  some  terrified  mariners^ 
pho.  trading  from  lands  of  pasture  and  agriculture,  saw 
bf  the  fir^t  ti'rne  some  place,  on  the  Euxine,  maybe, 
irhere  metal-work  was  practised  on  a  large  scale;  a  sort 
>f  Black  Country,  where  *the  smoke  went  up  from  the 
and,'  where  the  trolly,  on  paths  of  incredible  facility, 
oiled  down  from  the  hills  the  wood  for  the  furnaces, 
irhere  shifts  so  extended  the  hours  of  labour  that  '  night 
ind  day  met  in  one,*  and  where  the  visitor,  roughly 
landled  by  the  hard  workmen  and  appalled  by  the  signs 
>f  their  skill  and  power,  fled  away  to  report  that  their 
igurcs  were  gigantic,  and  that  they  lived,  like  the  Martians 
A  Mr.  Wells*  romance,  on  the  flesh  of  men."*  He  suggests 
hat  there  is  nothing  inconsistent  in  this  view  with  the 
possibility  of  a   reference  to   the   short  summers  of  the 

»  Od,  X.  50  ff.  *  OcL  X.  99.  >  McrryRiddcll,  Odyssey,  x.  8l. 

^Journal  Hdlenic  Studies^  xviii.  7  f. 


176        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

North,  of  which  a  rumour  would  first  reach  the  Greeks 
on  the  Euxine. 

All  the  probabilities,  however,  point  to  the  North  as  the 
scene  of  the  story.  The  short  nights  and  the  volcanic 
outbursts  suit  the  North  of  Europe,  of  which  Homer 
seems  to  have  gained  some  knowledge,  if  the  island  of 
Aeolus  represents  an  iceberg,  and  if  the  Phaeacian  legend 
was  suggested  by  the  Northern  tale  of  the  Ferrymen  of 
the  Dead.  His  account  of  the  land  of  the  Cimmerians 
seems  to  support  this  inference.^  The  communication 
between  North  Europe  and  the  Mediterranean  along  the 
Amber  Route  must  date  from  a  very  early  period,  and 
this  traffic  continued  during  the  Bronze  Age.* 

It  must  be  remembered  that  there  are  traditions  of 
cannibalism  in  North  Europe  in  early  times,  and  some 
evidence  in  support  of  the  belief  that  it  prevailed  there.* 
As  a  proof  of  this  the  condition  of  the  bones  found  in  the 
barrows  has  been  adduced;  but,  as  Dr.  Windle  remarks, 
this  conclusion  is  not  quite  certain.*  St.  Jerome,  whatever 
his  evidence  may  be  worth,  testifies  to  cannibalism  among 
the  Celts,  and  the  folk-lore  tradition  is  abundant,  as  in 
the  case  of  the  Celtic  fairies,  the  Russian  Baba  Yaga, 
the  hags  or  ogresses  of  the  Eskimo  tribes,  and  even  some 
versions  of  our  own  Blue  Beard  cycle,*  which  would  have 
been  sufficient  to  suggest  the  idea  to  the  Homeric  Greeks. 

Of  the  Lotos-eaters  we  are  told  that  whoever  ate  the 
honey-sweet  fruit  of  the  lotos  had  no  more  wish  to  bring 
tidings  or  to  come  back,  but  rather  chose  to  abide  with 
the  lotos-eating  men,  ever  feeding  on  the  lotos  and  for- 

^  OcL  XL   14  ff. 

*  Ridgcway,  Folk-lore^  i.  82  ff. ;   Montelius,  Journal  Anthropological  InsH* 
lute,  XXX.  89  ff. 

'  Borlase,  Dolnuns  of  Ireland^  ii.  469.     On  the  cannibalism  of  the  Celtic 
fairies,  see  Rhys,  Celtic  Folklore^  ii.  673. 

*  Remains  of  the  Prehistoric  Age^  138. 

*  McCulloch,  Childhood  of  Fiction,  289  flf. 

!  Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.        177 


Ectful  of  his  return.^  What  the  plant  may  have  been  to 
irfaich  Homer  refers  need  not  concern  us  here,  for  the 
Potion  of  Forgetfulness  appears  in  the  traditions  of  many 
races.  One  special  form  of  it  is  the  belief  that  those  who 
eat  the  food  of  spirit-land,  as  in  the  case  of  Persephone 
ind  Kore,  never  return.  A  Maori  tale  ascribes  much  the 
lame  effect  to  the  sweet  potato,  as  the  Sioux  story  does 
to  the  rice  of  the  other  world.*  In  the  Norse  legend, 
irfaen  Gorm  went  to  the  realm  of  Guthmundas,  the  king 
offered  him  his  daughter  in  marriage.  He  was  prescient 
enough  to  decline,  but  four  of  his  men  could  not  resist 
the  temptation,  and  paid  the  penalty  with  loss  of 
memory  and  enfeebled  minds;'  a  situation  reproduced 
vrith  admirable  power  in  Kingsley's  Westward  Ho  I  So 
Gudmund  saps  the  chastity  of  the  Danes :  "  The  infection 
maddened  them,  distraught  their  wits,  and  blotted  out 
their  recollection."  Thorkill,  like  Odysseus,  tries  to  save 
his  comrades,  and  gives  them  a  horn  smeared  with  fat 
as  an  antidote  to  the  fascination.^  With  this  we  may 
compare  the  common  belief  in  the  miraculous  lapse  of 
time  in  fairyland. 

Thus  the  tale  of  the  Lotos-eaters  is  linked  with  the 
witcheries  of  Circe  and  Calypso.  The  one  is  usually 
taken  to  be  a  double  of  the  other.  In  many  respects 
the  situation  is  the  same ;  but  there  is  one  important 
difference.  Calypso  lives  in  a  cave,  Circe  in  a  palace, 
the  latter  representing  the  fascination  of  a  life  of  refined 
luxury,  as  contrasted  with  semi-savagery.  Both  are  fair 
and  lovely  goddesses,  dwelling  in  a  remote  isle,  and 
attended  by  handmaidens ;  both  are  connected  with  gold 
and  silver,  and  weave  a  mighty  web  as  they  sing;  both 
are   fair-haired   awful   goddesses   of  mortal   speech  ;   the 

>  Od.  ix.  82  ff.  *  Tylor,  Primitivt  Culture.^  ii  S^  ^^ 

*Rydbcrg,    Teutonic  Mythology,  2 1 3. 

♦Dion-Powell,  Saxo,  346  ff .  ;  cf.  Thorpe,  N^rtksm  MyiM^gy^  L  103, 
a  16,  \L  91  ;   Rhys,   Celtic  Folk-lore^  L   113. 

178        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

abode  of  both  is  surrounded  by  woods;  both  love  the 
hero,  who  unwillingly  responds  to  their  passion  ;  neither 
of  thenm  is  permitted  to  retain  him  for  ever ;  each  solemnly 
swears  not  to  injure  him ;  each  at  dawn  arrays  herself 
in  a  great  shining  robe,  light  of  woof  and  gracious,  and 
casts  about  her  waist  a  golden  girdle ;  finally,  both  send 
him  home  with  a  favouring  breeze. 

But,  be  it  cave  or  palace,  the  home  of  the  witch  is  that 
land  of  mystery,  that  Castle  of  Indolence  in  which  the 
witch  queen  of  folk-lore  enslaves  the  sons  of  men — the 
house  of  the  Hindu  Tara  Bai,  the  star  maiden,  who  can 
neither  grow  old  nor  die,  and  the  witchery  of  whose 
lulling  songs  no  mortal  can  resist;  the  Horselberg  into 
which  Venus  entices  Tannhauser ;  the  Ercildoune  where 
the  fairy  queen  enthralls  Thomas  the  Rimer.  We  find 
the  same  situation  in  the  Arabic  tale  of  Ahmed  and 
Peri  Banou,  in  the  Latin  legend  of  Numa  and  Egeria. 
We  may,  again,  compare  the  Celtic  tale  of  Maildune, 
detained  with  his  comrades  by  the  island  queen.  They 
try  to  escape  in  a  curragh ;  but  the  queen  flings  a 
thread  towards  them,  which  Maildune  catches,  and  it 
clings  to  his  hand.  Then  she  draws  them  back,  and 
they  are  detained  nine  months  longer,  every  attempt 
which  they  make  to  escape  being  defeated  in  the  same 
At  last   they    begin    to    suspect    that    Maildune 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        179 

Badr  Basim  and  turns  him  into  a  bird ;  or  Queen  Lab : 
'Whoever  entereth  this  city,  being  a  young  man  like 
liyself,  this  miscreant  witch  taketh  him,  and  he  becometh 
i  mule,  or  a  horse,  or  an  ass."^  In  one  of  the  Russian 
ales  the  boy,  by  the  enchantment  of  the  witch,  is  turned 
nto  a  kid,  and  in  the  Lorraine  story  of  the  Fishermaris 
Son,  the  witch  strikes  the  hero  with  her  wand,  and  turns 
nto  a  tuft  of  grass  himself,  his  horse,  and  his  dog.^  A 
parallel  so  remarkable  to  the  tale  of  Circe  occurs  in  the 
Baddhtst  Mahawanso  that  it  is  difficult  not  to  suspect 
x>rrowing  from  the  Odyssey,  Here  the  YakkhinI,  an 
3gress,  enthralls  the  comrades  of  Wijaya  in  a  cave ;  he 
inns  himself  and  goes  to  rescue  them ;  she  entices  him 
\x>  eat  and  drink,  but  he  threatens  her  with  his  sword, 
uid  forces  her  to  swear  to  cast  no  more  spells ;  a  feast 
roUows,  and  he  retires  with  her  to  a  room  which  she 
:auses  to  spring  up  at  the  foot  of  a  tree.'  In  this  and 
3ther  seduction-tales  of  this  class  we  seem  to  have  an 
echo  of  the  Matriarchate. 

The  myth  of  Scylla  and  Charybdis  represents  the  cult 
3f  the  whirlpool  demon,  a  cruder  variety  of  the  tale  of 
the  Sirens.  Scylla  dwells  in  a  cave  turned  towards 
Erebus ;  her  voice  is  that  of  a  new-born  whelp ;  a 
dreadful  monster  is  she ;  not  even  if  a  god  met  her 
BV'ould  he  behold  her  with  gladness.  She  has  twelve 
feet  all  dan^^ling  down,  and  six  long  necks,  on  each 
\  hideous  head,  and  therein  three  rows  of  teeth  set 
thick  and  close,  full  of  black  death.  She  lies  half 
:oncealed  in  her  cave,  and  stretches  out  her  arms  to 
jrope  for  dolphins  or  sea-dogs,  or  any  other  monstrous 
beast  which  deep-voiced  Amphitrite  feeds.  Charybdis, 
again,  under  a   great   fig-tree   in   fullest  leaf,  sucks  down 

*  Burton,   Xi^hts,  vi.  77,  83. 

'Gu^jcrnalis,    Z»oloi^cal   Mytholoj^y,    i.    209;     Hartland,    Legend  of  Per- 

*Tcnncnt,   Ceylon,  i.   332  f. 

i8o        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore. 

her  dark  water.  Thrice  a  day  she  sucks  it  in,  and 
thrice  spouts  it  out  in  terrible  wise.  "Far  be  thou 
from  thence  when  she  sucks  in  her  water,  for  not  the 
Earth-shaker  himself  might  then  save  thee  from  thy 
bane."^  Charybdis  is  thus  more  the  actual,  demoniacal 
whirlpool,  while  Scylla  is  a  type  of  the  monstrous  water- 
beasts  that  drag  men  beneath  the  water,  rend  and 
devour  them. 

Scylla  is  connected  with  the  dog,  but  Homer  gives 
no  support  to  the  fancies  of  Vergil  or  Milton,  who  repre- 
sent her  extremities  as  ending  in  dogs.  In  a  l^end 
of  this  kind  told  in  one  of  the  Northern  Sagas,  the 
travellers  reach  a  darkness  which  the  eyes  can  scarcely 
pierce,  and  are  exposed  to  a  maelstrom  which  threatens 
to  drag  them  down  to  chaos.  Finally,  they  come  quite 
unexpectedly  to  an  island  surrounded  with  a  wall  of 
rock,  like  that  of  Aeolus,  containing  subterranean  caves, 
where  giants  lie  concealed.  At  the  entrances  of  these 
dwellings  are  tubs  and  vessels  of  gold.  The  adventurers 
take  with  them  as  much  of  the  treasure  as  they  can 
carry,  and  hasten  to  their  ships.  But  the  giants  in  the 
form  of  monstrous  dogs  rush  after  them,  and  tear  one 
of  the  Frisians  to  pieces  while  the  others  escape.* 

Charybdis,  again,  lives  under  a  tree,  and  this  is  the 
place  where  the  Hindu  whirlpool  spirit  lurks.  Thus  we 
read  :  "  Thus  Satyavarta  said,  *  O  Brahman !  this  is  a 
banyan  tree ;  under  it  they  say  that  there  is  a  gigantic 
whirlpool,  the  mouth  of  the  subterranean  fire,  and  we 
must  take  care  in  passing  this  way  to  avoid  the  spot ; 
for  those  who  enter  that  whirlpool  never  return  again.'" 
Saktideva  clings  to  the  tree,  as  we  are  told  Odysseus 
did,  "like  a  bat,"  when  he  was  saved  from  Charybdis,  or 
as  Sindibad  did  when  he  landed  on  the  monstrous  fish.' 

In  the  stories  of  Autolycus  and  Sisyphus  we  seem  to 

1  Od:  ziL  85  flf.  *  Rydberg,  Tmtamk  Mytkcltgy,  218. 

*0<L  zii.  432 ;  Tmwney,  Kaika^  i.  aao  1 ;  Barton,  Nights^  iv.  348. 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        i8i 

have  vague  echoes  of  the  cycle  of  the  "Master  Thief." 
In  the  Iliad  Autolycus  breaks  into  the  well-builded 
bouse  of  Amyntor  and  steals  his  golden  casque ;  while 
in  the  Odyssey  we  learn  that  he  surpassed  all  men  in 
knavery  and  skill  in  swearing,  a  gift  conferred  upon 
him  by  Hermes  because  he  honoured  him  with  an 
offering  of  the  thighs  of  lambs  and  kids.^  It  was  from 
Autolycus,  his  maternal  grandfather,  that  Odysseus 
inherited  his  wiliness.  In  fact,  his  affiliation  to  the 
house  of  Laertes  seems  to  be  a  later  form  of  the  tradi- 
tion.' We  may,  perhaps,  compare  this  robbery  of  the 
casque  of  Amyntor  with  that  which  Herodotus  tells  of 
Rhampsinitus  and  Pausanias  of  Trophonius  and  Agamedes, 
the  Highland  "Shifty  Thief,"  or  the  Irish  "Jack,  the 
Cunning  Thief"* 

The  other  Homeric  sharper  is  Sisyphus,  if  his  name 
really  means  "the  very  wily  one."  He  was,  the  poet 
tells  us,  the  craftiest  of  men,  and  in  calling  him  the 
son  of  Aiolos  he  has  been  supposed  to  imply  that  he 
belongs  to  the  non-Hellenic  area  of  the  poems.^  Homer 
does  not  tell  us  the  nature  of  his  crime.  According 
to  some  he  betrayed  the  designs  of  the  gods ;  accord- 
ing to  others  he  beguiled  Persephone  and  made  his 
escape  from  Hades ;  or,  it  is  said,  that  he  used  to 
waylay  travellers  and  slay  them  with  a  mighty  stone. 
Another  story  tells  that  when  Death  came  to  carry 
him  off  he  chained  him ;  and  Death  being  chained,  no 
one  died  till  Ares  came  and  released  Death.  We  have 
a  parallel  to  this  in  the  well-known  tale  of  the  innkeeper 
who   shut   up    Death    in    a   bottle.^     Sisyphus    may   thus 

»//.  X.  267  [iv.];  Od.  xix.  394  f.  ^  Od.  xi.  85,  xix.  395. 

*  Herod .  ii.  121  ;  Pausanias,  ix.  37,  3;  Campbell,  Popular  Talis y 
I-  330  ff;  JacoU,  Cdtic  Folk  Tales,  224;  Grimm,  Household  Tales,  i.  431 ; 
Knowlc*,   /-oik    Tales  of  Kashmir,   no,  338. 

♦//.   vi-    153  [u.  a]. 

*Cfmn«,  Italian  Popular  Tales,  215  ff.  ;  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mythology,  ii.  854. 

1 82        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

be  compared  with  Gambling  Hansel  in  the  German 
tale,  with  Billy  Dawson  in  the  Irish  story  of  the  Three 
Wishes^  and  with  Conan  in  the  Finn  Saga,  who  harries 

In  the  stories  of  Sisyphus  and  Tantalus,  it  is  specially  to 
be  noted  that  their  punishment  is  quite  inconsistent  with 
the  Homeric  tradition  of  the  underworld,  in  which  there  is 
no  trace  of  retribution  after  death.  The  Homeric  religion, 
says  Miss  Harrison,^  "  was  too  easy-going,  too  essentially 
aristocratic,  to  provide  an  eternity  even  of  torture  for  the 
religious  figures  it  degraded  and  despised.  Enough  for  it 
if  they  were  carelessly  banished  to  their  own  proper 
kingdom,  the  underworld."  Hence  these  tales  are  pro- 
bably late  additions  to  the  Nekuia,  and  there  is  much  to 
be  said  for  the  suggestion  that  Sisyphus  is  a  disestablished 
sun-god,  banished  to  the  nether  world,  which,  like  the  sun, 
he  visits  daily  only  to  rise  again  with  the  dawn.  It  may 
be  remembered  in  this  connexion  that  Helios  himself 
threatens  to  go  down  and  shine  among  the  dead  if  Zeus 
will  not  avenge  his  wrongs.'  This,  then,  is  one  of  the  few 
Homeric  puzzles  which  may  be  solved  by  the  methods  of 
the  mythological  school  of  interpreters.  The  ball  which 
he  rolls  up  the  slope  may  represent  the  sun's  course  in 
the  heavens,  which  we  know  was  in  other  mythologies 
pictured  in  the  same  way.* 

It  is  much  more  difficult  to  grasp  the  idea  which  lies 
behind  the  myth  of  Tantalus.  It  is  almost  certain  that 
it  is  a  late  addition  to  the  Nekuia^  because  Homer  uses 
a  comparatively  modern  version  of  the  story.  The  archaic 
tale  told  that  Tantalus  suffered  not  in  hell,  but  in  heaven, 
where  he  was  admitted  to  the  table  of  the  gods.  Zeus 
promised   to  grant  him  his  heart's  desire,  and  he  willed 

*  Grimm,  Household  TaUs,  i.  322  ff.  ;  Campbell,  Tkt  Fians^  73 ;  Jacobs, 
Celtic  Folk  TcUts^  266  f.  ;  Frazer,  Pausanias^  ii  33. 

"^  ProUgamma,  6 1 3.  *  Od.  ia\.  382. 

*  Cox,  Introduction,  7  ff. ;  Rhys,  Hibbcrt  Lettura,  4S3. 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        183 

to  live  for  ever  like  the  gods.  Zeus  gave  him  the  boon 
of  immortality,  but  he  hung  a  great  stone  over  him, 
which,  like  the  sword  of  Damocles,  prevented  him  from 
enjoying  the  banquet  spread  before  him.^  In  the  Homeric 
version  of  the  story,  as  in  the  case  of  Sisyphus,  the  poet 
does  not  describe  the  sin  for  which  he  was  condemned 
to  grievous  torment,  unable  to  drink  the  water  or  touch 
the  fruits  which  seemed  to  be  within  his  grasp  until  the 
wind  tossed  them  to  the  clouds.*  The  older  story  possibly 
points  to  a  clash  of  rival  cults,  and  Tantalus  may  be  a 
degraded  sun-god,  striving  to  grasp  the  waters  which 
dry  up  before  the  splendour  of  his  rays.  For  his  punish- 
ment we  may  perhaps  compare  the  American  famine- 
giant,  who  hangs  from  the  lodge-pole  with  his  head  just 
touching  the  ground  ;  *  or  more  closely  the  Norse  myth 
of  the  Jutlander  who  broke  the  water-jug  of  King  Cnut : 
**  He  met  with  his  reward.  He  became  mad,  and  suffered 
from  burning  thirst,  and  one  day  having  laid  himself 
down  by  a  spring  to  draw  up  water,  he  slipt  halfway 
down  into  the  water,  and  remained  hanging  by  his  l^s, 
though  without  touching  it,  and  so  died."*  The  same  fate 
is  reserved  in  the  Buddhist  hell  for  those  who  are  miserly, 
covetous,  uncharitable,  or  gluttonous.^ 

Another  of  these  broken-down  sun  myths  probably 
appears  in  the  tale  of  the  Planktai  or  Wandering  Rocks. 
*  By  this  way  even  winged  things  may  never  pass,  not 
even  the  cowering  doves  that  bear  ambrosia  to  Father 
Zeus  ;  but  the  sheer  rock  evermore  takes  one  of  these 
away,  and  the  Father  sends  another  to  make  up  the 
tale."^  The  story  has  been  explained  in  various  ways — 
as  a  tradition  of  icebergs  seen  by  mariners  in  the  northern 
seas  ;    by  the   actual  appearance  of  some  islands  in  the 

Frazcr,  Pausanui:,  v.  392.  *  Od,  xi.  582  f. 

^  Schfx>lcr.ifl,   N.'tfs  on  th(   Iroiiuois^  1 54. 

*  Thorjjc,   Northern  M)tkolo^^\   ii.    226. 

*  Waddcll,   BudJhtsm  of  Tibd^  96  f.  •  CW.  xii.  61  ff. 

184        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

Bosporus,  parts  of  which  are  occasionally  submerged  in 
stormy  weather,  or  which  seem  to  meet  and  separate 
again  as  a  ship  passes  between  them.^  On  the  other 
hand,  the  sun  is  supposed  by  many  races  to  pass  through 
two  rocks  always  opening  and  shutting,  and  by  this  route 
the  spirit  has  to  pass  to  gain  its  rest*  Among  the 
Egyptians  this  fancy  of  the  road  of  the  soul  was  very 
fully  developed,  and  they  had  a  myth  which  closely 
resembles  that  of  Homer.  Every  year,  they  said,  all  the 
herons  assemble  at  the  mountain  now  called  Gebel-ct-ter. 
One  after  another  they  plunge  their  beaks  into  the  cleft 
of  the  hill  until  it  closes  on  one  of  them  ;  and  then 
forthwith  all  the  others  fly  away.  But  the  bird  that 
has  been  caught  struggles  until  it  dies,  and  there  its 
body  lies  till  it  has  fallen  into  dust,  an  obvious  remini- 
scence of  the  mountain  cleft  at  Abydus,  whereby  the 
souls  must  pass  in  the  form  of  human-headed  birds  in 
order  to  reach  the  other  world.'  In  a  Russian  tale  the 
hero  is  sent  to  find  the  Water  of  Life  from  between 
two  mountains  which  fly  apart  for  three  minutes  every 
day.  His  horse's  hind  legs  are  caught  by  the  rocks,  but 
the  water  revives  him ;  in  another  tale  of  the  same 
kind  the  hare  passing  through  rocks  like  these  loses 
her  tail,  and  since  then  hares  have  no  tails  to  speak 
of.*  Of  rocks  that  close  and  open  at  a  word,  as  in  the 
tale  of  All  Baba  and  the  Forty  Thieves,  the  instances 
in  folklore  are  legion.^ 

Of  much  the  same  class  is  the  myth  of  the  Floating 
Island   in   which   Aeolus  dwelt.*     The  idea  was  familiar 

*  Sec  Crantz,  History  of  Greenland^  i.  24  f. 

*Tylor,  Primitive  Culture,'^  i.  347  flF.;  ci.  Gill,  Myths  and  Songs  of  the  S. 
Pacific^  quoted  by  Monro,  Odyssey^  iL  293. 

'  Maspero,  Life  in  Ancient  Egypt ^   14I  ;    Damn  of  Civilisation^  lO  n. 

*  McCulIoch,  Childhood  of  Fiction,  59  ;  Miss  Cox,  Introduction,  268. 
^Miss  Cox,  Cinderella,  499  f.;  Grimm,    Teutonic  Mythology,  ii.  971  £;   id. 

Household  Taies,  iL  439;   Rhys,  Celtic  Folk-lore    i.  254. 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.        185 

to  the  Greeks  in  the  case  of  Delos,  but  even  the  credulity 
of  Herodotus  hesitated  at  the  account  of  the  floating 
island  of  Chemmis.^  Some  have  supposed  that  the 
Boating  island  of  Aeolus  was  an  iceberg;  but  in  view 
of  the  wide  provenance  of  the  legend  this  seems  in- 
adequate. We  have  the  story  in  the  case  of  Disco 
Island,  which  two  Eskimos  towed  with  the  hair  of  a 
little  child,  chanting  a  magical  lay,  and  anchored  it 
where  it  now  stands.'  The  Japanese  tell  the  same  tale 
of  Onogoro  ;  and  in  the  Celtic  story  Balor  directs  his 
men  to  fix  a  cable  round  the  isle  of  Erinn  and  sail 
with  it  home  out  of  the  reach  of  the  De  Danaan,  as 
Brian  draws  the  sunken  isle  of  Fiucam  out  of  the  depths 
of  the  sea,* 

Aeolus  is  the  wizard  who  has  the  winds  in  his  keeping. 
Laamao-mao  is  the  Hawaian  Aeolus,  from  whose  calabash 
winds  come  at  his  bidding.^  Oddi,  the  Danish  admiral, 
coald  raise  a  storm  against  his  enemies,  and  Hraesvelg 
was  the  storm-giant  of  Scandinavia,  who  could  shake 
the  winds  out  of  his  bag.^  In  Irish  tradition  the  Druids 
of  the  De  Danaan  can  raise  a  wind  which  blows  a  fleet 
to  sea;  the  wind  prophets  of  Samoa  and  the  Solomon 
Islands  can  bring  wind  and  rain,  and  to  this  day  women 
in  Lerwick  earn  their  living  by  selling  winds  to  sailors.* 

The  tale  of  the  Phaeacians  is  of  peculiar  interest  Some 
have  seen  in  it  a  prototype  of  **  a  long  series  of  imaginings, 
which  with  various  degrees  of  bitterness  or  of  gentle 
irony  have  reflected  some  features  or  some  tendencies 
of  contemporary  life,  or  have  embodied   a  contemporary 

>a/.  ii.    156.  «Rink,    Tales  and  Traditicns^  464. 

'Joyce,  Old  Celtic  Romances ^  41,  87  ;  Rhys,  Celtic  Folklore^  i.  9a 

*Fomandcr,  An  Account  of  the  Polynesian  Nace^  ii.  53. 

'Thorpe,  Xorthem  Mytholoi^y,  i-  2 1 5,  2 1 8,  ii.  193,  iii.  23;  SaxOy  ed. 
Ellon-PowcU,  156;  Grimm,  Teutonic  Mytholcj^^  ii.  640,  iii.  1057. 

•O  Curry,  Manners  ami  Customs ^  ii.  189;  Guppy,  Solomon  Islands^  $^\ 
Turner,  Samoti,  320,  462;  Ro^jcrs,  Social  Life  m  Scotland,  iii.  230;  cf. 
Frmxer,   Golden  liough,'^  i.   119  ft. 

1 86        Same  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

ideal,  such  as  More's  Utopia,  Swift's  Laputa,  or  Johnson's 
Rasselas,  All  grosser  elements  are  purged  away;  humanity 
appears  in  the  most  engaging  aspect ;  and  yet  in  the 
complacency  of  this  island  folk,  in  their  imagined  security, 
their  pride  of  ships,  their  boast  of  nearness  to  the  gods, 
it  seems  allowable  to  trace  some  good-humoured  persiflage 
of  the  poet's  own  neighbours,  whom,  to  avoid  offending 
them,  he  has  purposely  located  on  a  distant  and  imaginary 
shore."  ^  In  short,  he  is  supposed  to  have  placed  at 
Corcyra,  which  can  in  no  wise  be  compared  with  it,  the 
cultured,  luxurious  people  of  the  Ionian  coast.  If  the  tale 
has  a  basis  of  fact,  it  may  be  a  reminiscence  of  the 
Minoan  civilisation.  At  the  same  time,  it  is  clear  that 
the  Phaeacians  are  in  the  land  of  faery.  Gerland 
long  ago  compared  the  Phaeacian  episode  with  the 
tale  of  Saktideva  in  Somadeva's  collection.*  He,  like 
Odysseus,  is  saved  from  a  whirlpool  by  clinging  to  the 
tree  which  overhangs  it;  he  is  carried  to  the  Golden 
City,  and  entertained  by  the  Vidhyadhari  or  fairy  queen, 
who  is  destined  to  wed  a  mortal.  But  as  in  the  beautiful 
account  of  Nausikaa,  her  lover  deserts  her  and  returns 
to  marry  his  old  love.* 

An  attempt,  again,  has  been  made  to  compare  this 
ideal  Phaeacian  world  with  the  Northern  legend  of  the 
Ferrymen  of  Death,  who,  as  Procopius  tells  us,  convey 
the  souls  of  the  departed  to  the  Isle  of  Brittia.*  But 
this  gloomy  tale  is  ill  suited  to  the  Phaeacians,  who  live 
an  easy,  joyous  life,  devoid  of  care,  in  no  sense  akin 
to  the  gloomy  denizens  of  the  lower  world.  Their 
ships  are  the  magic  vessels  of  which  there  are  many 
examples  in  legend — the  enchanted  ship  of  the  Highland 
tale,  which  can  sail  on  sea  or  land ;  Gonachry,  the 
**heart-wounder,"  which  bears  the  hero  in  search  of  the 

^  Campbell,  Religion  in  Greek  Literature ,  88. 

2  Monro,   Odyssey^  ii.  293.  *Tawney,  Katha,  i,  194  ff. 

*Rhys,  Celtic  Folk4ore^  ii.  439  f. 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk- Lore.        187 

White  Swan  of  the  Smooth  Neck,  whom  he  loves; 
tiie  magic  bone  on  which  Oiler,  the  mighty  Norse 
wizard,  sails  across  the  deep ;  Odinn's  bark,  Skidvladner, 
which  can  be  folded  up  as  a  napkin,  and  when  her 
sails  are  set  a  favouring  breeze  arising  wafts  her  to 
whatever  shore  the  helmsman  wills.^  So  the  Edda  tells 
of  the  ship,  Naglfar,  which  is  to  be  built  of  the  parings 
of  dead  men's  nails,  and  hence  they  held  it  a  sacred 
duty  to  cut  the  nails  of  the  corpse,  because  both  men 
and  gods  dread  the  coming  of  this  awful  bark.*  In 
short,  these  magical  conveyances,  like  the  carpet  of 
Solomon,  the  wooden  horse  of  the  Arabian  Nights,  the 
flying  image  of  the  bird  Garuda  in  Hindu  tradition, 
arc  common  to  the  folk-lore  of  the  whole  world,  and 
the  origin  of  many  of  them  may  be  traced  to  the  magic 
ships  which  early  fancy  saw  in  the  racing  clouds  or 
the  hailstorm  drifting  across  the  sky. 

The  Saga  of  the  Wooden  Horse,  in  which  the  warriors 
arc  concealed,  appears  only  in  the  Odyssey?  and  forms 
part  of  a  wide  cycle  of  tradition.  Perhaps  the  earliest 
form  of  the  tale  is  to  be  found  in  the  Egyptian  story 
of  the  Taking  of  Joppa,  and  the  Arab  plan  for  the 
capture  of  Edessa,  which  was  framed  on  similar  lines, 
is  said  to  have  failed  owing  to  the  suspicions  of 
the  Governor  of  the  city.*  The  best  modern  instance 
is  that  of  All  Haba,  where  the  robber  captain  and  his 
comrades  conceal  themselves  in  oil  jars,  and  are  detected 
by  the  wit  of  the  slave  girl,  Morgiana.^  In  a  variant 
from   Cyprus  the  black   men   are  concealed   by  the  ogre 

*  Cam{)licll,  />/«/<iA  I'iiUs,  i.  257:  Macdougall-Null,  Folk  and  Hero 
TaJ^u  2H9 ;   Maclnncs-Nult,  H'aip  ami  Shays,  449;  Saxo,  td.  EUon-PowcU, 

99;    kydlier^'.    Teutofn    Myfholoi^,   24;    Mallei,  Northerti    Antiquities^  435. 

'Gnmri),  J'nttonii  Mytholo^y^  ii.  814  ;  Kydl)erg,  op.  cit.  379;  MaUet, 
cp.   at.   452. 

^  O'J.    iv.    271    I.  ;     viii.    502  ff.  ;     xi.    523  ff. 

*  Peine.  E^yfttiin    f.ius,  ii.   I  ff.  *  Burlon,  Nights^  x.   209  flf. 

i88        Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore. 

in  bales,  and  in  Sicily  Ohime,  the  ogre,  hides  in  a  hollow 
statue  of  silver  which  he  causes  to  be  introduced  into 
the  room  of  the  heroine.^  Besides  this  class  of  story, 
which  may  be  called  the  "Robber  Chief"  type,  there 
are  two  others,  one  of  which  Shakespeare  uses  in 
Cymbeline^  derived  from  Boccaccio,  where  the  traitor 
lover  conceals  himself  in  the  lady's  chamber,  and  notes 
a  mark  on  her  breast  whereby  he  deludes  her  husband 
into  suspecting  her  honour.*  The  other  type  of  the 
story  is  even  more  widely  spread,  and  may  be  called 
the  "Princess  of  Balkh,"  which  belongs  to  the  ** Bride 
Wager"  group,  in  which  the  youngest  of  the  brothers 
finds  the  princess  by  entering  her  palace  concealed  in 
a  lion  of  gold  and  silver,  which  appears  in  the  Sicilian 
version  in  the  shape  of  the  "  Musical  Eagle."  *  Of  these 
types  there  are  numerous  variants,  as  in  the  Magyar 
tale  of  the  hero  who  enters  the  palace  concealed  in  a 
silver  horse,  or  in  the  Hindu  story  of  the  "  King  of  Vatsa," 
who  is  attacked  by  warriors  hidden  in  an  artificial 
elephant*  In  the  Celtic  tale,  Brandruff  conceals  his 
warriors  covered  over  with  provisions  in  great  hampers 
laden  on  oxen,  and  these  he  drives  into  the  camp  of 
the  King  of  Ireland,  whom  he  overcomes.*  Even  at 
the  present  day  the  capture  of  many  famous  Hindu 
forts  is  said  to  have  been  effected  by  introducing 
warriors  in  female  guise  concealed  in  litters.*  In  countries 
where  women  are  secluded  this  device  may  often  have 

^  Folk-lore  Record^  iii.  pt.  ii.   185  f. ;    Folk-lore  Journal^  iii.  206  ff. 
^  Decafnerotif   Day  ii.  Tale  9;    Hazlitt,   Shcikesptar^ 5  Library^  i.    pt   ii. 
'  Punjab  Notes  and  Queries^  iv.  48 :    Pitre,  Biblioteca^  v.  307. 

*  Jones- Kropf,  Magyar  Folk  Tales ^   139^-;    Geldart,  Folk-lore  of  Modem 
Greece^  98 ;  Tawney,  Katha^  i.  72. 

•Joyce,  Social  History ^  i.   141. 

•Tod,  Annals  of  Rajastkan,  i.  252,  665  ;  Journal  Asiatic  Society  of  Bengal ^ 
briL  13. 

Some  Notes  on  Homeric  Folk-Lore.        189 

been   practised  with   success,  and   the  whole  cycle  may 
be  based  on  some  historical  incidents. 

Closely  connected  with  this  Saga  is  that  of  the 
*  Disguised  Deserter,"  who  maims  himself,  as  Odysseus 
did,  and  makes  his  way  into  the  enemy's  camp.^  This 
also  may  be  of  historical  origin.  Herodotus  tells  the 
same  tale  of  the  Zopyrus,  who  feigned  himself  to  be  a 
deserter  from  the  Persian  army,  and  enabled  Darius  to 
capture  Babylon  ;  of  Peisistratus,  who  by  a  similar  device 
secured  a  bodyguard  and  became  tyrant  of  Athens ;  the 
same  plan  was  repeated  to  complete  the  ruin  of  the 
aitny  of  the  Emperor  Julian.*  We  have  a  variant  of 
these  disguise  stories  in  the  return  of  Odysseus  as  a 
beggar,  an  incident  which  is  constantly  reproduced  in 
the  later  folk-tales.' 

I  must  bring  this  paper  to  a  close  with  the  final 
tragedy  which  ends  the  story  of  the  si^e  of  Troy.  I 
have  been  able  to  discuss  only  a  small  portion  of  the 
folk-lore  and  archaic  beliefs  which  are  embedded  in  the 
epics.  The  result,  I  venture  to  think,  is  only  to  increase 
our  admiration  of  the  great  writer  who  has  wedded  these 
incidents  to  the  noblest  verse.  We  honour  him  not 
only  as  the  first  of  European  folk-lorists,  but  as  the 
first  and  noblest  writer  who  devoted  his  genius  to  the 
record  of  beliefs  and  traditions  which  it  is  the  task 
of  this  Society  to  collect  and  interpret. 

W.  Crooke. 

»  Od.  iv.  244  ff. 

*  Herod,    iii.    154,   i.    59;    Gibbon,    Decline  and  Fcdly   iii.   206;    Fnzer, 
Pauionsaj,  iii.  413. 

'Grimm,  Household  Tales ^  i.  406. 


"The  Bitter  Withy"  Ballad. 

Professor  Child's  magnificent  collection  of  The  English  and 
Scottish  Popular  Ballads  deals,  as  all  ballad-students  must  be 
aware,  with  305  separate  items ;  and  since  the  completion  of 
his  exhaustive  work  that  number  has  been  regarded  as  including 
every  piece  of  traditional  popular  narrative,  complete  or  frag- 
mentary, that  could  be  regarded  as  a  ballad  in  the  strict  sense 
of  the  term.i  But  in  view  of  the  fact  that  a  ballad  or  carol 
variously  known  as  The  Bitter  Withy,  The  Withies,  or  The 
Sally  Twigs,  printed  by  me  in  1905  for  the  first  time,  has 
recently  been  accepted  as  genuine  by  one  of  Child's  most 
distinguished  pupils,^  it  may  now  be  considered,  I  think,  that 
the  305  must  be  increased  by  one. 

Quite  recently,  another  American  scholar^  has  investigated 
the  claim  of  The  Bitter  Withy  to  consideration  as  a  traditional 
ballad,  and  finds  it  genuine ;  Professor  Gerould,  moreover,  traces 
the  story  to  its  sources  with  great  elaboration.  With  the  hall- 
mark of  Professor  Gummere's  approval,  therefore,  and  with 
Professor  Gerould's  valuable  and  erudite  exegesis,  The  Bitter 
Withy  takes  its  place  on  the  roll  of  honour;  but  seeing  that 
the  former  had  but  one  text  on  which  to  adjudicate,  and  the 
latter  three  and  a  fragment,  I  am  glad  to  be  able  now  to 
increase  the  number  of  variants. 

^Except,  of  course,  variants  of  Child's  texts,  which  are  discovered  from 
time  to  time  both  in  print  and  in  tradition. 

2  Prof.  F.  B.  Gummere,   The  Popular  Ballad  (1907),  227.9. 

•  Prof.  G.  H.  Gerould,  in  Publications  of  the  Modem  Language  Association 
of  America^  xxiii.   I  (pp.   141-167). 

Collectanea,  191 

It  will  be  convenient  in  the  first  place  to  give  a  list  of 
le  texts  known  to  me,  distinguishing  each  in  the  style  adopted 
y  Child.  Prof.  Gerould  in  his  study  of  the  ballad  has  used 
le  Roman  numerals  I.  to  IV.,  but  I  think  it  best  to  continue 
Child's  method  of  capital  and  lower-case  letters,  leaving  figures 
)r  the  verses  and  lines. 

Texts  of  "  The  Bitter  Withy^ 

A.  (=  Gerould  I.).  The  Withies.  Taken  down  verbatim  as  sung  by  an 
Id  Herefordshire  man  of  about  seventy  in  1888,  as  learnt  from  hb  grand- 
K)tber,  and  communicated  in  a  letter,  Dec.  31,  1888,  by  Mr.  Henry 
llcrshaw,  Jun.,  of  Rotherham,  to  Mr.  A.  H.  Bullen  (shortly  after  the 
nblication  of  the  laller's  S(mgs  and  Carols).  Printed  by  F.  Sidgwick  in 
^otes  and  Queries^  loih  Scr.,  iv.  84  (1905)  ;  reprinted  thence  in  More  Ancient 
'arols  (Shakespeare  Head  Press  Booklets,  No.  V.,  1906),  in  i\\t  Journal 
^  ike  /^o/jhSonj:^  Sodety^  \\.  300  (1906),  by  Gummere,  The  Popular  Ballad^ 
28  (1907),  and  by  Gerould,  l^blications  Mod,  Lang.  Assoc,  of  Amer,, 
%2  (1908).     Nine  verses  =  36  lines. 

B.  (=  Gerould  H.).  A  fragment  contributed  by  C.  F.  S.  to  Notes  and 
Huriest  4th  Ser.,  i.  53  (1868),  with  a  request  for  the  complete  form, 
irst  and  last  verses  (with  prose  description  of  the  remainder)  =  8  lines 
r  verse. 

C.  (=  Gerould  HI.).  Our  Saviour  Tarried  Out,  Communicated  by  Dr. 
-    Vaughan-Williams,*   as   noted   in   1905   from  the  singing  of  Mr.   Hunt, 

native  of  Sussex  (where  he  learnt  it),  at  Wimbledon,  to  the  foumal  of 
ie  Foii:-Scn^  Soiitfy,   ii.    205,   with  tune.      Kight  versos  =  32  lines. 

D.  (-('.t-roul.l  IV.).  77;  Sally  7Vi';-.r,  or  The  Hitter  Withy.  Noted 
\  1904  i»y  Mr^.  lAi:her  in  Herefordshire.  The  last  three  verses  com* 
lur^ioitcd  I))-  her  to  the  J.urn.  T.S.  Soi.,  ii.  302,  incorporated  in  Miss 
r»«adw(><>d's  note  on  texts  A  and  C.  The  whole  version  first  printed 
y  Ger«:»ul'l.  Seven>  (wjih  prose  description  of  one  forgotten  verse) 
-28  lino. 

Before  proceeding',   the  correspondence  of  the  verses   in  the 
bove  four  texts  may  conveniently  be  noted  : 
B  first  -  A  I  ;  H  last  =  A  9. 

Ci,2=^.\i,2;  C3,4  =  A3;  C5  =  A6;  C  7,  8  =  AS,  9. 
l)i,2  =  Ai,2;    (next    is    forgotten);    D  3-5  =  A 4-6  ;     D6,  7 
=  A  8,  9. 

*  Trof.  (icrould  i^  wreni;  in  .iitrihiiting  the  recording  of  the  words  to 
Iiss  Hr(»adv*  ».^i.  v^ho  telU  me  that  Dr.  \'aughan -Williams  noted  them. 
he  h<  wcvcr  wr(»te  the  note>  in  the  Jcui-yial^  ii.  300-4,  incorporating  the 
rsult>  of  c'»ritnhuiions  from  various  mcml>crs  of  the  Folk-Song  Society. 

192  Collectanea. 

I  may  also  mention  at  this  point  that  upon  the  publication 
of  A  in  Notes  and  Queries  as  above,  I  received  a  letter  from 
Mr.  Hubert  Smith  of  Leamington,  informing  me  that  he  had 
taken  down  "some  years  since  "a  version  of  The  Bitter  Withy 
from  a  fisherman,  who  learnt  it  from  his  grandmother;  she 
lived  in  Corvedale,  Shropshire,  but  probably  learnt  the  carol 
in  Herefordshire. 

I  should  also  mention  here  another  text,  referred  to  by 
Prof.  Gerould  in  a  footnote  (p.  144).  This  was  sent  me  in 
a  private  letter  from  Stratford-on-Avon,  as  copied  from  tradition 
at  Bidford,  a  village  near  Stratford.  As  it  was  only  roughly 
noted,  I  applied  for  a  full  and  correct  copy,  but  this  has 
not  yet  arrived.  The  draft  corresponds  closely  to  the  known 
Herefordshire  versions. 

I  have  lately  obtained  several  new  texts  as  follows.  On 
Dec.  21,  1907,  the  Hereford  Times  printed  a  letter  of  mine 
asking  for  versions  of  the  carol.  I  chose  Herefordshire,  as 
it  will  be  seen  that  A  and  D  (and  perhaps  Mr.  Smith's  version) 
came  from  that  county.  I  gave  only  a  prose  narration  of  the 
story,  and  the  usual  instructions  for  securing  faithful  record; 
the  result  was  most  gratifying.  Within  a  week  or  two  I  received 
fifteen  communications,  including  ten  texts.  Six  of  these  are 
clearly  the  normal  form  of  the  modem  Hereford  "  Bitter  Withy," 
and  closely  resemble  A.  The  other  four  show  confusion  with 
the  similar  (but,  I  think,  separate)  carol  of  Th€  Holy  IVeH; 
one  of  these  four  must  be  ruled  out,  as  it  is  obviously  not 
genuine — it  begins, 

"The  dew  had  fallen  one  lovely  mom. 
And  bright  came  on  the  day." 

I  proceed  to  give  particulars  of  these  E  texts. 

R  Six  ncrmal  ''Bitter  IVi/Jky"  TexU^  recorded  1907-8. 

€L,  Written  down  by  G.  J.  Brimfield,  Winforton;  Dec.  23,  1907;  learnt 
from  his  grandfather  thirty  years  ago :  '*  I  have  the  same  tone  m  my  bead 
as  he  used  to  sing.     I  never  saw  it  in  print." 

b.  Written  down  by  W.  Holder,  Withington;  Dec  23,  1907;  "bebg 
62  years  of  age,  at  the  age  of  10  I  learnt  this  carol  from  my  mother** 
in  Herefordshire ;   "I  can  sing  the  carol  in  the  old  tone." 

c.  Written  down  by  Pattie  Leaper,  Grafton ;  <<  my  brother  lent  me  this 
copy  from  Gloucestershire,  where  the  carol  is  still  tung,  alio  the  wuMil 

Collectanea.  193 

lowl  cmrried  roand  on  old  Xmas  Eve.  Yoa  will  see  the  word  tender  (S*) 
rss  omitted,  bat  I  remember  quite  well  it  was  in  the  carol."— Jan.  15,  1908. 

±  Written  down  by  James  Layton,  King's  Pyon,  Weobley;  Jan.  8, 
906;  he  also  had  the  tune  noted  by  the  local  organist.  "It  has  always 
pone,  too,  about  this  part.*' 

#.  Written  down  by  Arthur  James  Brookes,  Withington,  from  the  singing 
4  his  fiither  Charles  Brookes,  aged  75;  Dec.  26,  1907;  *<he  used  to 
mg  it  as  a  lad ;  he  learnt  it  about  60  years  ago ;  I  am  sending  the  exact 
pords  he  tells  me  whether  correct  or  not." 

/.  Written  down  by  James  Hill,  King's  Thome;  Dec.  23,  1907;  "I 
lave  wrote  it  out  as  I  had  it  wrote  out  for  me  about  25  years  ago.  .  .  . 
rbe  last  two  lines  of  the  verse  to  be  sung  over  the  second  time." 

All  these  were  entitled  The  Bitter  Withy  except  d^  The 
Bitter  Withies, 

The  confusion  with  the  carol  of  The  Holy  Well  is  due  to 
Jie  (act  that  both  this  and  The  Bitter  Withy  begin  with  two 
dmilar  verses.  For  the  present  purpose  I  shall  only  say  that 
[  regard  any  version  of  The  Bitter  Withy '^  which  mentions 
iic  "Holy  Well"  as  contaminated  by  the  other  carol.*  The 
three  genuine  mixed  texts  I  call: 

jr.  Written  down  by  Richard  Innes,  Hentland,  near  Ross;  Dec  23, 
1907;  "*gc  55  years,  learnt  when  a  boy  by  my  mother,  her  age  is  now 
n  bet  97  or  98  year,  and  she  learnt  it  when  she  was  a  girl." 

y.  Written  down  by  S.  Brooks  from  the  singing  of  his  father  James 
Brooks,  aged  55,  Swainshill ;  Dec.  24,  1907.  Mr.  Brooks  learnt  it  in 
Herefordshire  when  he  was  younp;. 

z.  Written  down  by  Jessie  Preece,  Withington,  from  the  singing  of  her 
moihcr ;  Dec.  25,  1907;  "my  mother  learned  it  alx)ut  40  years  ago; 
It  was  all  the  go  then  at  Cowarnc,  Herefordshire.  .  .  .  We  were  singing 
it  at  home  last  week." 

Taking  Sandys'  text  {Christmas  Carols,  149)  of  The  Holy  Well 
IS  standard,  I  allot  the  verses  in  these  three  texts  thus : 

X.  I,  2  iK-long  to  lK)th  ;    3,4  to  H.  \V.  ;    5-10  to  B.  W, 
^.1,2  ^xrlong  to  both:    3-5  to   H.\V.\   6  to  H.\V.\    7   (first  four   lines) 
to  H.  W.  ;  7  (last  four  lines)-!  I  to  H.  \V.     [6  has  six  lines,  7  has  eight] 
:.  I,  2  l^long  to  l>olh  :  3  to  //.  \V.  ;  4-9  to  B,  W. 

'Except  E^3*.   where  it  seems  to  be  (juitc  accidental. 

-  When  I  first  printed  The  Bitter  Withy  in  Notes  and  Qturits^  I  mentioned 
that  **the  first  part  of  the  story  is  well-known  in  the  carol  commonly  called 
•The  Holy  Well.*"  Miss  Broadwcxxl  in  her  notes  in  F.S.S.  Joumtd^ 
*^-   Ifih  pi^ints  as  a  A. /T.   variant   a  version  of  H.W.  from  Howitt's  Rural 


194  Collectanea. 

I  must  also  note  here  that  one  H,W,  phrase — 

**Hc  said,  God  bless  yon  every  one. 
And  your  bodies  Christ  save  and  see"^ 

— has   crept   into    certain    of   the  E  texts   of   B.W.\    ^4^*; 
I  now  give  text  Ea  with  collations. 


The  Bitter  Withy. 

1.  As  it  fell  out  one  high  holiday 

When  drops  of  rain  did  fall,  did  fall, 
Our  Saviour  begged  leave  of  his  Mother  Mary 
If  he  should  go  play  at  ball. 

2.  '*Go  play  at  ball,  my  own  dear  Son, 

It's  time  that  you  were  going  or  gone; 
But  don't  you  let  me  hear  of  any  complaint 
To-night  when  you  come  home." 

3.  So  it's  up  ling  call  and  down  ling  call 

Our  Saviour  he  did  whoop  and  call, 

Untill  he  met  with  three  jolly  jordans. 

And  he  asked  them  to  play  at  ball. 

4.  They  said  they  were  lords  and  ladies'  sons 

Bom  in  power  all  in  all — 
"And  you  are  but  a  poor  maiden's  child. 
Bom  in  an  oxen's  stall." 

5.  "If  I  am  but  a  poor  maiden's  child 

Born  in  an  oxen's  stall, 
I  will  let  you  know  at  the  very  latter  end 
That  I  am  above  you  all." 

Life  in  England  (1837).     Prof.   Geroald  appears  to  regard  the  Holf  WtU 
as  a  debased  version  of  The  Bitter  Withy  (paper  cited  above,  164). 

*A  phrase  perfectly  familiar,   of  course,   to  students  of  traditional   and 
early  poetry,  but  easily  corrupted  through  misunderstanding. 

Collectanea.  195 

6.  So  our  Saviour  built  a  bridge  with  the  beams  of  the  sun 

And  over  the  sea,  the  sea  went  he, 
And  after  did  follow  the  three  jolly  jordans, 
And  they  were  all  drowned  three. 

7.  So  it's  up  ling  call  and  down  ling  call, 

Their  mothers  they  did  whoop  and  call, 
Saying,  ''Mary  mild,  call  home  your  child, 
For  ours  are  drowned  all." 

8.  Then  Mary  mild  she  called  home  her  child 

And  laid  him  across  her  tender  knee, 
And  with  the  handfull  of  bitter  withy 
She  gave  him  the  slashes  three. 

9.  "Oh  the  withy,  the  withy,  the  bitter  withy, 

That  has  caused  me  to  ache  and  to  smart. 
Oh  the  withy  shall  be  the  very  first  tree 
That  shall  perish  and  die  at  the  heart.'' 

«.  i'  droops.  2*  comes.  7'  There. 

h.       a  1-3  ar€  combined  into  two  irregular  six- lined  stannas: 

b  I .     Our  Saviour  asked  leave  of  his  mother  Mary 
If  he  should  go  to  play  at  ball. 
••To  play  at  ball,  my  own  dear  son 

It  is  time  you  was  gone  and  coming  home, 
But  pray  do  not  let  me  hear  of  your  ill-doings 
At  night  when  you  do  come  home." 

bi.     It  is  up  leencorn  and  down  leencom 

Our  sa\nour  he  did  run,  did  run, 
Unlill  he  met  with  three  jolly  jcrdins 

And  asked  them  all  three : 
•*Now  which  of  you  all  three  jolly  jerdins 

Will  play  at  ball  with  me?'* 

^3.     **Oh  we  are  lords  and  ladies'  sons 
.\nd  born,"  etc. 

from  this  point  b^  corresponds  to  04,  and  so  on: 

b4=     ''Vou  are  safe,  you  are  safe,  you  are  safe,"  said  he, 
"You  arc  safe,  you  arc  safe,  I  plainly  do  sec, 
For  it  is  at  the  latter  end  I  will  make  it  appear,"  etc 

1 96  Collectanea. 

bf^    they  did  hoot  and  hollow. 
^6'    Mary»  Mary  mild. 
b*j^^    And  she  with  her  hand  full  of  those  cold,  cold  bitter  withies. 
She  gave  him  the  lashes  three. 
^8*    "Oh  you  cold,  you  cold,  O  you  cold  bitter  withy.' 

c,  2*    At  night. 

3^    Then  up  lane  con  and  down  lane  con. 
4'    Bom  in  our  bowers  and  hall. 
^"^f    If  you  are  lords  and  ladies'  sons 
Bom  in  your  bowers  and  hall, 
I  will  make  it  appear,  etc 
7»    as  3». 
8«    lashes. 

d,  i'    The  season  when  the  leaves  do  fiUL 
2'    you  were  gone  if  you  are  going. 

2*    you  do  retum. 

3^    up  lane  com  and  down  lane  com. 
3*'*    It  was  at  the  Holy  Well  hard  by  the  Willow  Tree 
That  he  met  with  the  jolly  jerdins  three. 
^4=     God  bless  you  all  both  great  and  small. 
Your  bodies  I  plainly  see ; 
If  you  will  let  me  play  with  you 
Then  you  shall  play  with  me. 

d^  corresponds  to  04,  and  so  on: 
d$*    bowers  of  our  own. 
rf8i  =  3». 

e,  2*    hear  of  your  ill -doings. 
3^    up  lineal,  down  lincaL 

3*    Saying  your  soul  is  safe  I  see. 
4'    And  you  are  a  poor  messiah  son. 
5^    I  am  an  angel  above  you  all. 
7     Mary  mild  call  back  your  child 

For  mine  are  drowned  all  three, 
And  with  a  handful  of  withy  twigs 
Give  it  lashes  three. 
9'    That  caused  me  to  smart. 
/.       i»    As  he  fell  out. 

I*    Small  rain  from  the  skies  did  fall. 
2*     as  in  e. 
^1.2    Well  meet,  well  meet,  you  three  great  dons. 
Your  bodies  are  safe  you  see. 
4'    And  bom  in  all  in  all. 
4^    in  an  old  ox  stall. 
5'    '"4' 

Collectanea.  197 

5*    tis  in  e, 

7'    Ob  it  was  up  in  call,  it  was  down  in  call. 
8^    Oh  then  Mary  picked  a  handfiill  of  withy. 

CcUatian  of  important  xforiations  in  the  B.  W.  verses  of  texts  x»  y,  z. 
jr.     7*    these  three  jolly  jordens  {called  in  3*  three  of  the  finest  children]. 

8^    Then  op  a  lane  call  and  down  lane  calL 
y.     8'    (=a6')  And  over  the  river  Jordon  went  he. 

8*    the  three  jordons  {called  in  3*"*  and  4*"*  three  as  nice  children 

As  ever  a  tongue  could  tell]. 
9>    (=a7*)  Then  up  they  called  and  down  they  called. 
«.      6*    The  three  jolly  jerdins  followed  him. 

7^    So  it  was  up  in  lee  in  com  and  down  lee  in  com. 

So  much  for  the  Herefordshire  versions.  When  I  received 
be  Bidford  draft  mentioned  above  (see  p.  192),  it  occurred  to 
ne  that  application  to  other  country  newspapers  might  produce 
)ther  versions.  I  wrote  a  letter,  similar  to  the  one  printed  by 
he  Hereford  Times,  which  appeared  in  the  Evesham  Journal^ 
Feb.  39,  1908.  In  reply  to  this  there  appeared  one  new  verse 
ext  and  one  very  curious  version  printed  (as  it  was  written) 
n  prose.     I  call  these: 

B  g'  Obtained  by  Mr.  and  Mrs.  George  Gibbs,  of  Bengeworth ;  "  a 
rersion  as  sung  at  Evesham  more  than  forty  years  ago."  Printed  in  the 
Ez'tiham  fcumal,   A  p.   4,    1908. 

1.  As  it  fell  out  on  a  bright  holiday, 

Small  hail  from  the  sky  did  fall. 

Our  Saviour  asked  His  mother  dear, 

If  he  may  go  and  play  at  ball. 

2.  **.At  IkiII  I    At  ball  !    my  own  dear  Son  ! 

It  is  time  that  you  were  gone, 
.\nd  don't  let  me  hear  of  any  doings 
At  night  when  you  come  home." 

3.  So  up  Lincull  and  down  Lincull, 

Our  sweetest  Saviour  ran, 
And  ib.cre  he  met  three  rich  young  lords  : 
**  Gmxl  morning  to  you  all  I" 

4.  "Gox]  morn!    G(H>d  morn  I   Good  mom!"   said  they. 

•*  Go<^xi  morning  I  "    then  said  He. 
**  Which  of  you  three  rich  young  men 
Will  play  at  ball  with  mc  ? " 

198  Collectanea. 

5.  <*We  are  all  lords  and  ladies'  sons. 

Born  in  our  bower  and  hall ; 
And  Thou  art  nothing  but  a  poor  maid's  child, 
Bom  in  an  ox*s  stall." 

6.  "If  you  are  all  lords  and  ladies'  sons, 

Bom  in  your  bower  and  hall, 
I  will  make  you  believe  in  your  latter  end, 
I'm  an  angel  above  you  all." 

7.  So  he  made  him  a  bridge  with  the  beams  of  the  sun. 

And  o'er  the  water  crossed  he; 
These  rich  young  lords  followed  after  Him, 
And  drowned  they  were,  all  three. 

8.  Then  up  Lincull,  and  down  Lincull, 

These  young  lords'  mothers  ran. 
Saying,  "Mary  mild  fetch  home  your  child, 
For  ours  he  has  drowned  all." 

9.  So  Mary  mild  fetched  home  her  child. 

And  laid  him  across  her  knee; 
With  a  handful  of  green  withy  twigs 
She  gave  him  slashes  three. 

la    "Oh  I  withy,  Oh  1  withy.  Oh  1  bitter  withy, 
Thou  has  caused  me  to  smart. 
And  the  withy  shall  be  the  very  first  tree 
That  shall  perish  at  the  heart." 

E  ^<  A  version  sent  by  Mrs.  H.  Collins,  Broadway,  Worcestershire. 
Printed,  exactly  as  sent,  in  the  Evesham  Journal^  Ap.  ii,  1908. 


Our  Saviour  asked  of  his  dear  mother  if  he  could  go  and  play.  He 
saw  two  little  Jardene  sons  playing  at  ball.  He  asked  if  he  could  play 
at  ball  with  them.  At  ball  with  you?  How  could  we  play  at  ball  with 
you?  We're  two  little  Jardene  sons  bom  in  our  bowry  hall.  You're 
nothing  but  a  poor  maid's  son  born  in  an  ox's  stall.  If  you're  two  little 
Jardene  sons  bom  in  a  bowry  hall,  and  I'm  nothing  but  a  poor  maid's 
son  bom  in  an  ox's  stall,  I'm  an  angel  above  you  all.  He  built  him  a 
bridge  with  the  beams  of  the  sun,  and  across  the  water  did  go;  two  little 
Jardenes  tried  to  do  the  same,  and  drowned  they  were  both.  O  Mary 
mild  fetch  home  your  child,  for  drowned  ours  are  both.  Then  Mary 
mild  fetched  home  her  child  and  laid  him  across  her  knee,  with  a  bunch 
of  green  withy  twigs  she  gave  him  lashes  three.  O  Mother,  Mother,  this 
bitter  withy  makes  my  back  to  smart.  Every  withy  tree  that  I  come  to 
shall  perish  at  the  heart. 

Collectanea.  199 

Enough  has  now  been  recorded  to  show  that  the  legend  of 
Th€  Bitter  IViiAy  still  survives  amongst  us,  chiefly,  it  seems, 
in  the  south-west  midland  counties  of  Herefordshire,  Worcester- 
ihire,  and  Warwickshire;  but  as  text  0  comes  from  Sussex 
[and,  while  I  write,  I  hear  of  a  Lancashire  version  which  I  hope 
to  obtain  soon),  it  is  not  confined  to  those  counties. 

Prof.  Gerould's  scholarly  investigation  of  the  origin  of  the 
itory-radical  speaks  for  itself.  There  remain  two  curiosities 
3f  language,  and  one  of  superstition,  on  which  I  wish  to  make 
i  few  notes. 

A 3^    ^pHng  scorn  and  dcwniing  scorn,     [repeated  7^] 
B<i3'     **P  iing  call  and  down  ling  calL     [repeated  7^] 

It  had  occuned  to  me  that  this  might  be  a  corruption  of 
'up  Linkum  and  down  Linkum"  before  the  Evesham  text 
B^  came  in.  *'  Linkum  "  is  a  stock  ballad-locality  (see  Child's 
Ballads^  v.  354,  Glossary  and  References).  Miss  Broadwood 
suggests  in  a  letter  to  me  that  possibly  the  phrase  is  a  corruption 
>f ''  op4inking  and  down-linking "  or  "  up  linked  'un  and  down 
inked  'un";  Unking  being  a  dialect  word  for  running.^ 

A  3*  jerdins :  and  the  other  variants  Jordans^  jordens^  jordons^  jomms^ 
Ttai  donSf  Jardem  sons,  etc. 

Not  explained.  At  first  I  thought  the  jerdins  of  A  might 
)e  an  error  for  virgins  of  B ;  but  Prof.  Gerould  disposes  of 
his  suggestion.  Miss  Broadwood  first  suggested  a  corruption 
rom  children^  and  recently  wrote  to  me  that  "Jew  Don's  Sons 
nay  be  the  original  of  'jerdins,'  etc." 

A9»  etc. 

Both  Prof.  Gummere  and  Prof  Gerould  appear  to  regard  the 
rursing  of  the  withy  in  the  last  stanza  as  an  addition,  an  "after- 
houghl  and  a  tag."  Doubtless  it  is  possible  that  the  aetiological 
cndency  of  the  folk  might  lead  them  to  round  off  the  legend 
)y  attaching  it  to  a  prevalent  superstition ;  for  there  certainly  is  a 
>opular  belief  in  Herefordshire  that  the  withy  is  imlucky.  Mrs. 
-.cather,  of  Weobley,  has  recorded  that  the  county-folk  say  that 
I  growing  person  or  animal  will  cease  to  grow  if  struck  with  a 

*["  Up  hnking  and  down  linking  "  in  many  northern  English  dialects  would 
ftcan,  •*  going  up  and  down  arm  in  arm."  Sec  the  Engiish  Dialect  Dict,^ 
.V.  Link.  — Ed.  J 

200  Collectanea. 

*' sally-twig."  Mr.  R.  D.  George,  of  Kingsland«  Herefordshire, 
writes  to  me :  "  None  of  the  old  breed  of  Herefordshire  people 
would  use  a  withy  (or  sally)  stick  to  beat  an  animal  or  child; 
and,  if  asked  why,  they  would  tell  you  that  it  was  unlucky, 
because  Christ  was  beaten  with  one  by  His  mother." 

Frank  Sidgwick. 

Notes  on  Some  Flemish  Amulets  and  Beliefs. 

(Read  at  Meetings  15M  Aprils  1908.) 

The  following  notes,  collected  during  a  residence  of  several 
months,  are  confined  almost  entirely  to  the  district  lying  along 
the  coast  of  Flanders,  and  extending  a  few  miles  to  the  east  of 
Ostend.  The  majority  of  the  beliefs  described  are  however 
probably  to  be  found  in  some  form  in  most  Belgian  villages, 
while  some  remain  in  the  larger  cities  as  well,  more  particularly 
the  beliefs  concerning  the  medals  which  are  worn.  By  far  the 
greater  part  of  the  amulets  described  are,  it  will  be  noted,  religious 
in  origin ;  such  are  sometimes  amuletic  in  their  original  intention, 
sometimes  not. 

Although  most  of  the  information  now  to  be  given  was  gathered 
directly  from  persons  who  themselves  employed  and  believed  in 
the  efficacy  of  the  remedies  described  by  them,  part  has  been 
obtained  at  second-hand  from  people  knowing  of,  or  making 
inquiries  concerning,  customs  of  which  they  themselves  had  no 
need.  For  example,  the  keepers  of  taverns  and  stables  to  which 
the  peasant  farmers  resorted,  sought  information  on  points  on 
which,  largely  because  of  my  ignorance  of  the  Flemish  dialect 
used  by  the  lower  classes,  I  could  not  satisfy  myself  directly; 
again,  some  of  the  fisherfolk's  customs  were  described  to  me 
by  a  boat-builder.  The  ignorance  referred  to  has,  although 
French  is  spoken  b/  almost  everyone  above  the  peasant  class, 
unfortunately  prevented  me  from  coming  into  the  fullest  contact 
with  the  people  amongst  whom  the  old  beliefs  are  most  likely 
to  be  found.  My  informants  have  chiefly  been  peasants, 
teamsters,  keepers  of  stables  or  of  taverns  frequented  by  the 

Collectanea.  201 

peasants,  the  caretakers  of  churches,  vendors  of  religious  objects, 
pharmacists,  a  house-builder,  and  a  boat-builder,  but  some  items 
have  come  from  people  of  the  higher  classes,  and  these,  as  well 
as  beliefs  whose  occurrence  was  noted  only  in  isolated  instances, 
I  have  specially  indicated. 

So  far  as  diligent  inquiry  could  determine,  stones  are  not  used 
for  amuletic  or  curative  purposes  in  the  district,  nor  do  there 
seem  to  be  any  traces  of  their  former  employment;  this  is 
possibly  due  to  the  sandy  nature  of  the  entire  region,  and  the 
scarcity  of  stones  in  the  soil.  Beliefs  concerning  what  is 
commonly  called  the  "evil  eye"  did  not  seem  to  be  at  all 
known ;  the  single  reference  to  it,  in  connection  with  the  medal 
of  S.  Agnes,  was  given  on  hearsay  by  a  person  who  apparently 
was  not  quite  certain  as  to  the  nature  of  the  evil  referred  to. 
I  could  discover  no  belief  in  the  existence  of  witches  at  the 
present  time,  although  it  seemed  to  be  thought  that  they 
existed  formerly. 

Religious  Medals,  Most  of  the  medals  to  be  described  are 
primarily  devotional  objects,  although  they  are  very  often  used 
as  amulets ;  but  there  are  others  which  are  intended  in  practice 
only  as  preventive  or  curative  agents.  Such  medals  as  are 
worn  simply  to  secure  the  protection  of  a  saint  I  have,  in 
general,  not  mentioned.  A  medal,  to  be  efficacious,  should 
be  blessed,  preferably  by  contact  with  some  relic  of  the  saint 
whose  image  it  bears.  To  some  of  the  medals  special  beliefs 
have  become  attached — beliefs  which  are  due  to  the  general 
conceptions  associated  with  the  saints  represented  upon  them, 
and  which  are  not  confined  to  Belgium.  Sometimes  a  belief 
varies  according  to  the  district  in  which  the  medal  is  used, 
the  variation  occurring  generally  in  special  applications  of  the 
object,  either  derived  from  the  main  intention  or  (as  may  be 
seen  in  some  medals  of  particular  designs),  apparently  entirely 
unrelated  to  it. 

When  a  medal  is  worn  as  an  amulet  it  is  considered  to  be 
unnecessary  frequently  to  repeat  the  litany  of  the  saint  whose 
likeness  is  upon  it  in  order  to  make  it  efficacious ;  it  is  sufficient 
to  state,  when  the  medal  is  first  put  on,  the  purpose  for  which 
it  is  to  be  worn.     Often  a  considerable  number  of  medals  are 

202  Collectanea. 

carried  simultaneously;  in  one  case  I  noted  a  woman  wore 
at  least  twenty,  to  which  various  virtues  were  attributed,  and 
to  whose  efficacy  she  considered  the  continuance  of  her  good 
health   to  be  due. 

Protection  against  Storms,  The  storms  along  the  Flemish 
coast  are  very  severe,  for  which  reason  a  number  of  distinct 
customs,  involving  the  use  of  blessed  palm  (so-called),  the 
"Easter  Nail"  ("  Clou  de  Pdques%  the  subsUnce  "Agnus  Dei," 
blessed  candles,  and  medals,  have  been  evolved  or  introduced 
to  avert  their  effects. 

True  palm  being  an  exotic,  a  substitute  is  found  for  it  on  Palm 
Sunday,  (when  "  palm  "  which  has  been  blessed  is  distributed  to 
the  congregations),  in  box  (Fr.  buis)^  a  shrub  which  is  common  on 
the  dunes,  and  whose  sprigs  are  utilized  in  the  same  manner  as 
pieces  of  the  true  palm  in  southern  countries.  So  deeply  rooted 
is  the  custom  that  the  shrub  is  by  some  people  always  called 
palmier^  and  is  quite  unknown  to  them  by  its  proper  name 
buis.  ^  The  pieces  of  blessed  "  palm "  are  used  in  several  ways. 
To  protect  a  house  from  being  struck  by  lightning  a  sprig  of  the 
"  palm  "  is  fastened  to  one  of  the  principal  beams  of  the  roof;  for 
a  like  reason  one  is  attached  to  the  top  of  the  mast  of  a  fishing- 
boat  Sometimes,  when  a  particularly  violent  storm  occurs, 
pieces  of  it  are  used  to  sprinkle  holy  water  about,  as  a  protection 
for  houses  or  for  the  various  buildings  of  a  farm.  During  the 
year  bits  of  it  are  kept  between  the  Figure  and  the  Cross  of  each 
crucifix  in  a  house,  and  these  bits  are  used,  in  time  of  death, 
to  put  holy  water  upon  the  corpse  with.  The  "palm"  is 
renewed  annually,  the  old  pieces  being  burned,  not  thrown 

A  special  blessed  candle  is  used  on  Easter  Sunday,  con- 
taining three  waxen  nails  representing  the  three  nails  of  the 
Crucifixion,   pieces   of  any  one  of  which   (known  as    Clou  de 

^  In  England  sprigs  of  willow  and  of  box  were  used  as  palm.  "  The  Con- 
seaation  Prayer  seems  to  leave  a  latitude  for  the  species  of  palm  used  instead 
of  the  real  palm."     Ellis's  Brands  Pop,  Am/.,  i.  Ii8. 

Thiers,  1679,  ridicules  the  use  of  blessed  box  as  a  preservative  for  crept, 
etc.,  in  France. 

In  France  I  have,  even  at  Paris,  on  several  occasions  found  a  bit  of  box 
hidden,  or  half-hidden,  behind  the  mirror  of  a  room  in  a  hotel. 

Collectanea.  203 

PAqua)  are  regarded  as  most  excellent  preservatives.  Small 
fragments  of  these  nails  are,  in  consequence,  carried  upon  the 
person  (see  p.  306),  or,  in  small  boxes,  are  placed  beneath  the 
doorsteps  of  houses  to  protect  the  inmates  from  all  harm,  and 
especially  from  injury  by  storms.  When  a  new  fishing-boat  is 
being  prepared  for  sea,  a  piece  of  Clati  de  P&qtus^  such  as  the 
truncated  pyramidal  protuberance  representing  the  head,  is 
divided  into  two  portions,  one  of  which  is  put  in  a  small  hole 
in  the  crosspiece  at  the  bow,  and  the  other  in  a  similar  hole 
at  the  stem;  the  holes  are  then  plugged  with  wood,  and  the 
boat  is  blessed  by  the  village  priest. 

The  substance  called  "  Agnus  Dei "  (a  portion  of  one  of  the 
Easter  candles,  formed  into  a  cake,^  and  blessed  by  the  Pope  on 
the  Sunday  after  Easter)  is  also  believed  to  be  highly  protective, 
particularly  against  lightning. 

Certain  candles  which  are  blessed  on  Candlemas  Day  (the  Day 
of  the  Purification  of  the  Virgin,  Feb.  2),  are  brought  home 
by  the  worshippers.  They  are  primarily  intended  for  burning 
during  the  last  moments  of  a  dying  person,  to  ease  the  passing 
of  his  soul,  but  they  are  lighted  also  during  violent  thunder- 
storms as  a  means  of  protection. 

The  medal  of  S.  Donato  is  worn  as  a  defence  against  lightning. 
I  think  that  there  is  probably  some  connection  between  his 
Belgian  name,  "  S.  Donat,"  and  the  French,  or  Flemish,  word  for 
thunder,  because  in  Italy  the  belief  is  so  dissimilar,  S.  Donato's 
images  being  used  there  as  a  protection  against  witchcraft  and  the 
evil  eye.- 

Small  statuettes  of  S.  Christopher,  a  protector  against  tempests, 
are  sometimes  carried  in  the  pocket,  or  in  a  bag  hung  from  the 
neck,  by  sailors  or  fishermen.  Silver  medals  of  the  same  saint 
are  worn,  by  people  of  the  better  classes,  for  the  prevention  of 
sea-sickness.  A  medal  of  S.  George,  on  the  reverse  of  which 
is  a  representation  of  a  boat  in  a  storm,  with  the  legend  "/n 

*  A  cake  of  this  kind  is  figured  in  Folk-Lore^  vol.  XTii.  PI.  V,  and  is 
described  briefly  on  p.  470.  Such  cakes  have,  in  modem  times,  been  blessed 
only  in  the  year  of  I  he  accession  of  a  Pope  and  in  each  seventh  year  of  his 
occupancy,  and  their  distribution  has  been  limited. 

'Bellucci,   Catalogo  DcscritthH)^  Perugia,   1898. 

204  Collectanea. 

Tempestate  Securitas^^  is,  it  was  said,  occasionally  worn  by 
sailors  as  a  protection;  the  statement,  however,  could  not  be 

Protection  of  Houses,  Medals  or  statuettes  of  the  ''Sacred 
Heart  of  Jesus  "  are  carried  as  evidences  of  devotion.  There  are, 
however,  special  representations  of  the  subject  which  are 
commonly  used  for  the  protection  of  houses  and  their  inmates, 
such,  for  example,  as  plaquettes  of  cardboard  or  of  metal,  each 
bearing  a  picture  of  Jesus  pointing  to  the  Sacred  Heart  and 
inscribed,  in  French  or  Flemish,  "  I  Will  Bless  the  Houses  where 
my  Heart  is  shown  and  Honoured,"  or  with  some  other  sentence 
of  similar  import,  which  are  affixed  to  the  doorposts  of  houses. 
More  often  statuettes,  generally  made  of  biscuit  or  porcelain,  of 
the  subject  are  used,  one  of  whose  special  applications,  in  some 
cases,  is  the  preservation  of  the  house  from  fire. 

Old  horseshoes  which  have  been  found  are  used  as  a  protection 
against  ill-luck.  In  one  case  I  came  across  they  were  put,  when 
picked  up,  into  a  box  over  the  door  of  a  stable,  in  order  that  the 
horses  therein  might  be  kept  from  harm ;  in  another,  one  was 
inserted  under  the  doorstep  of  a  house,  to  bring  it  good-fortune, 
such  as  facility  in  letting.  Small  horseshoes  of  silver  are  often 
worn  as  amulets. 

There  is  a  popular  belief  that  swallows  are  birds  of  good- 
omen,  and  bring  fortime  to  the  houses  upon  which  they  build 
their  nests;  steps  are  therefore  taken  to  attract  them  each 
year  on  their  return. 

Protection  of  the  Person^  and  Curative  Amulets,  "Charms," 
{porte-bonheurs^  as  distinguished  from  brehqtus^  which  are 
simply  ornaments,  of  metal,  which  are  said  to  bring  good-luck 
are,  a  skull,  a  hunchback,  a  swallow,  a  four-leaved  clover,  and 
the  frequent  combination  of  a  cross,  a  heart,  and  an  anchor. 
Of  these  objects,  which  were  pointed  out  by  persons  of  the 
middle  and  upper-middle  classes,  several  seem  to  be  unknown 
to  persons  of  the  lower  classes.  Other  amulets  of  the  upper 
classes,  to  bring  fortune,  especially  in  gambling,  are  a  piece 
of  used  hangman's  rope,  and  a  snake-skin.  The  rope,  which 
is  sometimes  carried  in  a  small  case  in  the  pocket,  has  given 
^  This  medal  is  thus  worn  in  Italy,  Bellocd,  op.  cit. 

Collectanea.  205 

rise  to  an  expression  to  the  effect,  when  a  man  is  particularly 
lucky,  that  he  must  have  a  piece  of  such  rope  upon  him. 

A  curious  belief  is  found  amongst  non-Catholics  in  towns 
near  the  French  frontier,  some  of  whom  think  that  to  meet 
a  black-dad  Catholic  priest  is  an  omen  of  ill-luck,  to  avert 
which  they  at  once  "touch  iron,"  such  as  a  bunch  of  keys  in 
the  pocket^ 

At  Hal  there  is  a  miraculous  statue  of  the  Virgin  and  Child, 
without  arms,  to  which  many  pilgrimages  are  made,  and  which 
is  in  some  way  intimately  connected  with  the  idea  of  war. 
At  the  bi-weekly  market  of  the  fisherfolk  at  Blankenbeighe 
numbers  of  finger-rings  bearing  the  effigy  of  Notre  Dame  de 
Hal  are  offered  for  sale,  and  are  said  to  prevent  and  to  assist 
in  the  cure  of  wounds. 

A  widespread  belief  in  S.  Joseph  as  the  patron  of  ''a  good 
death"  in  the  spiritual  sense,  (i>.,  with  the  sacraments  and 
ceremonies  of  the  Church),  has  led  to  the  adoption  of 
medals,  or  tiny  statuettes  for  the  pocket,  for  the  purpose  of 
securing  "a  good  death"  in  the  material  sense.  A  derived 
and  closely  allied  idea  found  amongst  the  fisher-folk,  is  that 
the  images  of  S.  Joseph  protect  against  a  sudden  death.  It  is, 
however,  usually  S.  Barbara,  whose  images  are  not  worn,  but 
pictures  of  whom  are  preserved,  who  is  invoked  against  this 
last  contingency. 

One  of  the  most  venerated  relics  in  Belgium  is  the  "Holy 
Blood  of  Jesus,"  at  Bruges.  Medals  and  other  objects  blessed 
by  it  are  considered  to  be  especially  efficacious  for  the  pre- 
vention and  cure  of  affections  of  the  blood,  because  the  relic 
itself  is  said  to  have  miraculous  powers  of  the  kind.  The 
medals  bear  a  representation  of  the  Vial  of  the  Holy  Blood, 
and  sometimes  also  of  the  reliquary  in  which  it  is  contained, 
and  are  worn,  or  carried  upon  rosaries  or  in  the  pocket.  Finger- 
rings  with  similar  designs  are  worn  also.  Most  objects  intended 
for  curing  through  the  agency  of  the  Holy  Blood  are  red  or 

'  Acccorflinj;  to  an  Antwerp  newspaper  a  similar  l^clief  exists  in  Paris, 
uherc  nun  Catholics  touch  a  railing,  a  lamp-post,  or  some  other  support 
of  iron,  m  order  that  the  supjxjsed  evil  may  be  **  conducted"  {su)  away 
from  them. 

2o6  Collectanea. 

pink  in  colour,  as,  for  example,  the  red  rosaries,  red  scapulars, 
red  cloth  ribbons,  red  silk  thread  for  binding  wounds,  and 
pink  cotton-wool  for  wearing  upon  the  chest  in  phthisb.  Special 
virtues  are  sometimes  attributed  to  certain  similar  objects,  as 
to  a  crimson  thread  to  be  worn  round  the  neck  for  the  cure 
of  fevers,  and  to  a  necklace  of  red  glass  beads  with  a  medal 
of  the  Holy  Blood  attached,  which  was  said  to  protect  children 
from  injuries  through  falling,  as  well  as  to  cure  diseases  of 
the  blood. 

There  are  wooden  capsules  in  use,  having,  under  a  glass 
protected  by  a  wooden  cover  screwing  into  place,  three  com- 
partments, the  central  one  holding  a  small  statuette  of  the 
Virgin,  and  each  of  the  side  ones  a  piece  of  pink  or  white 
cotton-wool  blessed  by  the  Holy  Blood,  upon  which  rests  a 
little  tinsel  star  supporting  a  tiny  fragment  of  "Agnus  Dei" 
(the  fragment  in  one  of  the  compartments  is  said,  by  some 
persons,  to  be  Clou  de  Fdques^  not  "Agnus  Dei").  These 
capsules  are  commonly  carried  as  a  protection  against  disease 
and  accidents,  especially  when  travelling,  and  (because  of  the 
"  Agnus  Dei ")  against  thunderbolts,  and  are  also  kept  in  stables 
for  the  protection  of  the  animals. 

Members  of  the  religious  orders  often  have  upon  their  rosaries 
small  heads  of  bone,  ivory,  or  wood,  with  the  Face  of  Jesus 
on  one  side  and  that  of  Death  on  the  other.  These  are  carried 
by  the  laity  as  curative  of  maladies  of  the  head  (the  eyes,  ears, 
throat,  etc.);  heads  of  the  two  former  substances  being  preferred 
because  those  substances  have,  it  is  said,  intrinsic  curative 
virtues  of  the  same  nature. 

There  is  a  well  into  which  the  body  of  the  martyred  & 
Godelieve  is  said  to  have  been  thrown,  whose  water,  in 
continual  agitation,  has  miraculous  properties.  A  little  of  it 
rubbed  upon  the  eyes  cures  their  troubles,  or  swallowed,  it 
cures  affections  of  the  throat  Medals  of  S.  Godelieve  are 
worn,  for  the  cure  of  the  eyes  especially,  but  also  for  maladies 
of  the  throat 

A  medal  of  Notre   Dame  des  Aveugles  is  sometimes  worn 
for  the  benefit  of  the  eyes. 
The  sailors  and  fishermen  of  the  Belgian  coast,  like  others 

Collectanea.  207 

of  their  kind  elsewhere,  wear  small  gold  rings  in  the  lobes  of 
their  ears,  to  improve  and  preserve  their  sight.  Such  rings 
are  always  of  gold  \  similar  rings  of  silver  are  sometimes  worn, 
but  only  to  prepare  the  ears  for  the  subsequent  use  of  gold 

A  long  white  cotton  ribbon,  upon  which  is  printed,  in  red, 
an  invocation  of  S.  Margaret  ("S.  Margareta  O.P.N.")  is  worn 
round  the  body  for  the  prevention  and  cure  of  cramp. 

Women  who  desire  children  carry  a  medal  or  a  statuette  of 
the  Immaculate  Conception,  or  of  Notre  Dame  de  Lourdes. 
The  medal  of  Notre  Dame  de  Bon  Conseil  is  worn  as  an  aid 
to  lactation,  and  to  secure  wishes  in  connection  with  children. 
The  medal  of  S.  Alphonse  de  Liguori  is  worn  by  women 
during  pregnancy,  to  obtain  a  good  delivery  \  that  of  S.  Agnes, 
to  secure  regularity  of  menstruation,  and,  by  young  women,  for 
the  retention  of  purity;^  and  that  of  S.  Germaine,  the  Shep- 
herdess, a  Belgian  saint,  for  aid  in  menstruation,  and,  by 
yoong  girls,  against  the  sicknesses  of  youth.  An  image  of  the 
Immaculate  Conception  is  believed  to  protect  young  women 
■gainst  moral  evils.  There  is  a  ribbon  of  S.  Margaret  of 
Cortona,  green  in  colour,  which  pregnant  women  wear  in  order 
to  secure  health  during  pregnancy,  and  a  good  delivery. 

Medals  of  the  following  saints  are  worn  for  the  purposes 
indicated  in  each  case : — 

S.  Benedict ;  as  a  protection  against  all  kinds  of  evil ;  it  is 
also  placed  in  stables  to  protect  the  animals.  A  tiny  statuette 
of  S.  Benedict  is  sometimes  carried  against  headache. 

S.  Gerard  (Majella) ;   as  a  protection  against  all  sicknesses. 

S.  Idesbalde ;  as  a  protection  against  and  a  cure  for  rheu- 
matism. For  the  same  purposes  a  fragment  of  the  coffin  of 
S.  Idesbalde  is  considered  to  be  exceedingly  efficacious. 

S.  Philomena;   for  throat  troubles, 

S.  Apollonia ;   for  the  cure  of  troubles  of  the  teeth. 

S.  George;  as  a  protection  against  accidents  due  to  the 
riding  of  horses. 

I  met  with  isolated  cases  of  the  following  beliefs,  but 
obtained  no  confirmation  of  them : — 

*  And  against  the  evil  eye. 

2o8  Collectanea. 

The  use  of  a  medal  showing  the  Head  of  Jesus  against  the 
centre  of  a  cross,  as  curative  of  epilepsy  and  catalepsy.^ 

The  carrying  of  a  small  crucifix,  directly  over  the  kidneys, 
in  a  flannel  belt  or  upon  the  bare  skin,  or  at  the  neck,  as  a 
cure  specifically  for  kidney  trouble.  The  person  making  use 
of  this  prescription  stated  that  he  had  obtained  it  firom  a 
popular  medical  work.  The  crucifix  should  be  of  silver,  in 
order  to  minimise  the  effect  of  the  exudations  from  the  skin. 

The  wearing  of  a  medal  of  Notre  Dame  de  Perp^tuel 
Secours,  for  all  sorts  of  purposes,  but  especially  for  help  in 
such  things  as  concern  one  intimately  and  seriously. 

The  carrying  of  a  piece  of  cat-skin  in  the  pocket,  becanse 
of  its  electrical  properties,  to  relieve  rheumatisno.  Cat-skin  is 
sometimes  worn  with  the  same  intention. 

Votive  offerings  are  still  extensively  used  in  some  of  the 
smaller  Belgian  towns.  Almost  all  are  either  of  silver  in  the 
form  of  very  thin  plates  stamped  with  or  as  an  image  of 
the  thing  whose  cure  is  desired  or  of  some  devotional  object, 
or  of  wax  rudely  cast  into  similar  forms.  They  are  hung 
about  the  shrines  to  which  they  have  been  given.  Images  of 
the  Sacred  Heart,  or  of  praying  men  or  women,  are  presented 
in  connection  with  general  requests.  Models  of  arms,  legs, 
heads,  eyes,  mouths,  teeth,  etc.,  of  infants,  and  of  domestic 
animals,  are  offered  in  connection  with  requests  bearing  upon 
those  members  or  objects. 

Amulets  for  Infants,  Various  amulets  are  used  to  assist 
teething.  Of  these  one  of  the  commonest  is '  the  ''  Necklace 
of  S.  John,"  a  string  of  ovoid  or  globular  bone  beads,  generally 
on  a  silken  ribbon,  the  bone  of  which  is  supposed  to  have 
the  property  of  preventing  nervous  troubles  and  convulsions.* 
The  medal  of  S.  Cornelius,  which  bears  prominently  the  repre- 
sentation of  a  horn  (to  which,  at  least  in  part,  the  virtues  are 
attributed)  is  credited  with  the  same  property.  Amt>er  neck- 
laces, the  beads  of  which  are  generally  facetted,  are  another 

*  Bellucci,  Cat.  Des.^  describes  the  wearing  of  pieces  of  human  skmll  for 
the  cure  of  epilepsy. 
^Cf.    "Notes    on    Spanish    Amulets"    in    Fclk-Lore^   vol.    xvii.    pp.    456 

and  465. 

Collectanea.  209 

kvoiirite  help  in  teething.  It  suffices,  it  is  said,  simply  to 
lang  the  necklace  at  the  child's  throat,  not  necessarily  in  such 
\  position  that  it  can  be  bitten  upon.^  Genuine  amber  being 
K>mewhat  expensive,  beads  of  pressed  or  of  imitation  amber 
ire  sometimes  used  in  its  place. 

Consideration  of  these  points  leads  us  to  infer  that  in 
Belgium,  just  as  in  other  countries,  traces  of  otherwise  obsolete 
>eliefis  survive  in  methods  for  the  treatment  of  infants.  While 
n  Italy  and  Spain,  for  example,  bone,  horn,  and  amber  are 
:onsidered  to  be  intrinsically  excellent  protections  against  witch- 
saft  or  the  evil  eye,  infants  in  Belgium  wear  a  piece  of  bone, 
lie  representation  of  a  horn,  or  a  string  of  amber  beads,  often 
kcetted  so  as  to  sparkle  and  catch  the  eye,  not  as  antidotes  to 
nril  magic  but  as  cures  for  convulsions  and  other  nervous  dis- 
orders, easily  attributable  to  the  effect  of  such  agencies.' 

"Electric"  necklaces  or  necklets  for  teething  children  are 
ilso  in  use.  The  necklaces,  which  are  of  Belgian  manufacture, 
ire  formed  of  links,  each  composed  of  mechanically  joined 
copper  and  zinc  They  are  worn  against  the  skin,  and  are 
not  intended  to  be  put  into  the  mouth.  The  necklets  are  made 
of  substances  (such  as  copper  and  zinc,  in  the  form  of  wire) 
capable  in  the  proper  circumstances  of  generating  an  electric 
[nirrent,  which  arc  sewn  into  a  band  of  textile  material  (such  as 
blue  velvet).  They  may  be  bitten  upon  as  well  as  worn,  or 
may  simply  be  placed  in  contact  with  the  neck.  They  are  made 
m  Belgium  or  imported  from  Germany. 

The  teething-ring  most  favoured  by  the  better  classes  is  of 
bone  or  ivory,  with  one  or  more  silver  bells  attached;  these 
□materials  being  used,  it  was  said,  because  of  their  tasteless- 
ness,  hardness,  toughness,  and  durability.  No  amuletic  virtue 
is  now  attributed  to  the  bone  of  the  ring,  as  there  is  to  that 
of  the,  perhaps  equally  used,  *'  necklace  of  S.  John,"  but  it  can 
scarcely  be  doubted  that  formerly  it  was  credited  with  such 

A  small  statuette  or  other  image  of  the  Infant  Jesus  of  Prague 

*  Cf.   **  Notes  on  Spanish  Amulets,"  p.  465. 

^Bcllucci,  Cca.  Des.^  and  Elworihy,  Evil  Eyt\  and  **  Notes  on  Spanish 
Amulets.  " 


2IO  Collectanea. 

(a  miraculous  statue)  is  often  carried  by  children  as  a 
general  protection.  A  medal  of  S.  John  Baptist  is  placed  upon 
sickly  infants  to  prevent  death  before  baptism.  A  necklace  of 
beads  of  a  red  material,  said  to  be  made  from  a  fruit  of  Jerusalem^ 
is  sometimes  worn  by  babies  for  the  cure  of  nervous  troubles^ 
and  against  internal  hemorrhages.  Children  of  the  better  classes 
often  wear  necklaces  of  red  coral,  the  colour  of  which  it  is  said» 
becomes  paler  on  the  approach  of  fever,  and  so  acts  as  a  warn- 
ing to  the  parents.^  This  last  belief  appears  to  be  quite 
unknown  amongst  the  lower  classes. 

Miscellaneous  Personal  Beliefs,  As  in  almost  all  Roman 
Catholic  countries,  S.  Antony  of  Padua  is  in  Belgium  one  of  the 
most  venerated  of  saints.  He  is  the  patron  of  shopkeepers, 
wherefore  in  some  towns  his  likeness  is  to  be  found  in  almost 
every  shop,  and  he  is  also  appealed  to  especially  for  aid  in 
recovering  things  which  have  been  lost  His  medals  and 
statuettes  are  very  common,  but  they  seem  to  be  used  purely  as 
objects  of  devotion,  and  not  for  specific  purposes. 

S.  Expedite,  once  a  soldier,  is,  because  of  his  name,  invoked  ta 
quicken  matters,  and  also  to  the  end  that  a  good  choice  for 
marriage  may  be  made.  It  is  said  that  he  will  grant  any  favour 
asked  of  him  by  a  person  seeing  his  image  for  the  first  time. 
Statuettes  of  S.  Expedite  are  used,  but  not  medals. 

There  is  a  cord  of  a  soft  twisted  material,  about  two  yards  long, 
with  a  succession  of  seven  knots  near  one  end  and  a  loop  at  the 
opposite  end,  which  is  known  as  the  "  Cord  of  S.  Joseph.'*  It  is 
worn  around  the  waist,  by  people  of  all  ages,  to  secure  the 
protection  of  the  Saint,  and  by  young  men  and  women  to  keep 
themselves  pure  and  chaste. 

Medals  or  tiny  statuettes  of  the  Holy  Family  are  carried, 
or  ceramic  images  are  placed  in  the  house,  for  the  preser- 
vation of  family  concord  and  happiness,  and  because  of  the 
conceptions  connected  with  S.  Joseph  as  patron  of  "a  good 

Protection  for,  and  against,  Animals,  S.  Anthony  the  Hermit, 
usually  represented  with  a  pig  at  his  feet,  is  the  patron  saint  of 
domestic  animals,  and  farmers  often  appeal  to  him  for  aid. 
*This  U  an  ancient  belief:  cf.  Ellis's  Brandos  Pop,  Ant,,  ii.  S6. 

Collectanea.  211 

Statuettes  of  S.  Anthony  are  not  infrequent,  but  so  far  as  could  be 
concluded  from  the  result  of  very  numerous  inquiries,  medak 
of  S.  Anthony  (which  in  Italy  are  worn  by  domestic  animals  for 
their  protection  or  cure)  are  not  at  present  in  use.  In  several 
bstances  they  were  said,  but,  apparently  mistakenly,  to  be 
employed ;  two  of  these  cases  remained  finally  undecided,  but  with 
a  strong  presumption  against  the  use  of  the  medals.  Small  loaves 
of  bread,  said  to  be  blessed  by  S.  Anthony,  are  sometimes  sold 
as  food  for  domestic  animals,  to  preserve  them  from  harm  or  to 
cure  them  of  disease.  In  at  least  one  case  this  bread  was  eaten 
by  a  woman  as  a  cure  for  internal  inflammation. 

Farmers  and  others  having  charge  of  domestic  animals  some- 
times make  a  curious  application  of  the  votive  ofiferings  intended 
fior  presentation  at  the  shrines  of  S.  Anthony.  The  offerings, 
animals  formed  of  wax,  are  used  directly  as  preservative  or 
curative  agents,  being  believed  to  have  acquired  a  certain 
measure  of  sanctity  through  their  association  with  the  Saint  \  a 
waxen  cow  is,  for  example,  placed  in  the  stable  when  a  cow  is  ill, 
or  a  waxen  horse  for  a  sick  horse. 

A  medal  of  S.  Benedict  is  sometimes  put  in  a  stable  to  preserve 
the  animals,  or  one  of  the  wooden  capsules,  previously  described, 
containing  blessed  objects  answers  the  same  purpose. 

On  many  large  farms  in  Flanders  a  lamb  is  kept  in  the  stable 
with  the  horses,  to  keep  ihem  from  harm,  for  the  reason,  it  was 
said,  that  the  lamb  is  a  symbol  of  Jesus.  When  the  lamb  is  full- 
grown  it  is  treated  like  any  other  sheep. 

The  collars  worn  by  draught-horses  often  have  bells  attached  to 
them,  and,  quite  frequently,  a  piece  of  badger-skin  as  well.  A 
strip  of  the  skin,  with  the  hair  upright,  passes  across  the  collar  in 
a  direction  perpendicular  to  the  back  of  the  animal,  or  edges  a 
hanging  loop  of  leather  to  which  the  bells  are  sometimes  fastened. 
A  little  of  the  skin  is  also  occasionally  used  to  decorate  the  base 
of  a  whip,  or  in  some  way,  it  was  said,  in  the  saddles  of  horses. 
Badgerskin,  which  can  be  bought  at  the  harness-makers'  shops,  is 
the  only  skin  thus  used.  It  is  not  used  at  present  with  any 
preservative  or  curative  intent;  numerous  direct  and  indirect 
inquiries  failed  to  discover  any  reason  for  its  employment  save 
that  it  is  sometimes  considered  to  be  ornamental     Its  use  is 

212  Collectanea. 

probably  a  survival  of  a  former  belief  in  badger-skin  as  a 
protection  against  witches  and  the  "evil  eye."^ 

S.  Hubert  of  Li6ge  is  the  patron  saint  of  dogs,  as  well  as  of 
hunting.  He  is  a  great  favourite  with  all  classes  in  Belgium, 
where  dogs  are  very  numerous,  and  the  large  ones  used  as 
draught-animals  are  often  savage.  Medals  of  S.  Hubert,  which 
are  frequently  worn,  have  on  the  reverse,  in  most  cases,  a 
representation  of  S.  Roch,  protector  against  plague,  small-pox, 
cholera,  and  all  other  epidemic  diseases;  they  are  used  as  a 
protection  against  hydrophobia  and  epidemic  diseases.  A  medal 
of  S.  Hubert  is  sometimes  built  into  a  house — under  the  doorstep, 
for  example — to  preserve  both  canine  and  human  inmates  from 

On  S.  Hubert's  Day  (Nov.  3)  people  go  early  to  church, 
taking  with  them  small  loaves  of  bread  to  be  blessed.  On 
their  return  home  the  loaves  are  eaten,  without  butter,  as  the 
first  food  of  the  day,  by  all  the  members  of  the  family,  and  a 
little  is  sometimes  given  to  each  of  the  domestic  animals. 
Some  of  the  bread  is  generally  kept,  a  slice  of  it  being  nailed  to 
a  doorpost,  or  a  few  crumbs  sewn  into  a  pocket  of  the  clothes 
usually  worn.  By  these  means  the  members  of  the  household 
are,  it  is  believed,  protected  from  the  danger  of  hydrophobia 
during  the  year  following.  On  the  next  S.  Hubert's  Day,  the 
blessed  bread  is  renewed,  the  superseded  pieces  being  burned, 
and  not  thrown  away. 

There  is,  I  was  told,  an  institute  in  Belgium  for  the  spiritual 
treatment  of  hydrophobia  through  the  intercession  of  S. 

There  are  sold  small  blessed  loaves,  called  the  ''Bread  of 
S.  Gertrude,"  which  are  crumbled  and  scattered  about  for  the 
purpose  of  driving  mice  away  or  of  stopping  their  ravages.  The 
connection,  in  the  popular  mind,  of  S.  Gertrude  the  Canoness  (or 
Abbess),  with  mice  is  due  to  her  being  represented  with  a  mouse 
as  her  symbol.^    A  statement  to  the  effect  that  these  loaves  are 

^See  Bellucd,  Cat,  Dts.^  for  use  of  badger-skin  in  Italy;  dL  also  mj 
**  Notes  on  Spanish  Amulets." 

'**  According  to  the  popular  German  belief  .  .  .  S.  Gertrude  is  .  .  .  the 

first  to  shelter  the  spirits  (of  the  dead)  when  they  begin  theii  wandering.  As 

Collectanea.  213 

sometimes  eaten  for  the  relief  of  disease,  although  I  did  not  verify 
it,  is  likely  to  be  true,  since  S.  Gertrude  is  invoked  especially  for 
the  relief  of  fevers,  madness,  and  tiunours,  as  well  as  against 


Notes  on  some  Contemporary  Portuguese  Amulets.^ 

(Read  at  Meetings  \<^th  Aprils  1908.) 

The  material  forming  the  basis  of  this  paper  was  obtained  at 
Lisbon  and  at  Funchal  during  the  spring  of  1905,  and  concerns, 
almost  exclusively,  amulets  which  are  in  common  use  and  which 
may  be  procured  at  the  shops,  or  from  the  sellers  of  cheap 
trinkets  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  markets.  A  lack  of  sufficient 
knowledge  of  Portuguese  necessitated  the  making  of  inquiries  in 
a  mixture  of  Spanish  and  Portuguese,  or  in  English  or  French, 
so  that  I  did  not  obtain  that  entire  freedom  of  intercourse  with 
the  lower  classes  which  would  have  been  desirable.  My  notes 
can,  therefore,  make  no  pretence  of  including  all  the  tjrpes  of 
amulets  used  even  in  the  two  cities  where  they  were  secured. 

the  patroness  of  souls  her  5)111  V>ol  is  a  mouse."  Baring-Gould,  Curious  Myths 
of  th(  MiddU  Ages  ("  Kishop  Hallo"). 

**  Dans  les  images  qu'on  fail  de  Sainte  Gertrude,  dcs  souris,  des  loirs,  et 
dcs  mulots  courent  aulnur  d'ellc  et  meme  grimpent  sur  sa  cro&se.  En  void 
rcxplication  :  Dans  rabhaye  de  Nivelles,  on  puisait  de  I'eau  renferme  sous 
la  cr>pte  dc  rcgli.>e,  el  Ton  ^'cn  scrvait  pour  aspcrger  les  chxunps  infest^  par 
U-N  campagnols  et  autres  rongeurs  ennemis  de  raecotles  .  .  .  c'est  surtout  cu 
Bclgiquc,  parmi  le  jK^uple  dcs  camp;ignes,  que  sa  culte  est  r^pandu  :  .  .  .  Le 
yyMX  <le  sa  fete,  <ians  beaiicoup  de  vilLages,  on  a  la  coutume  d'oflfrir  du  bU, 
comme  preniices  de  la  ni«>is,s<»n,  afin  de  preserver  celled,  par  rintercession 
dc  la  Sainte,  du  flcau  dcs  nats. "  Notes  communicated  by  a  Belgian  corre- 
ipmdcnt,  and  emlx^lied  in  the  account  of  S.  Gertrude  in  Les  Petits 
fiCilanJisU:^  vol.   iii.    p.  48 1. 

*  NLany  l*ortuguc<ie  amulets  not  touched  upon  in  this  paper  are  briefly 
referred  tj  hy  J.  Lciic  de  X'asconcellos,  in  his  excellent  Sur  Us  AmuUttes 
Py}rtu^ai:n,  publibhe<l  by  the  ScUtt!  tU  Geogra/'hie  cU  Lisbonnt^  1892,  a 
wclvcpagc  re  um!  uf  a    paper  intended   for   presentation   before   the    loch 

214  Collectanea. 

The  greater  part  of  my  information  was  drawn  from  small  shop- 
keepers, itinerant  hawkers,  and  servants. 

The  amulets  I  saw  for  sale  or  in  use  in  Madeira  were 
practically  identical  with  those  of  Lisbon,  and  appeared,  for 
the  most  part,  to  be  importations  from  Portugal.  This  fact  is 
readily  accounted  for  by  the  Portuguese  character  of  the  popula* 
tion,  which  is  without  an  indigenous  element,  for  the  group  of 
islands  were,  it  is  said,  entirely  uninhabited  at  the  time  of  thdr 
discovery  by  the  Portuguese.  Although  in  Lisbon  amulets  are 
still  very  commonly  used,  at  Funchal  comparatively  few  are  to 
be  seen,  and  these  are  said  (and  justly,  so  far  as  my  observation 
could  confirm  the  statement)  to  be  disappearing  with  a  noticeable 
rapidity,  a  marked  decrease  of  belief  in  the  virtues  of  the  majority 
of  them  having  occurred  even  within  the  five  years  which  had 
just  passed.  The  so-called  ''Zodiac-rings,"  of  gold  or  silver, 
to  be  found  in  many  of  the  shops  at  Funchal,  are  merely  copies, 
made  there  for  sale  to  the  numerous  visitors,  of  the  gold  rings 
ornamented  with  the  signs  of  the  Zodiac  which  are  made  by 
the  natives  of  the  West  Coast  of  Africa.  There  is,  so  far  as 
could  be  determined,  no  amuletic  virtue  attributed  to  such  rings 
by  the  people  of  Madeira. 

The  "  evil  eye,"  tnau  oihado^  is  generally  believed  in,  and  the 
amulets  against  it  are  very  common.  Of  these,  horns  of  various 
kinds  and  representations  of  a  human  hand  making  the  ''fig" 

Session  (which  did  not  take  place  as  expected)  of  the  Intermtiwnai  Congrtss 
of  Orientalists^  which  treats  principally  of  amulets  in  their  general  aspects. 

Other  papers,  by  the  same  writer,  on  the  subject  of  amulets  are : — 

A  mulct  OS  poptdares  Portugueses*  from  the  Revista  da  Sociedade  dt  InstnueSk 
do  Porto,  Porto,  1 882. 

AmuUtos  Ualianos  e  Portugueses  *  in  the  Revista  ScietUifica^  Porto,  1882. 

Moedas  Amulelos,*  in  EUncho  das  lieois  de  numismatiea^  vol.  L,  p.  21, 

AmuUtos,  in  O  Archeologo  Portuguis,  vol.  v.,  Lisbon,  1905. 

Signification  religieuse,  en  Lusitanie,  de  quelques  monnaies  percie  d*im  trom^ 
in  O  Archeologo  Portugu^s,  Lisbon,  190$. 

Religoes  de  Lusitania^  vol.  i.,  contains  several  references  to  amulets. 

There  is  also  a  portion  of  Concelho  de  Elvas^*  (of  Victorino  d'Almeda), 
vol.  i.,  pp.  495  et  seq.,  by  A.  Thomis  Pires,  devoted  to  **  AtmUetos," 

I  have  not  been  able  to  obtain  for  consultation  copies  of  the  pt^pen 
marked  (♦). 

Collectanea.  2 1 5 

sture,  with  the  thumb  protruding  from  between  the  index 
id  middle  fingers  of  a  closed  fist,  are  the  most  frequent.^  Very 
Einy  of  both  of  these  charms  appear  to  be  imported  from  other 
iropean  countries,  but  there  are  also  many  which  are  of  native 
anufacture,  some  of  the  latter  being  exceedingly  primitive  in 
instruction  and  correspondingly  low  in  price. 
This  hand,  an  extremely  ancient  amulet,  the  mano  fica  of 
aly,  is  commonly  called  a  figa  at  Lisbon.     In  its  simple  form 

is  most  often  made  of  a  black  or  red  composition,  with  a 
etal  termination  to  which  a  ring  for  suspension  is  attached 
'igs.  J,  2,  3);  or  of  bone  with  a  small  hole  through  the  wrist 
>ig.  4).  Black  as  a  favourite  colour  for  the  hand  may  be  a 
miniscence  of  jet,  formerly  a  favourite  material  in  Spain  for 
e  fabrication  of  this  amulet;  and  red  may  be  attributed  to 
e  widespread  belief,  of  which  other  Portuguese  examples  were 
>ted,  in  the  protective  virtues  of  that  colour  or  of  coral.  I 
d  not  note  artificially  coloured  hands  of  any  other  hues.  Hands 
ade  of  horn  (Fig.  5),  of  silver  (Fig.  6),  or  of  gold,  are  to 
I  found,  but  less  often  than  those  of  bone  or  composition, 
^me  of  the  hands  are  so  rude  in  design  as  to  be  recognizable 
\  such  only  by  the  initiated,  perhaps  the  limit  of  this  symbolism 
ring  reached  in  certain  amulets  whose  straight-cut  ends  are 
vided  by  four  small  notches,  forming  five  divisions  which 
present  the  knuckles  of  the  fingers  and  the  tip  of  the  thumb 
Mg.  7). 

The  figa  occurs  in  a  number  of  compound  amulets,  notably 

the  elaborate  cinco  seimdo ;  the  hand,  whilst  almost  always 
resent  in  such  amulets,  may,  however,  occasionally  appear  in  a 
flferent  form. 

Small  images  of  horns  are  very  common,  for  a  horn,  by  virtue 
'  its  shape  as  well  as  by  that  of  its  substance,  is  regarded  as 
1  excellent  preservative  against  the  effect  of  the  evil  eye.* 
jch  imai^es  are  sometimes  mere  twisted  fragments  of  cow's-hom, 
^ig.  8),  the  upper  and  perforated  end  perhaps  notched  to 
idicate  3ifiga  (Fig.  9);  sometimes  pieces  more  carefully  shaped, 

^  Cf.  **  Nuics  un  Spani>h  Amulets,'  Folk-Lorc^  vol.  xvii.,  pp.  45S-460,  and 

i.  V. 

'Cf.   "  Notci  on  S{«anish  Amulcis,"  pp.  455-457,  and  PI.  IV. 

2 1 6  Collectanea, 

and  set  in  metal  sockets  with  a  suspending  ring;  sometimes 
more  or  less  perfect  representations  in  glass,  or  some  other 
composition,  which  are  usually  coloured  black  or  red  (Figs. 
I o,  II,  12).  A  silver  finger-ring  with  a  hemispherical  bezel  upon 
which  are  engraved  religious  symbols,  (a  cross  between  two 
flaming  hearts)  and  having  a  minute  piece  of  horn  set  within 
in  such  manner  as  to  touch  the  skin,  is  often  to  be  met  with 
(Fig.  13).  In  this  amulet  the  horn,  although  considered  to 
be  efhcacious  against  fascination,  is  used  especially  as  preventive 
of,  and  as  a  remedy  for,  nervous  complaints,  particularly  those 
affecting  the  head. 

Stag's  horn  seems  now  to  be  seldom  employed  against  the 
effects  of  the  evil  eye.  In  Madeira  I  was  told  that  it  had 
formerly  been  greatly  esteemed  for  its  protective  virtues  in  that 
connection,  though  now  but  little  used ;  at  Lisbon  I  noted  none 
exposed  for  sale,  though  it  was  occasionally  to  be  seen  upon 
donkeys,  by  whom  it  is  worn  sometimes  on  the  forehead,  some- 
times at  the  neck.  Although  comparatively  few  of  these  animals 
had  any  amulets  in  sight,  one  of  them,  apparently  owned  by  a 
peasant,  carried  a  very  elaborate  set  of  amulets  against  the 
evil  eye  (PL  IV).  It  consisted  of:  a,  the  tip  of  a  stag's  horn, 
perforated  for  suspension,  and  with  two  additional  holes  through 
which  bunches  of  ribbons  of  several  colours  were  passed,  having 
attached  to  it  a  circular  brass  plate  with  eight  radial  perforations 
which  was  carried  upon  the  donkey's  forehead ;  by  a  piece  of  black 
horn,  perforated  for  suspension,  and  with  a  second  perforation 
through  which  a  bunch  of  coloured  ribbons  was  passed,  which 
was  hung  below  the  throat ;  ^,  a  very  feeble  brass  bell,  suspended 
with  the  black  horn ;  and  d^  two  bits  of  red  ribbon  which  were 
tied,  one  at  each  flank,  to  the  harness  over  the  haunches.  There 
can  be  little  doubt  that  each  of  these  objects,  with  the  exception 
of  the  probably  merely  ornamental  brass  plate,  was  intended  as 
a  protection.  The  multi-coloured  bunches  of  bright  ribbons  were 
supposed  to  serve,  as  in  many  other  countries,  to  attract  the 
evil  eye  to  themselves,  and  to  divert  its  eff"ect  from  the  animal 
wearing  them.  The  red  ribbons  were,  it  may  be  presumed^ 
protective  by  virtue  of  their  colour,  for  bits  of  red  cloth  or 
ribbon   are  not  infrequently  to  be  seen   tied  to  the  harness, 

Collectanea,  2 1 7 

[enerally  between  the  donkey's  eyes.  The  almost  inaudible  bell, 
lowever,  may  have  been,  instead  of  actually  amuletic,  only  the 
nrvival  of  an  amuletic  custom,  since  inquiries  made  as  to  the 
Nirposes  of  certain  very  small,  and  similarly  feeble,  bells  fastened 
o  the  harnesses  of  horses  above  the  head,  brought  forth  no 
iseful  information.^ 

Copies  of  claws,  made  of  glass  and  mounted  in  metal  sockets, 
ire  worn  against  the  effect  of  the  evil  eye.  One  such  is  black, 
rith  its  brass  socket  set  with  bright  bits  of  glass  (Fig.  14); 
mother  is  multi-coloured,  like  the  bunches  of  ribbons,  and  has 
L  small  metal  pig,  said  to  be  for  the  purpose  of  attracting  good 
Qck,  attached  to  its  socket  (Fig.  15). 

Lunar  crescents,  usually,  though  not  always,  of  silver,  and 
luman-faced,  are  common  in  Portugal.  They  occur  singly 
Figs.  16,  17),  in  sets  of  amulets  (Figs.  34,  35,  38),  and  in 
impound  amulets  like  the  cinco  seitndo  (Figs.  39-42).  The 
ndividual  crescents  are  worn  by  babies,  principally  to  protect 
hem  from  the  supposed  pernicious  effect  of  the  moon,  which, 
t  was  said,  causes  an  illness,  luada^  of  the  nature  of  stomach 
rouble  or  colic.  The  crescent  in  this  form  is,  of  course  a 
profane  amulet;  it  is  sometimes,  though  rarely,  changed  into 
me  to  which  no  exception  can  be  taken  from  a  religious  point 
)f  view,  by  the  addition  of  an  image  of  the  Virgin — who  is 
dmost  invariably  shown,  in  Portuguese  representations  of  all 
dnds,  standing  upon  an  upward -curving  crescent  moon  (Fig.  18). 
There  is  a  compound  amulet  whose  basis  is  a  crescent,  the 
nterior  curve  of  which  is  formed  by  a  smaller,  and  human-faced, 
a-esccnt,  whilst  the  remainder  of  the  space  is  occupied  by  a 
^ga,  a  key,  and  a  pentangle  (Fig.  19) ;  in  another  form  of  the 
►ame  amulet  the  crescent  moon  within  the  curve  is  lacking 
Fig.  20).  The  lunar  crescent  appears  upon  almost  all  of  the 
:ompound  amulets,  and  in  almost  every  set. 

Small  branches  of  red  coral  (Fig.  21)  are  worn  against 
ascination,  and  also,  so  it  was  said,  against  troubles  affecting 

^  Dr.  Incite  de  X'asconcellos  has  informed  mc,  since  the  above  was  written, 
hat  the  liillc  Ixlls  V>orne  by  animals  are  sometimes  ornamented  with  a  cross, 
o  enhance  I  heir  virtue  :  also  that  the  small  bells  arc  employed  as  a  protection 
iig^nst  li^htnin^  (sec   Traduois  pcpularcs^  p.  64). 

2 1 8  Collectanea. 

the  head.  The  coral,  if  genuine,  is  supposed  to  break  when 
exposed  to  the  influence  of  the  evil  eye. 

A  representation  of  a  key  in  silver,  which  is  a  frequent 
amulet,  I  did  not  find  employed  by  itself;  it  seemed  to  occur 
invariably  either  as  one  of  the  charms  of  a  set,  or,  with  other 
symbols,  in  some  compound  amulet.  At  Lisbon  it  was  found 
upon  the  cinco  seimdo^  and  upon  one  lunar  crescent  alone 
(Figs.  39,  40,  41,  20),  but  at  Funchal  it  appeared  not  only 
upon  several  compound  amulets  (Figs.  19,  25,  42)  but,  with  a 
silver  lunar  crescent  and  a  silver  figa^  it  made  up  a  favourite 
set  of  charms  for  the  protection  of  infants  (Figs.  34,  35).  On 
the  Lisbon  crescent  (Fig.  20)  the  usual  form  of  its  handle  is 
replaced  by  what  seems  to  represent  a  flame.  The  key  was 
said  to  be  a  "  man  "  (male)  key,  and  commonly  worn  by  young 
children,  but  its  special  preservative  attributes  could  not  be 
ascertained;  the  phallic  significance  was,  in  some  charms 
(Figs.  19,  25),  quite  clearly  indicated  by  the  shape  of  its  handle. 
In  Italy  small  silver  keys,  called  "  Keys  of  the  Holy  Spirit," 
which  have  been  blessed  by  a  priest,  are  worn  by  infants  for 
preservation  from  convulsions  and  similar  disorders.^  In  Italy, 
also,  the  key  is  employed  as  a  phallic  symbol,  and  is  supposed 
to  have,  amongst  other  virtues,  that  of,  in  certain  circumstances, 
bringing  good-luck  to  the  wearer.^ 

The  heart,  in  its  conventionalized  form,  has  an  extended  use 
in  Portugal  as  an  amulet  against  the  evil  eye.'  It  appears, 
as  in  other  Roman  Catholic  countries,  in  the  combination  of  a 
heart,  a  cross,  and  an  anchor,  the  emblems  of  charity,  £uth, 
and  hope,  to  which  a  protective  virtue  is  assigned  because  of 
the  religious  conceptions  associated  with  them  (Figs.  36,  37). 
But  it  appears  alone  as  well,  and  also  with  profane  amuletic 
symbols  in  sets  (Fig.  38),  or  as  the  basis  of  (Figs.  24,  25),  or 

^  Bellucci,  Catahgo  Dtscrittivo  Amuleti  Italiani^  Perugia,  1898,  Tablet  XV. 

'Leland,  Etruscan  Roman  Remains ^  Lond.,  1892,  p.  364.  Also  Payne 
Knight,  Symb.  Lang, 

'  In  a  note  to  me  Dr.  Leite  de  Vasconcellos  makes  the  followtng  ocmunent 
on  this  statement:  ''I  believe  that  the  heart,  as  an  amulet,  is,  00  the 
contrary,  dead  in  Portugal.  It  is  worn,  ...  but  without  any  great  pre- 
servative signification  being  attached  to  it  by  the  people." 

Collectanea.  2 1 9 

upon  (Figs.  39,  40,  41,  42),  compound  amulets.  At  Lisbon  a 
small  heart  of  bone,  intended  for  suspension  (Fig.  32),  was 
obtained,  and  a  little  silver  heart  (Fig.  23)  having  an  arrow 
rodely  engraved  upon  each  face,  both  of  which  pendants  were 
said  to  be  useful  in  counteracting  the  effects  of  the  evil  eye. 
Upon  a  larger  silver  heart,  also  from  Lisbon,  there  are  a  cross, 
an  anchor,  and  a  pentangle  (Fig.  24);  and  upon  a  similar 
one  from  Madeira  are  a  pentangle  within  a  circle,  an  open 
hand  with  the  palm  showing,  a  lunar  crescent,  and  a  key  of 
phallic  type  (Fig.  25). 

A  small  crucifix  or  cross,  worn  as  elsewhere  as  a  general 
protection,  is  considered  to  be  a  preservative  from  fascination. 
There  is  a  small  silver  coin  (Fig.  26),  upon  the  face  of  which 
u  represented  an  armillary  sphere,^  and  upon  whose  reverse 
are  five  equal-armed  crosses,  four  small  ones  about  a  larger 
one,  which  is  to  be  seen  at  many  of  the  silversmiths'  shops  in 
Lisbon.'  This  coin,  prepared  for  suspension,  is  much  worn 
by  children,  and  though  reported  by  one  of  the  silversmiths 
selling  it  to  be  without  supposed  amuletic  virtues,  serves  never- 
theless, according  to  a  woman  informant,  to  avert  the  effect 
of  the  evil  eye  or  some  similar  misfortune  or  malady. 

Other  simple  amulets  having  religious  associations  are  the 
medal  of  St.  George  (Fig.  27),  ^^^  Equitum  Patronus^^  with  "/« 
Temp€5tate  Securitas "  and  a  ship  upon  its  reverse,  whose 
specific  intention  in  Portugal  I  could  not  determine ;  and  small 
pairs  of  conventionalized  eyes,  stamped  from  thin  silver  sheets, 
and  having  a  suspending  ring  (Figs.  28,  29).  These  latter, 
which  are  very  like  tx  votos  in  design,  are  much  smaller  than 
the  generality  of  such  offerings,  and  were  meant,  I  was  told,  to 

^  Lcitc  dc  Vasconccllos,  in  O  Archeohgo  PortuguiSt  vol.  x.,  p.  171, 
June,  1905.  *'Thc  people  of  Portugal  call  still,  though  very  improperly, 
tine  saiffsab  the  armillary  sphere  which  appeared  during  the  eighteenth  and 
nineteenth  centuries  on  the  reverse  of  our  coins ;  for  this  reason  they  employ 
them  as  amulets.'' 

^[This  device,  heraldically  known  as  **a  cross  potent  between  four  cross- 
lets,"  was  the  shield  of  the  Crusader  Kings  of  Jerusalem.  Tinctured  cr 
upr»n  a  6eld  argent,  it  was  the  sole  permitted  instance  of  **  metal  upon 
metal."  Differently  tinctured,  it  forms  the  coat  of  the  Episcopal  See  of 
Lichfield.     Ed.] 

220  Collectanea. 

be  worn  by  children  to  put  them  under  the  protection  of  St 
Lucy,  the  patroness  of  eyesight  That  they  are  not  intended 
solely,  if  at  all,  for  offerings  seems  to  be  indicated  by  their 
exposure  in  numbers,  for  sale  at  shops  where  few  or  no  votive 
offerings,  but  many  amulets,  were  shown.^  Other  eye-forms  used 
in  Italy  against  the  evil  eye,  I  did  not  see  in  Portugal. 

A  very  favourite  amulet  against  fascination,  and  one  which 
appears  to  survive  most  actively  in  Portugal  amongst  the 
Christian  nations,  is  the  pentangle,  the  proper  Hno  saitndo  or 
"Seal  of  Solomon,"  sometimes,  because  of  the  number  of  its 
points,  called  the  cinco  saimdo  (or  seimdo).  This,  as  all  know, 
is  a  five-pointed  star,  whose  outlines  are  formed  by  five  straight 
lines  passing  directly  from  tip  to  tip,  so  that  it  is  composed  of 
a  pentagon  upon  each  of  whose  sides  a  triangle  is  erected 
(Figs.  30,  31).  It  is  a  very  ancient  magical  symbol  of  Oriental 
origin,  which  was  greatly  employed  by  the  mediaeval  astrologers 
and  magicians  throughout  Europe.  Its  existence  in  Portugal, 
after  the  practical  extinction  of  its  amuletic  significance  else- 
where in  Europe,  may  be  due  to  the  Moorish  and  Jewish 
influences  which  were  greater  in  the  Peninsula  than  in  the  rest 
of  Europe.^  It  is  curious  that,  so  far  as  I  was  able  to  discover, 
no  trace  of  this  symbol  as  a  contemporary,  or  even  recent, 
amulet  exists  in  Spain. 

The  "Seal  of  Solomon,"  though  occasionally  worn  by  itself, 
appears  much  more  frequently  in  sets  of  charms,  or  upon 
compound  amulets,  of  both  of  which  it  usually  forms  a  part 
It  is  most  frequently  made  of  silver,  sometimes  of  bone.  Very 
often  the  figure  is  drawn  with  its  lines  symmetrically  interwoven, 
so  that  each  line  passes  over  the  first,  and  under  the  second, 
of  the  two  lines  which  it  crosses. 

Bone,  as  indicated  by  several  of  the  foregoing  descriptions,  is 
a  material  commonly  used  for  the  fabrication  of  amulets  (Figs. 
4,  22,  30),  and  especially  for  that  of  Xht  figa.     It  is  probable 

*  Dr.  Leite  de  Vasconcellos  considers  these  to  be  ex  votos  merely. 

*In  Sur  Us  AmuUttes  Portugaises  Dr.  Leite  de  Vasconcellos  gives  several 
examples  illustrating  the  great  prevalence  of  this  symbol  for  protective 
purposes.  He  speaks,  also,  of  its  Semitic  origin,  and  suggests  that  it  has, 
in  a  number  of  instances,  supplanted  and  replaced  the  swastika. 

Collectanea.  221 

liat,  although  no  such  virtue  was  mentioned  in  connection  with 
t,  it  has,  as  elsewhere  on  the  Continent,  a  preservative  virtue 
Utributed  to  it,  which,  added  to  its  durability  and  cheapness, 
nakes  it  a  favourite  for  the  purpose. 

A  belief  related  to  that  in  fascination,  prevalent  in  Portugal, 
md  still  to  be  found  in  Spain,  is  that  paralysis  and  a  condition 
n  which  the  limbs  and  features  are  permanently  contorted  are 
produced  by  "  bad  currents  of  air " — that  is,  by  invisible  evil- 
irorking  currents  in  the  atmosphere — striking  upon  the  person. 
To  guard  against  these  currents  a  steel  finger-ring,  lined  with 
diver  and  with  a  gold  or  gilt  bezel  (Fig.  32)  is  worn.  It  is 
:he  steel  alone  in  this  ring  which  is  said  to  have  the  power  of 
Averting  the  evil,  the  silver  serving  merely  to  protect  the  finger 
^om  rust,  and  the  gold  as  ornamentation.  "Electric''  finger- 
rings  of  the  usual  type,  having  alternating  strips  of  copper  and 
one  within  a  gold  or  gilded  casing,  and  imported  firom  other 
Continental  countries,  are  worn  as  a  cure  for  nervous  diseases. 

Amongst  the  Portuguese,  as  amongst  other  peoples,  there  is 
\  tendency  to  attempt  to  make  the  more  certain  of  a  desired 
result  by  accumulating  various  amulets  intended  each  indi- 
ridually  to  seciure  that  result.  This  has  brought  about  in 
Portugal  not  merely  the  formation  of  sets  of  individual  charms, 
but  the  construction  of  various  very  elaborate  compound  amulets 
IS  well.  Both  in  the  sets  and  in  the  compound  amulets  a 
strange  and  interesting  intermingling  of  sacred  and  profane 
symbols  may  be  observed,  an  intermingling  which  appears  to 
be  considerably  more  frequent  than  in  Italy,  and,  at  the  same 
time,  less  marked  by  a  consciousness  of  the  incongruity  of  the 

The  sets  of  amulets  consist  generally  of  three  or  six  separate 
charms,  mostly  of  silver  and  very  small,  fastened  to  a  single 
imall  ring  by  which  they  are  attached  to  the  person.  For 
infants,  such  sets  may  be  put  upon  a  slender  chain  encircling 
the  wrist,  and  may  be  formed,  as  often  at  Lisbon,  of  a 
crescent  moon,  a  figa,  and  a  pentacle  (Fig.  33),  or,  as  at 
Funchal,  of  the  two  former  objects,  with,  frequently,  a  key  in 
the  place  of  the  pentangle  (Figs.  34,  35).  Another  set  com- 
monly worn  in  the  same  manner  is  made  up  of  the  cross,  the 

Collectanea.  22  j 

Spanish  amalet,  seemingly  no  longer  used,  of  silver,  composed 
of  a  crescent  within  whose  body  this  emblem  is  placed,  and 
torn  the  centre  of  whose  inner  curve  a  figa  projects.^  Whilst 
there  is  a  strong  possibility  that  it  represents  the  rue  (or  some 
Mher)  flower,  forming  an  additional  point  of  resemblance 
tietween  the  cinco  seimdo  and  the  cimaruta^  it  may  perhaps  be 
iscribed  to  a  Mohammedan  influence,  since  it  is  used  \vt 
^eria,  with  or  without  the  crescent,  as  a  decoration  for 
imulet  pouches.  Just  such  an  emblem,  a  centre  with  four 
ipokes  or  petals,  is  used  in  Moorish  decoration  as  a  repre- 
lentation  of  the  strongly-protective  number  five.^ 

In  the  cinco  seimdo  we  find  combined  the  protective  virtues 
of  silver,  of  an  image  of  the  Virgin,  of  the  lunar  crescent,  the 
key,  the  ithiphallic  hand,  the  heart,  and  the  pentagram,  and 
potsibly  also  those  of  the  flower-like  emblem,  the  arrow,  and 
the  cross.  In  the  Neapolitan  cimaruta  we  find  embodied 
leveral  of  the  same  conceptions  which  are  embraced  by  the 
SM^  seimOo,  The  cimaruta,^  literally  the  "  sprig  of  rue,"  is  a 
Item  from  which  extend  short  branches,  each  of  which  holds 
ID  amuletic  emblem  or  S3rmbol  at  its  extremity.  It  is  worn  as 
\  protection  against  ^^jettatura"  (the  evil  eye),  it  is  almost 
ihrays  of  silver,*  and  usually  roughly  made,  and  it  counts 
unongst  its  symbols  the  lunar  crescent,  the  key,  the  ithiphallic 
liand  (the  ^' mano  fi^a"),  a  flower-like  emblem,  and  often  the 
beart  and  the  arrow.  The  number  of  coincidences  between  the 
two  amulets  appears  too  great  to  be  the  result  of  mere  chance ; 
in  fact  it  is  so  great  that  we  may  fairly  assume  that  the  amulets 
themselves  have  had  a  common  origin,  and  that  one  or  the 
other  has  changed  in  form,  and  in  some  of  its  less  valued 
lymbols,  during  the  centuries  since  their  genesis. 

There  are  several  similar  but  less  common  compound  amulets, 

**•  Notes  on  SpanLsh  Amulets,"  pp.  457,  458,  and  PI.  VII.  Since  writing 
hese  notes  I  have  seen  a  **  fig  "  hand  of  crj'stal  whose  metal  socket  for 
mspcnsion  was  ornamented  with  this  emblem  round  the  wrist. 

'  VVeslcrmarck,  Thf  Magic  Origin  of  Moorish  Designs ,  /.A. I.,  voL  xxzIt. 

•  Elworthy,  Eiil  Ey<^  pp.  343  et  seq.  and  355  ;  and  GUnther,  Folk-Lort^ 
[unc,   1905. 

^Spedroens  made  of  base  yellow  metal,  although  rare,  sometimes  oocnr. 

224  Collectanea. 

described  in  the  notes  on  the  heart  and  the  lunar  crescent, 
which,  however,  hardly  appear  to  be  standard  types.  They  also 
are  of  silver,  but  they  do  not  include  so  many  symbols  as  the 
Virgin-surmounted  charm,  five  symbols  appearing  in  one  of 
them  (Fig.  25),  and  four  in  each  of  the  three  others  (Figs.  19, 
20,  24).  It  is  curious  that  in  two  of  these  latter  (Figs.  19, 
20)  the  symbols  are  all  profane,  the  heart,  to  which  a  religious 
conception  is  sometimes  attached,  being  lacking;  and  that  in 
the  other  (Fig.  24)  the  s3rmbols  are  sacred  in  character,  with 
the  exception  of  the  pentangle.  It  is  interesting  to  note  that 
neither  in  any  of  the  compound  amulets  mentioned,  nor  in  the 
dmaruta^  does  a  representation  of  a  horn,  otherwise  a  favourite 
protection,  occur. 

The  only  Spanish  amulets  which  I  have  found  which  resemble 
the  Portuguese  compound  amulets  are  the  combined  crescent, 
figa^  and  four-petalled  flower,  which  may  be  related  to  the 
cinco  seimSU)\  and  the  elaborate  jet  ithiphallic  hands  upon 
which  appear  a  lunar  crescent,  or,  more  seldom,  a  lunar 
crescent  and  a  heart^  W.  L.  Hildburgh. 

Folk-Tales  of  the  Aborigines  of  New  South  Wales. 

The  following  stories  have  been  obtained  by  me  personally  from 
old  natives  whom  I  have  been  acquainted  with  in  different  parts 
of  New  South  Wales.  In  1899  I  published  seven  aboriginal 
stories,^  and  in  1904  a  number  of  myths  and  traditions  current 
among  the  natives  of  New  South  Wales  and  Victoria.*  I  have 
a  considerable  number  of  all  sorts  of  legends  still  in  MS., 
awaiting  publication.  R.  H.  Mathews. 

I.   Why  Fishes  inhabit  the  Water.    {Kamilaroi  Tribe.) 

In  olden  times  there  were  some  people  who  had  the  form  of 
different  kinds  of  fish,  but  they  always  roamed  about  and  hunted 

***  Notes  on  Spanish  Amulets,"  p.  457,  and  PL  VII.,  and  pp.  459,  460, 
nd  PL  V. 
^Folklore  of  the  Australian  Aborigines  (Sydney,  1899),  pp.  1-3$. 
^Journ.  Roy,  Soc,  N,S,fV,,  xxzriii.  pp.  278-286  and  337-376. 

Collectanea.  225 

OD  the  dry  land  the  same  as  other  folk.  One  day  they  were 
camped  beside  the  Barwan  river,  under  a  shady  tree  which  grew 
CD  the  top  of  a  steep  bank,  at  the  foot  of  which  was  a  large, 
deep  waterhole.  A  heavy  thunderstorm  came  suddenly,  and 
almost  extinguished  their  fire.  Immediately  after  the  rain,  a 
strong,  piercing  wind  arose,  and  everybody  became  very  cold. 
An  old  man,  Thuggai,  the  yellow-belly,  told  his  children  to  try 
and  re-kindle  the  fire.  As  they  did  not  succeed,  he  asked 
Biemuga,  the  bony  fish,  to  have  a  try.  Then  he  invited  Kumbal, 
the  bream,  and  some  others,  but  they  all  failed,  because  the  wood 
was  very  wet  on  account  of  the  recent  heavy  shower.  There 
was  among  the  people  a  Ngulamanbu,  a  little  fish  about  four 
or  five  inches  long,  and  he  said  to  the  yellow-belly,  Thuggai, 
"  Ask  my  father  Guddhu,  the  cod-fish,  to  light  the  fire  for  us. 
He  \&  a  clever  conjurer  and  I  am  sure  he  will  succeed."  Thuggai 
iccordingly  made  the  desired  request.  Gaddhu  then  placed 
some  pieces  of  bark  on  the  almost  extinguished  fire,  and  began 
to  blow  the  few  remaining  live  coals  vigorously  with  his  breath, 
which  caused  the  fire  to  show  signs  of  reviving. 

All  the  people  immediately  crowded  close  to  Gaddhu  on  the 
windward  side,  keeping  their  backs  towards  the  cold  wind  and 
their  faces  in  the  direction  of  the  fire,  in  the  hope  of  soon  being 
able  to  warm  themselves.  When  Guddhu  observed  this,  he 
asked  ihem  to  get  farther  back  and  give  him  more  room.  They 
then  all  went  round  to  the  leeward  side,  which  allowed  the  wind 
to  play  freely  on  the  smouldering  embers ;  which  caused  the 
bark  and  wood  to  gradually  ignite.  Guddhu  added  plenty  of 
fuel,  because  he  wished  to  make  a  good  fire  which  would  warm 

On  the  leeward  side  there  was  a  very  narrow  space  between 
:he  fire  and  the  top  of  the  steep  bank  already  mentioned,  which 
iras  only  of  sufficient  width  to  afford  standing  room  for  the 
xcupants.  At  that  moment  there  came  a  sudden,  strong  gust 
Df  wind  which  fanned  the  fire  into  a  large  sheet  of  flame  and 
:ompelled  all  the  people,  including  Guddhu  himself,  to  step 
Dackwards  to  escape  being  scorched,  whereupon  they  all  fell 
lead  long  down  the  bank  into  the  water.  The  strength  of  the 
^alc  increased  and  swept  the  fire  also  down  the  bank  into  the 


226  Collectanea. 

river.  The  people  who  were  swimming  about  gathered  around 
the  fire,  which  continued  to  bum  under  the  water, Vand  they 
have  remained  there  ever  since.  This  is  why  it  is  always  warmer 
under  the  water  on  a  bleak,  chilly  day  than  it  is  in  the  cold 
air  on  the  surface. 

11.   Why  the  Owl  has  Large  Eves.    {Wirraidyuri  Tribe,) 

Away  back  in  the  traditionary  times,  WeemuUee,  the  owl,  and 
Willanjee,  the  cyclone,  were  two  young  men  who  were  great 
friends.  Although  they  hunted  and  had  their  meals  together, 
and  slept  in  the  same  camp,  and  chatted  to  each  other, 
Willanjee  was  invisible  to  his  companion.  WeemuUee,  however, 
was  always  trying  to  see  Willanjee  and  kept  constantly  staring 
in  his  direction,  which  caused  his  eyes  to  gradually  grow  larger 
and  rounder.  When  they  started  out  hunting  together,  Willanjee's 
weapons  and  other  accoutrements  were  carried  along  just  as 
any  blackfellow  would  carry  them,  but  the  bearer  was  not  visible. 
When  the  two  hunters  were  stalking  kangaroos,  WeemuUee  would 
see  Willanjee's  spear  poised  in  the  wommera,  and  thrown  at  the 
kangaroo.  He  would  hear  Willanjee's  voice  caUing  out  that 
he  had  secured  the  game;  and  when  the  two  men  rushed  up 
to  give  the  animal  the  coup  de  grdce,  Willanjee's  club  was  acting 
in  good  form  in  an  invisible  hand.  AU  this  greatly  puzzled 
WeemuUee,  besides  having  the  great  charm  of  mystery,  and 
he  was  for  ever  straining  his  eyes  in  a  vain  endeavour  to  see  his 
peculiar  friend. 

One  day  these  two  mates  were  out  hunting  as  usual,  and 
had  caught  some  iguanas  and  black  ducks.  Towards  evening 
WeemuUee  climbed  a  tree  and  caught  a  fat  young  opossum  in 
one  of  the  hollow  spouts.  WUlanjee  called  out,  "Throw  it 
down  to  me  and  we  will  go  home  and  cook  our  supper." 
WeemuUee  then  descended  from  the  tree  and  the  two  mates 
started  for  the  camp,  carrying  with  ihem  their  day's  catch  of 
game.  The  opossum  was  borne  along  by  the  invisible  Willanjee, 
and  when  the  camp  was  reached  he  made  a  fire  and  cooked 
the  different  animals  in  the  usual  native  fashion.  The  hunters 
had  a  great  feast,  and  when  it  was  over  WiUanjee  roUed  himselt 

Collectanea.  227 

ip  in  his  rug  and  lay  down  by  the  camp  fire.  Weemullee's 
oqaisitiveness  had  reached  its  climax,  and  he  decided  to  make 
I  close  inspection  of  his  friend  while  he  was  sound  asleep  with 
I  full  stomach. 

By  and  by,  when  all  was  quiet,  with  his  eyes  opened  to  their 
ttmost  extent,  he  cautiously  unfolded  and  lifted  up  one  corner 
>f  Willanjee's  skin  rug.  The  consequence  was  sudden  and 
lisastrous.  The  moment  the  rug  was  raised,  out  burst  the  wind 
md  scattered  everything  in  the  camp  in  all  directions.  WeemuUee 
ras  swept  into  an  adjacent  hollow  tree  and  on  up  inside  the 
lole,  coming  out  again  at  a  top  spout.  He  was  then  blown 
Lway  across  a  plain,  all  the  time  staring  and  straining  his  eyes 
D  the  hope  of  seeing  his  queer  companion.  At  last  he  caught 
L  firm  hold  of  a  small  but  tough  acacia  tree  and  managed  to 
ding  to  it  till  Willanjee  the  whirlwind  had  gone  past  Ever 
iince  that  terrible  night's  experience  Weemullee's  eyes  have 
emained  large  and  round. 

III.   How  THE  Nankeen  makes  the  Reeds  grow. 
{Yitha-yitha  Tribe) 

The  Nankeen  crane,  called  by  the  natives  WarwoUec,  is  a 
locturnal   bird  of  a  dull  reddish  colour,  and  spends  the  day 

itling  among  the  branches  of  trees  bounding  waterholes  and 
agoons.  When  the  Murrumbidgee  river  is  in  high  flood  in 
he  summer  months,  and  the  waters  spread  out  on  either  side 
)ver  the  low-lying  lands  and  swamps,  WarwoUee  is  in  great 
;lee  and  utters  his  discordant  calls  during  the  evening  at 
requent  intervals.  The  aborigines  believe  that  the  rapid  growth 
nd  great  height  of  some  reeds,  due  to  the  warmth  of  the  sun 
ipon  the  flooded  lands,  is  caused  by  the  noise  made  by  these 
>irds.  In  prehistoric  times,  Warwollee  was  a  great  magician 
nd  went  about  among  the  swamps  and  other  moist  places 
^here  reeds  grow,  stretching  them  upward  by  pulling  them  with 
lis  bill.  The  joints  which  we  see  in  reeds  and  rushes  were 
aused  by  Warwollee,  and  indicate  the  places  where  he  used 
o  catch  them,  when  hauling  them  higher  and  higher  out  of 
he  ground. 

(  To  be  continued. ) 


Congress  of  the  History  of  Religions. 

Probably  most  of  your  readers  are  already  aware  that  the 
third  International  Congress  of  the  History  of  Religions  will 
be  held  at  Oxford  from  Tuesday  to  Friday,  Sept.  15-18,  1908. 

The  following  are  the  arrangements,  so  far  as  yet  made: 

On  Monday  evening,  Sept.  14th,  Prof.  Gardner  and  Dr.  A.  J. 
Evans  will  receive  the  members  at  the  Ashmolean  Museum, 
at  8.45  p.m. 

The  Congress  will  assemble  on  Tuesday  15th,  at  9.45  a.m.,  in 
the  Examination  Schools,  when  the  representatives  of  Universities 
and  Academies,  British  and  Foreign,  will  be  welcomed  on  behalf 
of  the  Local  Committee  and  the  University.  The  Hon. 
President,  Dr.  E.  B.  Tylor,  will  (it  is  hoped)  introduce  the 
President,  the  Right  Hon.  Sir  A.  C.  Lyall,  K.C.B.,  D.C.L.,  who 
will  deliver  his  address.  At  11.30  the  sections  will  be  con- 
stituted under  their  various  Presidents.  The  Sections  will  be 
nine  in  number : 

I.  Religions  of  the  Lower  Culture  (including  Mexico  and 

Peru):  Pres,  Mr.  E.  Sidney  Hartland. 
II.  Religions   of  the   Chinese   and    Japanese:    Prts,  Prof. 
Herbert  A.  Giles  (Cambridge). 

III.  Religion  of  the  Egyptians. 

IV.  Religions  of  the  Semites:  Fres,  Prof.  M.  Jastrow,  Jun. 

V.  Religions  of  India  and   Iran:   Pres,   Prof.  J.  W.  Rhys 
Davids  (Manchester). 

Correstondence,  2^9 

VI.  Religions  of  the  Greeks  and  Romans:   Pres,  Monsieur 

Salomon  Reinach. 
VII.  Religions  of  the  Germans,  Celts,  and  Slavs :  Pres,  Prof. 

Sir  John  Rhys  (Oxford). 
VIII.  The  Christian   Religion:   Pres,   Rev.    Prof.  W.  Sanday 
IX.  The  Method  and  Scope  of  the  History  of  Religions. 
Besides  the  addresses  of  the  several  Presidents,  papers  are 
spected  from  a  large  number  of  English  and  foreign  scholars, 
rhe  study  of  religious  anthropology   will  be  well  represented. 
^apers   have    been    promised    by   Count   Goblet  d'Alviella  on 

*  Les  Relations  de  la  Magie  et  de  la  Religion " ;  Mr.  Edward 
iHodd  on  " Preanimistic  Stages  in  Religion";  Rev.  Principal 
^arvie  on  "The  Religious  Consciousness  in  its  Earliest 
r^hases " ;  Mr.  R.  R.  Marett  on  "  The  Conception  of  Mana " ; 
Prof.  Preuss  on  "Astral  Religion  in  Mexico";  Mr.  W.  W. 
>keat  on    "  Malay   Religion " ;    and    Mr.   N.   W.   Thomas  on 

*  Sacrifice."  In  addition  to  other  promises  it  is  hoped  that 
)apers  will  also  be  contributed  by  Dr.  Frazer,  Mr.  A.  E. 
Zrawley,  and  Mr.  Gomme. 

In  other  sections  members  will  have  the  advantage  of  hearing 
rminent  scholars  like  M.  Michael  Revon,  Mr.  Suzuki ;  Dr.  Budge ; 
Prof.  Newberry,  Baron  von  Bissing,  Prof.  Capart,  Prof.  Loret ; 
?*rof.  Sayce,  Prof.  Paul  Haupt,  Prof,  von  Orelli  and  Prof. 
Bertholct  (President  and  Hon.  Sec.  respectively  of  the  Basle 
ront;ress  in  1904),  Prot.  Margoliouth,  and  Prof.  E.  Montet  ; 
r^rof.  Hillebrandt,  Prof.  Deussen,  Prof.  Jacobi,  Prof,  de  la  Vallee 
i^oussin,  Prof.  Arnold,  Prof.  Barnctt,  Prof.  Oltramare,  Prof.  A.  W. 
[ackson,  Prof.  J.  C.  Chatterji,  Prof.  Moulton;  Prof.  Franz 
I^uraoni,  Dr.  \.  J.  ^^ans,  Principal  Jevons,  Prof.  Eissler,  Dr. 
i^amell,  Mr.  W*.  Warde  Fowler ;  Prof.  Soderblom,  Prof.  L.  T. 
^obhouse,  Prof.  H.  M.  B.  Reid ;  Prof.  E.  von  Dobschiitz, 
r'rof.  (J.  Pflciderer,  M.  Guiniet,  Prof.  G.  Bonet-Maury,  Prof.  F. 
Z.   Porter. 

Members'  tickets  (for  I^idies  as  well  as  Gentlemen),  entitling 
o  admission  to  all  .Meetings,  Receptions,  etc.,  and  to  a  copy  of 
he  Transactions,  jQ\  each.  Ladies'  tickets,  entitling  to  admission 
o  all  Meetings,  Receptions,  etc.  (but  not  to  the  Transactions)^ 

230  Correspondence. 

I  OS.  The  Congress  will  be  received  by  the  Mayor  and  Mayoress 
at  the  Town  Hall  on  the  evening  of  Tuesday,  Sept  15th. 
Garden-parties  will  be  given  by  Rev.  Profs.  Driver  and  Sanday 
at  Christ  Church,  and  by  Dr.  Farnell  and  Mr.  Marett  at  Exeter 
College ;  and  there  will  be  evening  receptions  at  the  Pitt-Rivers 
Museums  and  the  Schools.  Applications  for  tickets,  which  should 
be  accompanied  by  Cheque  or  Postal  Order,  should  be  made  only 
to  Messrs.  Barclay  &  Co.,  Old  Bank,  Oxford.  The  Congress 
will  adhere  to  the  Fundamental  Rule  adopted  in  Paris  in  1900: 
"  Les  travaux  et  les  discussions  du  Congrbs  auront  essentiellement 
un  caractbre  historique.  Les  polemiques  d'ordre  confessionel  ou 
dogmatique  sont  interdites." 

All  communications  concerning  the  Congress,  offers  of  papers, 
etc.,  should  be  sent  to  either  of  the  Hon.  Secretaries,  viz.,  to  my 
colleague,  L.  R.  Farnell,  D.Litt,  191  Woodstock  Rd.,  Oxford,  or 
to  myself. 

J.  EsTLiN  Carpenter. 

109  Banbury  Road,  Oxford. 

A  Macassar  Version  of  Cinderella. 

(Vol.  xviii.  p.  191.) 

In  connection  with  Miss  Cox's  article  on  additional  variants  of 
Cinderella,  it  may  be  well  to  call  attention  to  a  very  interesting 
version  from  the  Indonesian  area,  overlooked,  app)arently,  by 
Mr.  Newein  in  his  comparative  note  on  the  Filipino  versions 
collected  by  Gardner.  The  volume  in  which  it  occurs  is  about 
the  last  place  one  might  expect  to  find  a  representative  of  this 
famous  story,  viz.,  T.  J.  Bezemer's^  recent  work  on  Indonesian 
folk  and  animal  tales,  etc.  At  pages  373-375  of  this  book  is  to 
be  found  the  German  text  of  "  Die  Makassarische  Aschenbr6del  ** 
(The  Macassar  Cinderella),  translated  from  the  Dutch  of  Dr. 
B.  F.  Matthes  in  the  Bijdragen  tot  de  Taal-  Land-  en  VoUunkunde 

'^Journal  of  American  Folk-Lore^  voL  xix.  pp.  272-280. 
*  V'olksdi(htung  am  Indoiusein,     Sagetiy  Tierfabcln  und  Mdrchen,     Htag, 
1904,  pp.  viii,  430. 

Correspondence.  231 

van  Nederlandsch'Indie,  The  native  race  from  whom  the  tale 
was  obtained  are  the  Macassars  of  Southern  Celebes,  a  people 
of  Malayan  stock,  whose  literary  attainments,  according  to 
Bezemer  (p.  366),  are  far  behind  those  of  their  neighbours  and 
congeners,  the  Buginese. 

The  following  is  an  English  rendering  (by  the  present  writer) 
of  Bezemer's  text: — 

"  In  days  of  old  there  once  lived  in  the  country  of  Bantaeng 
{vulgo  Bonthain,  a  port  in  Southern  Celebes),  seven  sisters. 
After  the  death  of  the  parents,  the  oldest  of  these  sisters  had 
received  authority  over  the  household,  and  accordingly  assigned 
their  daily  tasks  to  all  the  others.  It  was  thus  the  duty  of  the 
jToungest  to  bring  every  day  the  wood  needed  for  the  kitchen. 
One  day,  when  she  chanced  to  take  a  bath  in  the  river,  she 
caught  a  fish  named  Djuiungdjuiung,  which  she  took  home  with 
her  and  placed  in  the  basin  of  the  fountain  in  front  of  the  cave 
TJalindo-lindo,     Every  day  she  gave  the  fish  half  of  her  rice, 

Uld  sang  :  «  Djulung-djulungy  come  up, 

Eat  rice  off  the  stone  plate 
That  is  washed  with  milk.' 

"  And  as  soon  as  the  fish  heard  this  charming  song,  he  came  up 
immediately  to  get  his  meal.     In  this  way  the  fish  was  fed  every 

morning  by  the  maiden  until  he  got  to  be  the  size  of  a  long 
pillow.  But,  alas,  hardly  had  the  sisters  of  the  maiden  discovered 
that  she  was  becoming  thinner  and  thinner  than  they  began  to 
**atch  her  carefully  all  the  time.  It  soon  turned  out  that  she 
ilways  gave  up  half  of  her  food  to  the  fish  and  so  had  not 
mfficicnt  nourishment  herself.  Whether  it  was  due  to  sisterly 
ove,  or  to  the  attraction  of  the  great  Djulung-djulung  fish,  is 
loubtful ;  but  this  is  certain  that  the  fish  was  caught  and 
jccretly  eaten. 

"  When,  next  morning,  the  youngest  sister  came  again  to  the 
rave  of  Tjalindo-lindo  and  sang  there  her  accustomed  song,  she 
vaited  in  vain  for  the  return  of  Djulung-djulung.  In  despair  she 
ctumed  home,  and  now  spent  day  and  night  in  sleep,  wrapped 
romplctely  in  her  sarong.  But  one  morning  she  was  awakened  by 
he  crowing  of  a  cock.  And  in  his  crowing  the  cock  informed 
icr  that  the  bones  of  her  dear  fish  lay  hidden  under  the  kitchen- 

232  Correspondence, 

fire.     She  arose  at  once,  dug  up  the  bones  and  buried  them  at 
the  grotto  of  Tjalindo-lindo,  singing  as  she  did  so  this  song : 

*Thou  must  grow,  my  Djulang-djulung» 
Until  thou  art  become  a  tree ; 
And  thy  leaves  shall  fall  on  Java ; 
And  the  King  of  Java  will  pick  thee  up.' 

"  And  actually  the  bones  soon  grew  to  be  a  tree,  the  trunk  of 
which  was  of  iron,  the  leaves  tjinde  (a  sort  of  silk),  the  thorns 
needles,  the  blossoms  gold,  and  the  fruit  diamonds. 

"  When  the  tree  had  grown  large,  in  accordance  with  the  wish 
of  the  maiden  a  leaf  fell  down  on  Java.  When  the  beautiful  leaf 
was  shown  to  the  King  of  Java,  he  resolved  immediately  to  visit 
a  country  from  which  came  such  a  beautiful  thing.  After  the 
Prince  had  been  roaming  about  in  Celebes  for  several  days,  he 
found  one  day,  while  out  hunting,  the  great  wonder-tree  of 
Tjalindo-lindo,  but  try  as  much  as  he  could,  he  was  unable  to 
discover  its  origin.  [When  the  Prince  heard  that  tHe  sisters 
dwelt  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  cave,  he  bade  the  maidens 
come  to  him,  in  order  that  he  might  obtain  from  them  particulars 
as  to  the  origin  of  the  tree.]^ 

"  In  accordance  with  the  command  of  the  Prince,  the  six  sisters 
came,  but  could  not  satisfy  his  desire  for  knowledge.  When 
asked,  if  one  of  them  had  not  remained  at  home,  they  answered, 
'  Yes,  the  youngest.  She  is  only  a  simpleton,  and  knows  nothing 
about  anything  except  the  house.'  But  the  Prince  insisted  that 
she  also  should  be  brought  to  him.  And,  wonderful  to  relate, 
hardly  had  she  come  in  sight,  when  the  tree  bowed  to  the  ground 
most  submissively  in  recognition  of  its  mistress.  The  maiden 
picked  some  of  the  leaves  and  fruit  and  handed  them  to  the 

"  The  Prince  was  so  charmed  by  this  homage  that  he  chose  the 
youngest  sister  for  his  wife,  and  took  her  and  her  sisters  back  to 
Java  with  him.     But  later  the  whole  family  returned  to  Celebes.*' 

This  version  extends  the  area  of  distribution  of  Cinderella  and 
cognate  tales  in  the  extreme  East. 

Alexander  F.  Chamberlain. 

^  The  words  enclosed  in  brackets  are  not  in  the  original  text  of  Dr.  Matthes^ 
being  added  by  Bezemer  to  make  the  meaning  dearer. 

Correspondefue.  233 

Perhaps  the  nearest  European  analogue  of  this  interesting 
Cinderella  story  is  "  One- Eye,  Two-Eyes  and  Three-Eyes" 
(Grimm,  ii.  Household  Tales,  169),  No.  236  of  Miss  Cox's 
collection.  In  that  case  the  heroine  is  nourished  by  a  goat, 
and  when  the  goat  is  killed  she  buries  its  entrails,  which  spring 
ap  into  a  tree  with  silver  leaves  and  golden  fruit.  In  the 
Macassar  tale  it  is  the  fish's  bones  that  are  buried.  This  is  in 
accordance  with  a  wide-spread  custom  in  the  lower  culture.  The 
bones  and  other  remains  of  food  are  not  indeed  everywhere 
buried,  but  they  are  usually  treated  with  special  care.  Professor 
Frazer  in  the  second  volume  of  The  Golden  Bough  has  collected 
a  large  number  of  examples.  The  custom  is  also  well  repre- 
sented in  folktales  other  than  those  of  the  Cinderella  cycle. 
Bones  are,  perhaps,  more  usually  than  other  offal,  the  subject  of 
ceremonious  care.  It  is  often  explicitly  believed  that  when  this 
is  done  the  creature  will  be  restored  to  life,  to  become  food 
again  on  a  future  day,  or,  at  least,  that  if  they  be  not  treated 
properly  the  animals  of  the  species  will  take  offence,  and  the 
supply  of  game  fall  short.  These  beliefs  and  practices  are 
specially  prominent  among  the  North  American  tribes,  but  they 
are  by  no  means  unknown  elsewhere.  In  the  Hebrides  it  is  not 
considered  right  to  throw  sheep-bones  on  the  fire  (xiii.  Folk- 
Lore,  35).  Tlie  late  Dr.  Gregor  records  (iv.  Folk- Lore  Journal, 
x6)  that  in  Scotland  the  bones  of  the  haddock  are  not  to  be  burnt ; 
and  in  some  places  the  rule  is  more  general  (iii.  ibid,  183).  We 
have  no  distinct  intimation  that  the  object  of  thus  preserving  the 
bones  is  to  facihtatc  the  resuscitation  of  the  animal.  But  in  the 
famous  saga  of  Tiior's  adventures  it  will  be  remembered  that  he 
came  one  night  to  a  countryman's  house,  and  slew  the  goats  that 
drew  his  chariot  in  order  to  |)rovide  the  evening  repast.  He 
desired  his  host  and  hostess  and  their  children  to  throw  the  bones 
into  the  goat-skins,  which  he  laid  beside  the  hearth.  On  the 
morrow  he  consecrated  the  skins  and  their  contents  with  his 
hammer — in  other  words,  |)erformed  a  magical  ceremony — and 
immediately  the  goats  sprang  uj)  alive.  But  one  of  them  was 
lame  m  consequence  of  the  host's  son  having  broken  the  thigh- 
bone for  the  sake  of  the  marrow.  There  can  be  little  doubt, 
therefore,    that   the   ancient    Scandinavians    held   the    belief  in 

234  Correspondence. 

question,  and  treated  the  bones  of  animals  killed  for  food  in 
accordance  with  it.  In  the  Macassar  tale  it  is  quite  evident  that 
the  tree  which  grows  up  from  the  bones  is  a  new  manifestation 
of  the  fish :  the  fish  is  restored  to  Hfe  in  a  new  form. 

E.   Sidney   Hartland. 

Burial  of  Amputated  Limbs. 
(Vol.  xviii.  p.  216.) 

T.  J -^  a  farmer,  of  Old  Basford,  Nottingham,  fell  off  the 

shaft  of  his  cart  and  injured  his  leg  so  badly  that  after  some  time 
he  was  obliged  to  have  it  amputated.  His  wife  had  a  little 
coffin  made  for  it  and  had  it  buried  in  the  family  grave.  This 
happened  about  18  years  ago. 

My  father  was  Vicar  of  Old  Basford  for  53  years  and  I  knew 

the   J family   very   well.      They   were   most  respectable 

people,  whose  ancestors  had  lived  on  the  same  farm  four  hundred 

Mr.  J died  about  two  years  after  the  loss  of  his  leg. 

E.  B.  Pitman. 

Humshaugh  Vicarage,  Northumberland. 

Wren  Bovs. 

(Vol.  xviii.  p.  439.) 

I  send  a  Co.  Louth  Wren-rhyme  for  comparison. 

"The  i*Ten,  the  wren,  the  king  of  all  birds, 
On  St.   Stephen's  Day  he  was  caught  in  the  furze, 
But  though  he's  little  his  family's  great 
So  rise  up,  kind  people,  and  give  us  a  treat* 
If  you  don't  rise  up  and  give  us  a  treat 
We'll  bur>-  the  wren  in  under  the  gate. 

*  These  four  lines  are  practically  identical  with  an  Essex  rhyme  qooted  in 
A.  \V.  Moore's  Folk- Lore  of  tht  Isle  of  Man ^  except  that  in  the  English  versioo 
*' honour"  takes  the  place  of  **  family." 

Correspondence.  235 

A  wren,  a  wren,  when  you  were  young 

A  mouse  couldn't  stir  off  the  floor. 

But  now  you  are  dead  and  gone 

We'll  carry  you  from  door  to  door. 

With  your  pocket  full  of  money  and  your  barrel  of  beer, 

ril  wish  you  a  happy  Christmas  and  a  merry  New  Year. 

So  up  with  the  kettle  and  down  with  the  pan, 

Give  us  some  money  to  bury  the  wren.'* 

In  Mr.  0*Faherty's  ^  siAmf  a  tia  SeimjMT)'  (noticed  in  Folk- 
Lore,  vol.  vi.  page  308)  is  the  following  Irish  wren-rhyme : 

**  A  <)i\eoiUn,  <)|\eoiUn,  pig  tia  n-eun, 
If  ni6j\  t)o  niuiiMJin,  if  boAg  txx  f^m. 
611x15  ]*uAf,  A  bcAn  An  cige, 
A'f  CAb^if  T)6inn  ub  ha  cip ce  t>uibe 
»"A  fi^p  1  T)c6in  AH  cige." 

**  O  wren,  wren,  king  of  the  birds. 
Large  is  your  family,  small  are  you. 
Rise  up,  woman  of  the  house. 
And  give  us  the  black  hen's  egg 
That  is  back  in  the  far  end  of  the  house." 

I  have  never  heard  any  explanation  of  the  eighth  line  of 
the   Louth   rhyme,   but  one  version  of  "The  Battle  of  Birds" 

in  CampbelTs  Popular  Tales  commences  with  a  quarrel  between 
the  wren  and  the  mouse. 

I  have  once,  some  years  ago,  seen  a  party  of  young  men  going 
from  house  to  house  with  blackened  faces  and  one  of  their 
number  <lressed  in  straw,  but  as  a  rule  the  Louth  "wren-boys" 
are  chiMren.  They  carry  a  thorn  bush  decked  with  streamers 
of  coloured  pai)er,  to  a  branch  of  which  the  wren  is  tied;  that 
is  if  they  have  succeeded  in  killing  one.  An  alternative  is  to 
carry  the  wren  in  a  little  coffin  carved  out  of  a  turnip  and 
covered  with  coloured  paper. 

Bryan  J.  Jones. 


The  Cults  of  the  Greek  States.  By  L.  R.  Farnell,  D.Litt. 
Vols.  iii.  and  iv.  With  Illustrations.  Clarendon  Press, 
32s.  net. 

We  have  already  reviewed  in  these  pages  the  first  two  volumes 
of  Dr.  Farnell*s  great  work ;  and  the  greatness  of  his  task  may 
be  gauged  by  the  long  interval  of  time  that  has  passed  since 
the  first  two  came  out.  No  one  who  has  not  himself  tried 
some  such  task  can  know  how  long  it  takes  to  prepare  for  it : 
of  the  hundreds  and  thousands  of  articles  and  monuments  to 
be  examined,  weighed,  their  chaff  left  and  their  grain  taken; 
how  much  work  leaves  no  trace,  since  it  discloses  nothing  good 
or  nothing  new.  We  are  not  surprised  at  the  delay.  One  or 
two  advantages,  indeed,  come  from  delay.  Ten  years  ago,  some 
theories  were  predominant  that  have  now  fallen  into  the  back- 
ground ;  this  is  especially  the  case  with  ethnology  and  folk-lore, 
where  some  notable  advance  has  been  made.  For  one  things 
totem  ism  has  fallen  into  the  background,  owing  to  the  uncertainty 
caused  by  new  discoveries  in  Australia.  Dr.  Farnell  never  was 
much  inclined  to  give  weight  to  this  and  other  problems  of 
savagery,  and  no  doubt  he  feels  that  his  caution  was  justified. 
Then,  again,  the  Cretan  discoveries  have  thrown  a  new  light 
on  the  beginnings  of  Greek  religion :  for  whether  the  Cretans 
were  Greeks  or  not,  their  religion  certainly  bears  a  direct 
relation    to   that   of   historic   Greece.      Dr.   Farnell    has  taken 

Reviews.  237 

account  of  Crete,  but  we  think  he  was  not  well  advised,  in  a 
book  so  thorough  as  this,  in  not  basing  his  work  on  a  study 
of  savagery.  In  one  matter  he  has  come  to  see  this.  It  seems 
that  whatever  may  have  been  the  origin  of  the  state  cults  of 
Greece,  the  people  paid  their  chief  worship  to  local  heroes  and 
ancestral  divinities.  Now  hero-worship  was  no  part  of  Dr. 
Famell's  original  plan ;  but  he  has  found  himself  compelled  to 
include  it,  his  investigation  having  shown  him  its  importance. 
Yet  the  heroes  do  not  take  the  place  that  is  theirs  historically, 
first  in  the  work ;  they  are  to  come  last,  not  formally  as  part 
of  this  work,  but  separated.  We  are  very  glad  they  are  to 
come,  and  we  will  not  quarrel  with  their  place  so  long  as  we 
get  them. 

It  is  not  only  in  the  plan  of  the  work  that  we  miss  the 
element  of  savage  belief  and  practice :  any  of  the  parts  would 
have  been  the  better  for  it.  Not  only  is  this  the  case  with 
strange  survivals  such  as  the  horse-headed  Demeter,  or  the 
Mouse  Apollo,  but  it  would  serve  to  throw  light  on  the 
Mysteries.  Not  that  Dr.  Famell  omits  this  side  of  the  subject 
entirely :  only  he  uses  it  half  apologetically  in  illustration,  not 
in  explanation.  No  doubt  to  give  it  due  attention  would  largely 
increase  the  bulk  of  the  book;  but  we  do  not  think  that  was 
or  should  be  the  determining  principle.  Perhaps  we  may  see 
in  the  Dionysos  volume  fuller  use  made  of  the  savage  myth- 
dances,  which  in  two  cases  at  least — Peru  and  Polynesia — were 
the  starting  point  for  the  drama.  We  must  however  admit  that 
Dr.  Farnell  gave  us  no  excuse  to  expect  this  comparative  treat- 
ment ;  and  regarding  the  book  as  a  collection  of  facts,  marshalled 
and  ordered,  belonging  to  a  period  limited  in  time,  it  is  of  the 
highest  value.  Dr.  Famell  shows  always  a  sane  judgment;  he 
is  neither  confused  by  the  complexity  of  his  subject,  nor  apt 
to  accept  the  latest  new  theory,  and  liis  resources  are  so  wide 
as  to  be  practically  comi)lcte.  The  collection  of  the  authorities 
citeil  in  appendices  by  themselves  has  its  drawbacks,  but  it  has 
also  a  great  advantage,  in  that  the  student  may  without  trouble 
get  a  general  conspectus  of  the  evidence.  We  must  add  how- 
ever, that  the  method  ol  marking  references  is  very  far  from 
convenient  ;   the  small  figures  and  letters  easily  escape  the  eye, 

238  Reviews. 

and  in  the  appendices  they  are  not  arranged,  as  they  should 
be,  so  as  to  be  easily  seen,  in  the  margin  say  or  in  thicker 

The  subjects  of  these  volumes  are  Ge,  Demeter  and  Korc, 
Hades-Plouton,  the  Mother  of  the  Gods,  Poseidon,  and 

The  chapter  on  Ge  introduces  us  to  oracles  and  prophetic 
shrines,  another  point  in  which  Greece  comes  into  contact  with 
prehistoric  beliefs  and  practices.  Here  we  have  religious 
intoxication,  the  ceremony  of  oath-taking,  human  sacrifice,  the 
vegetative  dietry,  and  a  number  of  other  problems  on  which 
light  is  thrown  by  anthropology.  Dr.  Fameirs  treatment  will 
be  useful  to  anthropologists  as  illustrating  their  own  problems, 
but  cannot  be  said  to  be  complete  from  their  point  of  view. 
We  have  not  noticed  any  mention  of  the  rite  of  striking  the 
earth  to  appeal  to  Ge  or  the  powers  below,  which  appears  in 
a  few  passages  of  Homer,  Aeschylus,  and  Bacchylides.  Demeter 
also  has  much  in  common  with  earlier  cults,  although  to  the 
Greeks  she  was  rather  a  civilizer  than  a  goddess  of  divine 
powers.  A  number  of  very  obscure  and  complicated  enquiries 
belong  to  her :  for  instance,  the  Skirophoria,  the  Thesmophoria, 
the  Mysteries.  Dr.  Famell  does  not  subscribe  to  Miss  Harrison's 
explanation  of  the  title  Thesmophoros,  but  regards  the  dea-fioi 
as  the  institutions  of  ordered  life.  In  the  Phigaleian  story  he 
sees  Demeter  as  an  earth-goddess  of  the  dark  underworld;  he 
thinks  the  horse-type  was  due  to  some  admixture,  by  which 
Demeter-Erinys  took  over  the  horse  from  a  cult  of  Poseidon. 
Hades  occupies  only  a  small  part  of  the  volume;  and  the 
Mother  of  the  Gods,  and  Rhea-Cybele,  whom  we  might  expect 
to  have  found  near  the  beginning  of  the  work,  would  have 
been  almost  equally  unimportant  but  for  the  discoveries  in 
Crete.  We  do  not  think  that  Dr.  Famell  yet  realizes  the  place 
of  the  female  divinity  in  Greek  religion :  the  more  that  is 
discovered,  the  greater  her  importance  seems  to  be.  It  would 
have  been  worth  while  to  consider  the  Mother  of  the  Gods  in 
connexion  with  Artemis  at  least,  and  to  group  the  female 
divinities  if  possible  together.  We  cannot  help  believing  that 
these,    along   with    the    heroes,    are    the    foundation    of    Greek 

Reviews.  239 

religion  and  cult.  But  perhaps  when  his  work  is  finished,  Dr. 
Faznell  will  consider  this  and  other  questions  of  principle.  It 
is  strange  that  this  chapter  does  not  include  a  plate  of  the 
remarkable  snake-goddess,  (or  priestess  in  character-costume), 
found  in  Crete. 

The  manifold  character  of  Poseidon's  cult  is  recognized  by 
Dr.  Famell;  but  he  seems  to  be  a  little  prejudiced,  as  most 
people  are,  by  finding  the  god  as  master  of  the  sea  in  the 
earliest  literature.  To  our  mind,  this  can  hardly  have  been  his 
original  power.  He  does  not  even  seem  to  us  to  have  been 
originally  a  fresh-water  god,  developing  into  a  sea-god  by  the 
accident  of  migration.  Taking  into  account  not  only  his 
association  with  the  horse,  and  perhaps  with  war  (for  was  not 
the  trident  a  war-weapon?)  his  ancient  cult  in  Corinth  points 
to  a  more  comprehensive  power  than  this.  There  we  see  him 
jq;>pealed  to  by  warriors  and  traders  as  others  might  appeal  to 
Athena  elsewhere,  or  to  Apollo;  there  is  no  hint  in  the  actual 
remains,  the  ?rcVaKC9,  of  a  special  sea-function.  His  name  may 
be  connected  with  iroo-is,  ttorov^  Trora/xos,  but  it  may  be  connected 
with  irons,  5«tnr(m;s.  The  complicated  question  of  Poseidon's 
place  in  Attica  is  skilfully  analyzed  at  the  end  of  the  chapter. 
Dr.  Famell  suggests  that  Poseidon  is  a  late-comer,  brought  from 
Troizen  with  some  Ionic  immigration,  and  it  must  be  admitted 
that  he  gives  reasons  for  his  view ;  he  holds  also  that  Poseidon 
is  not  identical  with  Erechtheus,  and  that  Aigeus  may  be  a 
name  for  Poseidon  derived  from  the  town  of  Aigai,  which 
was  *'an  asylum  for  immigrant  cults."  We  do  not  feel  satis- 
fied, however,  that  the  last  word  has  been  said  on  Poseidon; 
in  particular,  no  one  seems  to  have  noticed  how  old-fashioned 
people  in  Aristophanes  swear  by  him,  and  the  conservatism  of 
the  countryman  is  well  known.  A  good  deal  of  suspicion,  in 
our  opinion,  must  also  rest  on  a  theory  that  assumes  Poseidon's 
original  function  to  have  been  that  of  a  water-god. 

The  worship  of  Apollo  furnishes  important  evidence  as  to 
early  Greek  ethnology.  Dr.  Farnell  sees  his  earliest  home  in 
the  North,  whence  down  to  historic  times  a  religious  pilgrimage 
used  to  take  place,  certain  messengers  bringing  offerings  of 
cereals  to   Delos.     These  seem    first   to  have  been  brought  to 

240  Reviews. 

Delphi,  whence  Apollo  was  long  before  he  got  a  seat  in  Delos. 
The  messengers  came  from  the  Hyperboreans,  and  were  called 
according  to  Herodotus  ircpt^^cs;  Dr.  Famell  accepts  Ahrens's 
brilliant  explanation  of  'YircpySdpctoi  as  a  variant  of  vn-cpjScpcroi, 
which  he  considers  to  be  a  North  Greek  form  of  vr€/)^/xTai, 
the  '  porters '  who  carried  the  offerings.  Apollo  was  originally  a 
pastoral  or  woodland  god,  in  which  last  capacity  he  was  the 
Wolf-god  Av#c€tos  (Dr.  Famell  rightly  insists  that  this  adjective 
cannot  come  from  Au#c»;,  which  would  make  Avkcuos),  and  the 
title  gave  its  name  to  Lycia,  which  probably  had  another  native 
name.  Here  Dr.  Famell  comes  closest  to  the  anthropological 
school,  in  admitting  an  animal  god,  to  whom  his  name-animal 
was  occasionally  sacrified,  into  the  Greek  pantheon.  The  con- 
nexion of  Apollo  is  close  also  with  vegetation  and  harvest;  bat 
his  association  with  the  sun  is  not  original  but  comparatively 
late.  In  the  end,  this  god  becomes  one  of  the  most  instructive 
to  the  student,  as  embodying  conceptions  of  high  intellectual 
and  moral  value. 

We  have  only  been  able  briefly  to  touch  on  a  few  potnts 
of  interest  in  these  volumes,  packed  so  close  with  well-ordered 
evidence  and  criticism.  We  have  indicated  where  it  seems  their 
plan  might  have  been  modified  with  advantage ;  but  taking  them 
as  they  stand,  they  are  indispensable  to  the  student,  who  will 
nowhere  else  hnd  so  good  an  account  of  the  subject  within 
its  own  limits.  For  those  who  disagree  with  this  or  that 
conclusion,  even  for  those  who  may  think  them  wrongly  con- 
ceived as  a  whole,  their  value  as  a  storehouse  of  learning  is 
very  great.  They  present  in  convenient  form  the  best  results 
of  the  study  of  Greek  religion,  so  far  as  those  studies  can  be 
confined  within  the  Greek  sphere. 

Reviews.  24 1 


GoMME.     Methuen  &  Co.,  1908. 

Phe  conductors  of  Folk-Lore^  not  long  ago,  expressed  a  decided 
opinion  against  authors  who  reply  to  criticism.  I  have  been 
[oing  so  all  my  days,  in  matters  of  folklore,  history,  and  so  on, 
nd  venture  to  think  that  discussion  clears  matters  up,  and  that 
liticism  is  really  a  form  of  collaboration.  In  the  case  of  Mr. 
jomme's  Folk-Lore  as  an  Historical  Science^  this  critic,  at  least, 
rould  welcome  a  reply,  as  he  feels  by  no  means  certain  that 
le  understands  exactly  what  his  author  would  be  at  Mr. 
jomme  seems  to  think  that  history  and  historians  are  behaving 
mkindly  to  their  little  sister,  folklore ;  yet,  as  a  writer  of  history, 

feel  unconvinced  of  this  sin.  Mr.  Gomme's  object  in  this 
rcvk  is  to  state  "  the  claims  of  Folk  Lore  as  a  definite  section 
^  historical  material,''  and  "to  shew  how  pure  history  is 
Dtimately  related  to  folklore  at  many  stages,  and  yet  how  this 
elationship  has  been  ignored  by  both  historian  and  folk-lorist," 
p.  xii). 

I  really  do  not  see  that  the  relation  can  be  ignored  by  the 
nodem  historian.  Part  of  his  business  is  to  clear  the  tower  of 
listoric  masonry  from  the  picturesque  but  pernicious  ivy  of  folk- 
ore,  that  is,  of  erroneous  popular  and  family  tradition.  For 
:xamplc,  there  is  a  place  in  Scotland  called  Kinedward,  and  folk- 
ore  steps  in  with  her  tale  of  King  Edward  I.,  which  is  only  a 
Volks€tymolcgie.  The  historian  cannot  ignore  this  folklore,  but 
le  chops  at  its  root,  and  so  he  does  in  hundreds  of  cases  in 
rhich  family  and  popular  tradition  can  be  proved  by  documentary 
evidence  to  be  nonsense.  In  the  meantime  no  historian 
lenies, — to  my  knowledge, — that  folklore  contains  valid  evidence 
LS  to  the  prehistoric  condition  of  mind  and  the  prehistoric 
nstitutions  in  the  past  dwellers  in  these  islands  for  example; 
ind  I  have  known  traditions  of  certain  historical  events  to 
)c  very  fairly  accurate  in  parts  of  Scotland.  If  any  historian 
lenies  the  value  of  tradition  in  proto-history,  he  may  fight  his 
)wn  battle.  On  the  other  hand,  when  tradition  ascribes  to 
Iromwell  a  camp   of  the   Early   Iron   Age,  then  folklore  has 


242  Reviews. 

become  a  very  erroneous  source.  These  facts  are  not  ignored 
by  any  competent  historian  or  folk-lorist.  It  may  well  be  that 
what  is  now  folklore  was  originally  a  suggestion  of  an  antiquary : 
thus  Sir  Walter  Scott,  I  think,  started  an  erratic  theory  of  the 
inscribed  stone  in  Yarrow  which  may  still  hang  about  in  that 
valley.  If  so,  it  is  folklore  now,  and  has  been  historically 

Mr.  Gomme  argues  that  tradition  sometimes  ''reveals  facta 
which  history  has  either  hopelessly  neglected  or  misinter- 
preted" (p.  13).  In  that  case  the  historian  will  gratefully 
acknowledge  his  debt  to  tradition,  though  I  do  not  see  how 
the  fact  revealed  by  tradition  can  ever  be  proved  correct, 
except  by  historical  methods.  Mr.  Gomme  devotes  much  space 
to  an  example,  the  old  story  of  a  country  fellow  who  dreamed 
that  he  should  get  good  news  at  London  bridge,  went  thither, 
and  there  met  somebody  who  told  him  that  he,  the  Londoner, 
had  dreamed  that  there  was  a  treasure  in  the  country  fellow's 
garden.  Mr.  Gomme  would  much  oblige  me,  and  the  science 
of  Psychical  Research,  if  he  went  on  to  prove  that  this  tradition 
has  an  evidential  basis.  But  he  does  not  do  that !  He  traces 
the  story  in  documents  from  January,  1652-53,  and  proves  that 
the  village  of  the  country  fellow  is  variously  localised,  and 
that  there  was  once  a  window  with  a  picture  of  a  pedlar  and 
a  dog  in  the  church  at  Lambeth,  while  there  is  a  wooden  figure 
of  ditto  at  Swaff ham ;  the  locality  of  the  country  fellow  in  one 
variant  The  story  may  have  attached  itself  to  these  figures, 
just  as  the  figure  sometimes  suggests  the  story. 

In  the  little  and  very  ugly  town  of  Douglas,  the  people  tell 
you  that  Claverhouse  cut  ofi*  the  ears  of  a  local  Covenanter 
with  a  pair  of  scissors.  They  prove  this  by  showing  you  a 
stone  in  the  wall  of  a  house,  on  which  are  incised  two  letters, — 
say  J.  R. — a  pair  of  tailor's  scissors,  and  a  tailor's  goose.  It 
was  common  for  tradesmen,  having  no  armorial  bearings,  to 
engrave  their  initials,  and  their  hammer,  shuttle,  scissors,  or 
whatever  was  the  chief  tool  of  their  craft,  on  a  stone  over 
the  door  of  their  houses,  or  on  the  wall.  The  shears  have 
suggested  to  Douglas  folklore  the  myth  of  Claverhouse;  the 
tailor's  goose  is  left  out  of  account 

Reviews.  243 

As  a  historian  I  did  not  ignore  folklore,  but  hunted  for  the 
oop-eared  nuutyr  in  Wodrow's  copious  martyrology.  His  name 
did  not  appear  among  the  hundreds  of  sufferers,  and,  duly  con- 
sidering the  goose,  I  relegated  the  tale  to  the  "fictional,"  in 
Mr.  Gomme's  phrase. 

To  return  to  the  story  of  the  dream,  it  occurs,  with  London 
bridge,  in  a  Breton  mdrchen  still  current,  and  in  the  Hdmskringia. 
Here  a  cripple  dreams  that  he  will  be  cured  at  the  church  of 
St  Olaf  in  London.  The  man  crossed  London  bridge  on  his  way 
to  St  OlaTs  church,  he  met  a  man  (the  saint)  who  led  him 
thither,  and  who  went  away  while  the  miracle  came  off.  Very 
well,  there  was  a  bridge  in  London  when  the  sagaman  heard 
diat  story.  Plenty  of  other  places,  from  Cairo  to  Holland,  are 
given  in  tales  as  the  place  of  the  central  incident 

But  Mr.  Gomme  argues  that  the  story  of  London  bridge  existed 
'^  before  the  separation  of  the  Breton  folk  from  their  Celtic 
brethren  in  Britain."  I  cannot  possibly  accept  this  opinion  as 
proved,  because  Breton  folk,  often  at  peace  with  English  fisher- 
men while  France  and  England  were  at  war,  kept  on  dealing  with 
English  fishermen,  and  could  pick  up  the  English  mdrchen. 
Naturally  the  Northmen  knew  all  about  London  bridge,  and  had 
every  opportunity  of  picking  up  the  mdrchen^  though,  in  the 
Heimskringla  the  story  became  hagiographic.  No  more  is  needed. 
We  have  nothing  to  do  here  with  the  Bretons  before  their  migration 
from  Britain,  or  with  human  sacrifices  accompanying  the  building 
of  a  bridge,  or  with  "  the  mythical  trappings  of  Arthur,"  whether 
he  was  trapped  on  London  bridge,  like  Jean  sans  Peur  on  the 
bridge  of  Montereau,  or  not.  The  treasure  was  not  under  London 
bridge,  though  the  Thames  bed  is  full  of  antiques  of  many  ages. 
I  do  not  see  that  the  bridge  story  adds  an  item  to  history. 

Mr.  Gomme  gives  a  case  in  which  a  local  tradition  of  a  buried 
treasure  was  verified  by  an  accidental  discovery.  Perhaps  in  this 
case  the  tradition  was  genuine,  but  the  country  is  full  of  treasure 
legends  which  are  not  verified.  In  the  Mold  ghost-story  of  a 
spectre  in  golden  armour,  excavation  did  not  find  man's  armour, 
but  the  golden  trappings  of  a  horse,  as  the  learned  declare.  The 
ghost  called  the  Dhuiru  Mor,  at  Ballachulish,  has  been  carefully 
observed  by  the  late  Mr.  Maclnnes,  who  correctly  described  the 

244  Reviews. 

armour  of  a  Viking  invader,  and  I  believe  that  relics  of  a  battle 
between  Vikings  and  natives  have  been  found  on  the  spot  But 
Mr.  Maclnnes  was  no  archaeologist,  though  the  armour  of  the 
Dhuine  Mar  was  correctly  described  by  him  from  careful  study  ci 
the  ghost.  In  this  case  tradition  was  not  the  source  of  the  know^ 
ledge  of  the  percipient.  There  were  two  percipients,  but  the 
other  was  alarmed  and  showed  no  scientific  curiosity. 

Mr.  Gomme  calls  on  psychical  research  to  hand  supranormal 
phenomena  over  to  folklore,  but  I  cannot  see  that  folklorists 
make  anything  of  them.  Folklore  does  not  cross-examine  the 
witnesses  and  compare  adjacent  evidence  tending  towards  proof 
or  disproof  of  the  phenomena.  Yet  this  appears  to  be  the  only 
scientific  method  of  dealing  with  such  things. 

In  other  cases  where  mdrchen  contain  vestiges  of  institutions^ 
the  fact  has  not  been  "  ignored  " ;  thirty  years  ago  I  was  busy  in 
tracing  these  vestiges,  and  the  knowledge  has  been  vu^risim  most 
treatises  on  folklore.  For  example  I  gave  the  Frog  Prince  story, 
and  so  does  Mr.  Gomme,  but  he  sajrs  "Frog  Prince •  totem ** 
''It  mout  be  so,  or  it  moutn't,"  quoth  Uncle  Remus.  Again, 
a  prince  coming  from  a  foreign  country  to  win  a  bride,  makes  "  an 
exogamous  marriage."  Now  in  Australia  you  make  an  exogamous 
marriage  with  a  neighbour  in  your  own  tribal  territory  (save  in  one 
or  two  cases  as  in  that  of  the  Kumai,  where  you  go  to  a  remote 
part  of  tribal  territory),  but  it  was  not  a  case  of  exogamy  when  his 
Majesty  married  a  "Sea-King's  daughter  from  over  the  sea." 
We  must  not  be  in  such  a  hurry  to  find  exogamy!  Nausicaa 
wanted  to  marry  a  foreign  prince,  the  Ithacan,  but  it  was  legal, 
and  desirable,  that  she  should  wed  a  Phaeacian  of  her  own  island. 

I  really  do  not  quite  see  what  novelty  Mr.  Gomme  thinks  he 
is  introducing.  If  he  makes  exogamy  and  foreign  marriage  co- 
extensive, or  thinks  that  a  case  of  foreign  marriage  or  a  dozen 
cases,  are  necessarily  due  to  the  exogamous  prohibition,  then  the 
information  is  rather  novel  than  convincing. 

When  Mr.  Gomme  finds  fault  with  historians  for  demurring  to 
Greek  and  Roman  accounts  of  the  low  savage  estate  of  the  natives 
of  these  islands  in  the  "  La  T^ne  "  or  "  Late  Celtic  "  period,  does 
he  mean  that  our  Graeco-Roman  books  are  folklore?  He  says 
"the  terms  'savage'  and  'barbarism'  indulged  in  by  the  Greek  and 

Reviews.  245 

Roman  writers,  cannot  be  rejected  by  modem  historians  simply 
because  they  are  too  harsh."  "Barbarism"  is  not  harsh;  and 
** savage"  must  be  rejected  because  archaeology  proves  beyond 
possibility  of  refutal,  that,  in  England,  Ireland,  and  Scotland,  the 
people  of  Caesar's  time  were  not  savages. 

The  material  civilisation  and  art  of  the  La  Tine  iron  age  of 
late  Celtic  ornament,  arts,  and  crafts,  were  no  more  savage  than 
the  art  and  civilisation  of  Late  Minoan  Greece.    As  to  the  alleged 
"community  of  women,"  if  it  existed,  the  fact  was  quite  out  of 
harmony  with  the  material  culture,  and  quite  out  of  harmony  with 
the  traditional  evidence  (which  Mr.  Gomme  should  respect),  of 
die  Tarn  Bo  Cualgne^  though  Queen  Maive  "  wur  a  bad  'un, — 
ihe,"  as  the  Northern  Farmer  says.    Mr.  Gomme  (p.  116)  plucks  a 
now  with  me  about  all  this,  citing  my  History  of  Scotland^  vol.  i. 
PP*  3'5*     ^  \^ZMt  read  vol.  i.  pp.  3-5,  and  to  these  pages  I  refer 
the  curious  inquirer.     As  it  happens,  I  did  not  say  (or  "  declare 
roundly  "),  that  "  to  found  theories  upon  such  evidence  as  archae- 
>logy   provides    is    the    province    of   another   science,   not   of 
listory."     I   said,   "to  discuss  the  race  and  language  of  the 
ribes  who  incised  on   the  rocks  the  universal  hieroglyphs  of 
»urly  man ;  who  used  the  polished  neolithic  weapons ;  to  found 
heories  on   the   shapes   of  skulls   unearthed   from  barrows,  is 
he   province  of  another  science,    not   of  history."     History   is 
kot     craniology,    and     history     is     not     philology     bombinans 
n  vacyo,  studying  a  language  of  which  we  have  not  a  single 
rord  on  record. 

The  language  of  the  people  who  inscribed  Scottish  rocks 
rith  Chiriqui  and  Arunta  decorative  designs  is  not  known  to 
IS.  We  cannot  prove  that  they  were  men  of  Celtic  speech, 
nd,  if  they  were  not,  they  have  left  no  hnguistic  traces  except 
KO'haps  in  some  mysterious  monosyllabic  river  names  such 
s  the  Spanish  Ter  and  the  English  Ver  and  Cher.  How 
an  history  criticise  such  names,  or  read  the  Cretan  inscriptions, 
lOt  in  Greek,  but  written  in  Greek  characters? 

History  is  primarily  concerned  with  contemporary  documents. 
Vlien  these  do  not  exist,  she  strains  her  eyes  with  the  aid  of  old 
ooks  of  history,  and  gratefully  accepts  what  help  she  can  receive 
x>m   philology,   archaeology,  anthropology,  folklore,  sphragistic 

246  Reviews. 

heraldry,  and  so  forth.  But  what  Caesar  says  is  evidence  (not 
folklore  evidence),  and,  if  he  were  well  informed,  then  the  social 
conditions  of  the  people  of  these  islands,  in  his  time,  were  much 
out  of  harmony  with  their  degree  of  material  culture.  1  do  not 
discuss  Mr.  Gomme's  theory  of  kinlessness  and  totemism  among 
the  Semangs,  because  Mr.  Skeat,  as  he  kindly  informs  me,  could 
find  no  certain  vestige  of  totemism  in  that  people,  and  his  book 
proves  that  they  recognise  kinship.  I  do  not  follow  Mr.  Gomme 
into  the  relations  of  race  and  folklore,  because  about  race  we 
know,  at  least  I  know,  very  little ;  and  our  own,  and  Greek,  and 
ancient  Egyptian  folklore  contain  many  elements  common  to 
Arunta  or  Dieri  folklore.  Folklore  seems,  on  the  whole, 
universally  human.  I  do  not  quite  understand  what  Mr.  Gomme 
means  when  he  says  that  "  the  Teutonic  people,  and  their  Celtic 
predecessors,  came  to  Britain  with  a  tribal,  not  an  agricultural 
constitution.''  Does  he  mean  that  these  tribes  had  no  agriculture 
in  their  old  homes  ?  That  would  be  hard  to  prove,  and  if  they 
had  agriculture  it  must  have  been  under  rules,  *'an  agricultural 
constitution."  Is  there  any  reason  why  a  tribal  people  should  not 
occupy  villages  ?  The  word  "  tribal "  is  very  vague,  but  the  tribes 
of  the  north-west  coast  of  America  live  in  villages,  and  the  Celts 
and  Teutons  may  have  done  so  too.  The  people  of  Attica  were 
tribal,  living  in  villages,  before  the  synoecismus.  I  really  do  not 
see  that  the  fact  can  only  be  explained  by  ethnological  differences, 
and  perhaps  Mr.  Gomme  does  not  mean  that  All  my  observa- 
tions must  be  taken  with  the  reserve  that  I  may  have  failed  to 
interpret  his  meaning  with  precision. 

A.  Lamg. 

Reviews.  247 

HX  Cambridge  History  of  English  Literature.  Vol.  L 
From  the  Beginnings  to  the  Cycles  of  Romance. 
Cambridge :  University  Press,  1907. 

The  history  of  a  nation's  literature  cannot  be  divorced  from 
ime  consideration  of  its  political,  religious,  and  social  life, 
eluding  its  manners  as  well  as  its  phases  of  sentiment  and 
shion,  its  trivial  thoughts  no  less  than  its  serious  moments.'  I 
ad  this  sentence  in  the  preface  of  the  new  History  of  English 
ittraturty  and,  so  far  as  it  goes,  I  find  the  principle  therein 
lundated  good.  True,  as  a  folk-lorist,  I  should  have  liked  some 
cognition  of  those  obscurer,  more  instinctive,  more  primitive 
lanifestations  of  the  racial  or,  as  I  should  prefer  to  say  (the  term 
cial  being  prejudiced  by  its  pseudo-scientific  associations), 
itional,  consciousness  which  are  in  so  large  a  measure  the  objects 
f  our  study.  Still  here  the  principle  is  asserted,  that  literature 
[QSt  be  regarded,  not  as  a  fortuitous  succession  of  individual 
lanifestations  of  talent  unrelated  to  each  other  and  to  the  life 
at  of  which  they  spring  but  as  the  revelation  of  the  intellectual, 
sthetic  and  spiritual  ethos  of  a  community,  which  ethos  has  been 
1  the  past  and  is  in  the  present  dependent  upon  conditions  which 
c  can  analyse  and  determine.  As  a  folk-lorist  my  concern  with 
le  present  volume  is  chiefly  to  consider  in  how  far  it  has  carried 
Lit  this  principle,  and  I  necessarily  disregard  nearly  all  that  most 
rviewers,  dealing  with  it  from  the  standpoint  of  literary  history  as 
>mmonIy  understood,  make  the  subject  of  their  comments.  I 
lould,  however,  like  to  express  my  appreciation  of  the  utility  of 
le  work ;  it  contains  a  great  deal  of  information  accurate  in 
self  and  lucidly  presented  ;  its  merits  in  this  respect  are  such  as 
►  entitle  it  to  a  place  on  the  shelves  of  all  students  of  our  eariy 
Itional  past ;  a  reprint  will  doubtless  be  called  for  before  long 
3d  in  anticipation  thereof  a  few  remarks  upon  its  plan,  and  upon 
le  way  in  which  that  plan  has  been  carried  out,  may  be  thought 
Dt  out  of  place. 

The  plan  is  that  of  the  Cambridge  Modern  History:  special 
xtions  of  the  subject  are  dealt  with  by  different  writers,  the  various 
^ntributions  being  dovetailed  into  and  more  or  less  harmonised 

248  Remews. 

with  each  other  by  the  editor,  who  provides  birds'-eje  sunreTS 
of  the  main  periods  and  tendencies.  I  cannot  but  think  the 
plan  a  mistaken  one.  It  necessarily  leads  to  overlapping  and 
duplication,  serious  drawbacks  when  the  literature  of  well-nigh  a 
thousand  years  has  to  be  surveyed  in  400  pages.  A  flagrant 
instance  is  supplied  by  chapters  ix.  and  x:  Latin  Chroniclers 
from  the  eleventh  to  the  thirteenth  centuries,  by  Prof.  Jones; 
Latin  Literature  of  England  from  John  of  Salisbury  to  Richard 
of  Bury,  by  Dr.  Sanday.  It  would  have  been  ixi  better  to  allow 
Prof.  Jones  to  treat  the  whole  of  this  literature,  upon  which, 
despite  the  variations  of  subject  matter,  the  form  and  historic 
antecedents  of  the  language  impress  a  character  that  distinguishes 
it  from  work  in  the  vernacular,  whether  French  or  English.  The 
worst  fault  is  undoubtedly  the  assignation  of  the  Metrical  Romances 
(1200- 1 500)  to  two  writers.  Prof.  Ker  and  Mr.  J.  W.  H.  Atkins. 
It  is  of  less  consequence  that  the  two  not  infrequently  differ 
as  that  on  the  whole  they  go  over  the  same  ground  without 
either  subjecting  it  to  that  exhaustive  and  penetrating  survey 
we  have  a  right  to  expect.  Thus  despite  the  really  excellent 
'linking  and  harmonising'  chapters  of  the  editor,  Mr.  Waller,  the 
reader  obtains  no  clear  broad  impressions;  he  must  himself 
in  large  measure  supply  his  own  synthesis,  and  he  is  handicapped 
by  the  fact  that  the  materials  therefor  reach  him  in  vertical  instead 
of  horizontal  sections  and  thereby  hinder  a  clear  insight  into  the 
evolution  of  the  literature  as  a  whole. 

The  capital  error  of  the  book  remains  to  be  noticed ;  it  is  one 
which  defies  the  excellent  principle  I  quoted  at  the  outset  of 
this  review,  and  one  of  which  the  disastrous  nature  is  especially 
apparent  to  the  folklorist  reader.  An  attempt  has  been  made  to 
treat  in  one  volume  two  markedly  distinct  periods  in  the  growth 
of  our  national  literature,  and  thereby  facts,  which  were  to  exercise 
a  most  potent  influence  upon  the  whole  subsequent  development 
of  English  letters,  are  slurred  over  or  distorted.  In  a  period  of 
350  years,  700-1050  in  round  figures,  English  literature  exhibits  a 
development  which  it  is  comparatively  easy  to  trace,  characteristics 
which  are  comparatively  simple  and  homogeneous,  a  formal  body 
and  an  animaUng  spirit  which  are  obviously  the  product  and 
expression  of  a  comparatively  harmonious  and  genuinely  national 

Revuws.  249 

ODception  of  life  and  its  problems.  The  same,  bearing  in  mind 
he  infinitely  greater  complexities  of  modem  life  and  the  infinite 
mount  of  variation  thereby  engendered,  may  be  said  of  English 
iterature  from  the  days  of  Chaucer  to  our  own  time.  But  the 
Qtervening  period  is  one  to  which  no  parallel  can  be  adduced  in 
he  story  of  any  other  great  literature.  For  over  a  century  the 
tation  is  dumb,  if  we  take  account  solely  of  utterance  in  the 
lational  tongue ;  for  another  century  it  is  slowly  and  painfully 
Lsserting  first  its  right  to  exist  and  then  to  dominate,  and  when  at 
ength  the  long  struggle  is  over,  and  Englishmen  once  more 
aq>ress  their  highest  thoughts  and  boldest  imaginings  in  English, 
I  tremendous  change  is  apparent:  vocabulary,  syntax,  metre, 
iterary  convention  whether  in  prose  or  verse,  nature  and  choice  of 
ubject  matter,  all  have  altered,  and  altered  so  profoundly  that  at 
list  sight  there  seems  to  be  no  connection  between  the  two 
xdies  of  literature.  And  yet  the  writer  of  the  fourteenth  or  the 
nentieth  century  is  an  Englishman  just  as  was  he  of  the  eighth 
m  tenth ;  and  yet  throughout  the  twelfth  and  thirteenth  centuries 
whan  English  was  dumb  or  content  to  take  a  humble  place, 
Englishmen  were  thinking  and  fancying,  but  it  was  in  Latin  or  in 
Freach  that  they  shaped  their  thoughts  and  fancies. 

Periods  so  markedly  dissimilar  as  700-1050,  and  1050-1300, 
requ'red  entirely  different  modes  of  treatment  to  do  justice  to  the 
problems  they  present.  Moreover  an  unique  opportunity  was 
lost  d  exemplifying  the  principles  set  out  by  the  editors  in  their 
preface.  Pre-Conquest  English  literature  is  compact,  limited  in 
Kxtcn.,  clearly  defined  for  the  most  part  as  regards  chronology 
md  lx:ality ;  the  people  which  produced  it  is  small  and  fairly 
bomogeneous,  possessors  of  a  culture  of  which  the  constituent 
elements  are  known  with  singular  precision  and  the  growth  of 
prhich  under  well-known  influences  can  be  clearly  traced.  In  no 
Dthcr  section  of  the  world's  literature  are  the  elements  of  the 
standir^  problem  of  all  literature — its  true  relation  to  the 
environing  life — so  simple  and  so  manageable.  All  these  con- 
liderations  called  emphatically  for  a  separate  treatment  of  this 
period,  and  for  recognition  of  the  fact  that  here,  if  an]rwhere,  the 
ideal  stody  of  literature  as  expression  of  a  special  form  of  life 
could  be  inaugurated. 

250  Reviews. 

It  remains  to  say  a  few  words  about  those  sections  which  more 
specially  concern  the  folk-lorist  Unfortunately  it  must  be 
frankly  stated  that,  with  one  exception,  they  are  the  weakest  of 
the  book.  Mr.  Chadwick's  chapter  on  the  Pre-Christian  element 
of  early  English  is  meagre  and  inadequate  in  the  extreme,  a 
mere  dry-as-dust  enumeration  of  facts  which  neither  sets  out  the 
fascinating  problems  involved  nor  makes  any  essay  to  solve  them. 
Moreover  it  is  exasperating  to  find  a  portion  of  the  bare  twenty 
pages  allowed  to  this  complicated  subject  wasted  upon  such 
extreme  examples  of  German  misapplied  ingenuity  as  KQgel's 
hypothesis  that  'epic  poetry  originated  among  the  Goths,  and 
that  its  appearance  in  the  North-West  of  Europe  is  to  be  traced 
to  the  harpist  who  was  sent  to  Clovis  by  Theodoric'  The  couple 
of  pages  given  to  Widsiih  seems  to  me  an  exemplary  instance 
of  failure  to  apprehend  the  real  issues  involved,  and  of  baffling 
statements  of  the  writer's  own  views.  Of  the  two  chapters 
devoted  to  the  Metrical  Romances  I  have  already  spoken.  As 
in  all  Prof.  Ker's  writing  we  find  much  that  is  suggestive  tnd 
illuminating,  especially  in  his  too  brief  remarks  on  the  parallelism 
of  certain  traits  in  English  and  North  Teutonic  treatment  of 
romance  during  the  thirteenth  and  fourteenth  centuries.  Bat 
from  his  command  of  all  the  literature  to  be  considered,  and 
from  his  fine  and  sound  critical  gift,  we  had  a  right  to  expect 
far  more.  Is  it  too  much  to  hope  that  we  may  one  day 
receive  from  him  that  account  of  romance  in  the  vernacular  as 
it  developed  in  the  period  1050- 1250  which  he  is  better  qualified 
than  any  living  scholar  to  furnish?  Such  an  account  must,  I 
think  he  would  agree  with  me,  emphasise  the  underlying  unity 
of  all  the  varied  manifestations  of  the  romantic  spirit  and  their 
mutual  relation  to  definite  common  historical  and  psychological 

Professor  Lewis-Jones'  account  of  the  Arthurian  literature  may 
be  heartily  commended  as  a  sane  and  scholarly  statement  of  the 
facts,  which  should  be  corrective  of  the  idle  talk  upon  the  subject 
that  is  finding  its  way  in  ever-increasing  measure  into  print  But 
perhaps  he  is  a  little  too  sane.  A  touch  of  the  awen^  under  the 
influence  of  which  the  Principal  of  Jesus'  studies  are  mostly 
prosecuted,    might    not    be    out    of   place.     In    entering    this 

Reviews.  251 

ncfaanted  forest  of  Arthur-land  one  most  not  mind  taking  one's 
cientific  life  in  one's  hands. 

I  am  unable,  as  will  be  seen,  to  regard  the  Cambridge  History 
LS  more  than  a  stepping-stone  to  that  adequate  account  of  what 
he  men  and  women  of  our  race  have  achieved  in  the  realm  of 
ancy  and  thought.  None  the  less  does  it  mark  a  distinct  stage  in 
lie  progress  towards  the  realisation  of  such  an  ideal. 

Alfrbd  Nutt. 

Compendium  of  the  Punjab  Customary  Law.    By  H.  A. 
Rose.     Lahore,  1907. 

Law,  as  is  well  known,  assumes  two  forms  in  India:  first,  the 
priestly  legislation,  embodied  in  the  Institutes  of  Manu  and  other 
authorities  to  be  found  in  Max  Miiller's  series  of  Sacred  Books ; 
secondly,  a  body  of  local  or  tribal  usages,  which  are  some- 
times complementary  to,  and  sometimes  at  variance  with,  the 
Brahmanical  codes.  It  is  peculiar  to  the  Punjab  that  the  tribal 
organisation  is  very  stable,  and  this  fact  has  saved  Hinduism  from 
destruction  by  the  forces  of  militant  Islam.  For  many  years  the 
Local  Government  has  devoted  much  attention  to  the  tabulation 
of  this  local  or  tribal  usage,  and  at  each  periodical  revision  of 
the  land  revenue  opportunity  has  been  taken  to  collect  from 
the  people  themselves  a  record  of  their  customs  in  connection 
with  marriage,  the  devolution  of  property,  and  other  matters 
connected  with  their  social  life.  These  materials,  which  are 
of  great  bulk  and  complexity,  Mr.  H.  A.  Rose  has  now  codified 
with  admirable  care  and  precision.  The  result  is  a  collection 
of  primitive  tribal  usage  which  is  probably  unique.  The  chapter 
on  marriage  throws  fresh  light  on  questions  such  as  endogamy, 
betrothal,  and  polyandry.  That  on  inheritance  exhibits  the 
various  methods  by  which  the  wisdom  of  the  grey-beards  has 
adapted  a  system  of  property  to  the  varying  needs  of  the  poly- 
gamous family.     Two  curious  facts  result  from  this  codification : 

252  Reviews. 

first,  that  customary  law  is  determined  mainly  by  religion; 
secondarily,  by  locality;  and  that  so  far  as  it  is  a  matter  of 
caste  or  tribe  at  all,  it  is  more  generally  a  question  of  social 
status  rather  than  one  peculiar  to  the  particular  caste  or  tribe 
concerned.  Mr.  Rose's  pamphlet  must  be  taken  into  account 
by  all  students  of  the  subjects  with  which  it  attempts  to  deaL 

W.  Crookk. 

Kafir  Socialism  and  the  Dawn  of  iNDnriDUALiSM :  ak 
Introduction  to  the  Study  of  the  Native  Problem. 
By  Dudley  Kidd.     London :  A.  &  C.  Black,  1908. 

This  book,  addressed  as  it  is  to  the  politician  and  imperialist 
rather  than  to  the  anthropologist  as  such,  may  seem  at  first  sight 
hardly  to  call  for  review  in  these  pages.  On  such  a  topic, 
however,  as  the  treatment  due  to  the  black  man  from  the  white, 
one  can  trust  the  sympathetic  author  of  The  Essential  Kafir  and 
Savage  Childhood  to  "  think  black,"  with  enlightening  results  even 
for  the  pure  theorist  Besides,  pure  theory  cannot  turn  its  back 
on  practical  reform,  when  the  latter  puts  a  respect  for  pure  theory 
in  the  forefront  of  its  demand.  "  Before  we  can  understand  the 
bearings  of  the  Native  Problem,"  says  Mr.  Kidd,  "  we  must  study 
native  customs  and  thought"  He  consequently  moves  (and,  I 
am  sure,  the  Folk-lore  Society  will  be  only  too  glad  to  second^ 
that  a  Bureau  of  Ethnology  be  established  at  the  Cape  forthwith. 
Let  some  millionaire  endow  it,  and  endow  it  handsomely,  he 
suggests.  Is  this  too  much  to  hope  ?  A  South  Afirican  magnate 
has  recently  endowed  Colonial  History  at  Oxford  on  the  most 
magnificent  scale.  May  we  not,  then,  expect  that  a  similar 
patriotism,  at  once  local  and  truly  imperial,  will  suffice  to  equip 
the  dominant  race  in  South  Africa  with  the  means  of  removing 
once  for  all  those  misunderstandings  with  the  Kafirs  which  the 
best  will  in  the  world  cannot  prevent,  if  unaccompanied  by  insight 

Reviews.  253 

into  the  dark  places  of  the  ELafir  mind.  Mr.  Kidd's  plea  is  the 
[>etter  timed  inasmuch  as  there  is  some  chance  of  seeing  a  central 
Bureau  of  Ethnology  founded  in  this  country  in  the  not  distant 
uture.  Such  an  institution  could  not,  of  course,  take  the  place  of 
I  local  Bureau.  On  the  contrary,  it  must  help  to  call  into  exis- 
tence many  such  ethnological  laboratories  throughout  the  Empire^ 
:hereafter  co-ordinating  their  labours,  and  enabling  both  theoretic 
results  and  maxims  of  applied  Ethnology  to  be  interchanged 
t)etween  one  native-ruling  portion  of  the  British  world  and  the 
>ther.  Doubtless  the  Cape  has  done  not  a  little  for  anthropology 
ilready,  and  certain  **  blue-books "  have  proved  of  the  highest 
ralue  in  a  science  in  which  there  is  so  much  that  must  be  read  and 
^et  so  little  that  is  worth  reading  twice.  Mr.  Kidd,  however,  is 
t>ent  on  showing  that  the  fringe  of  the  subject  of  Kafir  psychology 
ind  sociology  has  hardly  been  touched  so  far;  and  he  says  enough 
:o  assure  the  man  in  the  street  of  what  the  man  in  the  study  has 
t>een  all  along  aware,  namely,  that  the  most  fundamental  notions 
>f  government  and  justice  entertained  by  the  Kafir  are  at  present 
inwittingly  violated  by  our  most  well-meant  endeavours  to  im- 
prove his  condition. 

Insisting  as  he  does  that  the  essential  need  is  for  more  light, 
Mr.  Kidd  does  not  spoil  his  case  by  indulging  in  premature  solu- 
ions  of  the  native  problem.  He  views  with  a  certain  regret,  it 
s  true,  the  gradual  break-up  of  the  "socialistic" — it  might,  perhaps, 
)c  termed  more  safely  the  "  patriarchal " — regime  under  which 
he  black  man  loyally  submitted  to  the  social  will  as  embodied  in 
he  chief.  But  he  sees  that  we  cannot,  in  the  interest  alike  of 
:ivilisation  and  of  our  own  security,  allow  the  chief  to  make  war, 
)r  to  superintend  the  *  smellingout '  of  witches.  On  the  other 
land,  to  inculcate  anything  approaching  a  like  respect  for  the 
;ubstituted  authority  is  impossible  so  long  as  we  do  not  try  to 
neet  the  Kafir's  ancestral  modes  of  thought  half-way.  For  the 
est,  to  awaken  a  sense  of  individualism  in  the  natives  is  shown  to 
)c  the  inevitable  result  of  educating  them  on  our  lines ;  and  Mr. 
vidd  is  not  opposed  to  this,  so  long  as  in  the  process  we  do  not 
uin  the  finer  traits  of  Kafir  character,  which  he  proves  to  be  still 
here,  but,  on  the  contrary,  fasten  on  them  and  develop  them  to 
heir  utmost.     How  to  do  this  successfully  is  for  him  the  native 

2  54  Reviews. 

problem  in  a  nutshell  An  interesting  chapter  is  appended  oo 
what  might  be  called  Kafir  eugenics,  and  it  may  at  all  events  be 
said  that  Mr.  Kidd's  findings  are  in  accordance  with  the  latest 
teaching  of  science  on  the  highly  obscure  subject  of  heredity. 

R.  R.  Marktt. 

Some  Folk-Lore  Stories  and  Songs  in  Chinyanja.  With 
English  Translation  and  Notes.  By  R.  Suthbrlakd 
Rattray,  Member  of  the  African  Lakes  Corporation, 
Ltd.,  British  Central  Africa.  With  Preface  by  the  Rkv. 
Alexander  Hetherwick,  D.D.    London :  S.P.CK, 

The  existence  of  totemism  among  the  Anyanja  has  long  been 
known ;  but  there  was  in  some  quarters  an  impression  that  the 
institutions  connected  with  it  had  so  far  become  obsolete  as 
to  be  capable  of  throwing  very  little  light  on  the  subject  This 
may  to  a  certain  extent  be  the  case  with  the  Anyanja  of  the 
Shire  Highlands  and  the  river  valley — though  less  from  contact 
with  Europeans  than  because  the  tribes  have  been  displaced 
and  broken  up  by  the  irruption  of  the  Yaos  and  the  domination 
of  the  Makololo.  Even  here,  however,  careful  observers  found 
hints  of  a  matriarchal  clan  system  and  of  totem  names.  Mr. 
Rattray  has  carried  the  matter  somewhat  further.  He  has  lived 
for  some  years  among  the  Achewa  or  Achipeta  of  Central 
Angoniland.  These  people  belong  to  the  race  which  for  con- 
venience' sake  we  call  Anyanja,  and  speak  virtually  the  same 
language  as  those  at  Kotakota,  Likoma  and  Blantjrre.  Some 
words  which  are  not  in  Dr.  Scott's  dictionary  I  recognise  as 
used  at  Ntumbi,  some  days'  journey  further  south — where^  in 
fact,  the  language  was  very  much  the  same  as  that  in  Mr. 
Rattray's  book,  though  the  people  spoke  of  the  "Chipetas" 
as  different  from  themselves.  In  fact,  Mr.  Rattray  throws  light 
on  various  points  which  puzzled  me  at  the  time— ^^.  Anapiri^ 

Reviews.  255 

'^Chfld  of  the  Hills"  as  a  clan-name.  I  had  Uken  it  for  a 
personal  name,  and  been  somewhat  surprised  at  its  frequency. 
Mr.  Rattray  says  (p.  175)  that  Achewa  tradition  asserts  the 
whole  tribe  to  have  borne  this  clan-name  of  Firi  ("Hill") — 
and  attributes  the  origin  of  that  name  (and  probably  the  others, 
bot  the  passage  is  not  quite  clear)  to  the  chieftainess  Nyangu, 
whose  line  seems  still  to  have  been  represented  in  the  country 
in  Livingstone's  time.  But  Mr.  Rattray  speaks  as  if  descent 
in  the  female  line  were  exceptional,  whereas  it  is  common 
to  the  Achewa  and  the  Yaos  and  many  other  Bantu  tribes 
In  a  previous  passage  he  says  that  the  clan-name  descends  from 
the  father,  and  in  some  cases  from  the  mother.  He  does  not 
make  clear  whether  the  clans  in  which  the  former  is  the  case 
are  those  mentioned  as  of  Zulu  origin.  (The  Anyanja  of  the 
Lake  speak  of  the  system  of  paternal  kinship  as  brought  in  by 
the  Zulus.)  Another  explanation — which  only  careful  and  long- 
continued  inquiry  on  the  spot  can  establish — might  be  that 
there  is  a  double  system  of  descent,  akin  to  the  Herero  oiuto 
and  omaandaj  and  the  "companies"  and  clans  of  the  Gold 
Coast  (Concerning  these,  see  a  paper  by  Mr.  Arthur  ffoulkes 
in  the  African  Society's  Journal  for  April.)  Some  of  the  clan- 
names  (p.  176)  are  words  now  obsolete.  "By  inquiring  what 
animal  is  tabooed  by  the  person  who  bears  such  an  obsolete 
name,  the  modem  equivalent  can  generally  be  obtained.  A 
thorough  examination  into  the  etymology  of  some  of  these  clan- 
names  might  throw  some  light  on  the  past  history  of  many  of 
the  races  of  Central  Africa."  In  some  cases,  at  least,  we  have 
not  far  to  seek,  as  three  out  of  the  five  "archaic"  words 
given  by  Mr.  Rattray  are  simply  Zulu.  Dutve  (for  mbidzi)  is 
iduhf^  "  zebra  "  ;  pofu  —  impofu^  "  eland  "  and  nyaii  =  inyati^ 
"buffalo."  Nyuchi  for  the  Nyanja  njuchi^  "bee,"  is  evidently 
a  compromise, — the  Zulu  form  being  inyosL  Soko^  however, 
for  "baboon,"  must  have  a  different  origin.  Livingstone  mentions 
that  the  chimpanzee  was  called  soko  by  the  people  of  Manyema ; 
and  in  the  Ila  (or  Mashukulumbwe)  language,  an  ape  is  sokwe. 
Probably  this  clan  comes  from  the  west.  There  is  a  clan  Mayo 
('Mife,  heart")  which  has  for  its  taboo  the  heart  of  a  goat — 
and  I  believe  that  there  is  also  a  Moyo  clan  in  Uganda. 

256  Reviews. 

It  might  have  seemed  more  natural  to  begin  this  notice  with 
a  discussion  of  the  folk-tales  in  this  book,  but  they  are  important 
enough  to  require  a  much  fuller  analysis  than  can  be  given  here. 
"Kachirambe"  is  the  same  as  the  Yao  '^  Kalikalanje "  (see 
Macdonald,  Africana,  II.,  336)  and  the  Ronga  "  Moutipi "  given 
by  M.  Junod.  "The  Rabbit  and  the  Elephant"  is  a  variant 
of  the  tale  concerning  all  the  animals  and  the  pool  of  water, 
and  "The  Tortoise  and  the  Antelope"  is  equally  familiar.  Of 
two  other  stories  "The  Cock  and  the  Swallow,"  and  "The 
Tortoise  and  the  Baboon,"  I  have  MS.  variants.  The  riddles 
and  proverbs,  and  the  descriptions  of  dances  with  their  character- 
istic songs,  are  all  highly  interesting. 

A.  Werner. 

Books  far  Rtinew  should  be  addressed  io 

The  Editor  of  Folk-Lore^ 

c/o  David  Nutt, 

57-59  Long  Acre,  London,  W.C. 



Vol.  XLX.]  SEPTEMBER,  1908.  [No.  3. 

WEDNESDAY,  MAT  20th,  1908. 
The  President,  Dr.  Gaster,  in  the  Chair. 

The    Minutes    of    the    last    Meeting    were    read    and 

The   enrolment   of   the    Royal    Dublin    Society   as   a 

subscriber  to  the  Society  was  announced. 

The  Chairman  announced  that  Miss  D.  Bleek  and  Miss 
H.  Tongue  were  exhibitin^^  their  Bushman  pictures  in 
the  Library  of  the  Royal  Anthropological  Institute  for  a 
fortnight  commencing  on  Monday  the  25th  May,  and 
would  be  glad  to  explain  them  to  any  Members  of  the 
Society  who  might  care  to  inspect  them. 

Mr.  G.  L.  Gomme  read  a  paper  entitled  "The  Telling 
of  the  Bees,"  and  in  the  discussion  which  followed  Mr. 
Calderon,  Mr.  Major,  Mr.  Wright,  Mr.  Johnston,  Mrs. 
Dunnill,  Mr.  Tabor  and  the  Chairman  took  part.  The 
meeting  terminated  with  a  hearty  vote  of  thanks  to  Mr. 
Gomme  for  his  paper. 

VOL.    XIX. 

258  Minutes  of  Meetings. 

WEDNESDAY,  JUNE   17th,   1908. 
The  President,  Dr.  Gaster,  in  the  Chair. 

The  Minutes  of  the  last  Meeting  were  read  and 

The  enrolment  of  the  Bishopsgate  Institute  as  a  sub- 
scriber to  the  Society  was  announced. 

The  resignation  of  Mr.  R.  Shirley  and  the  death  of  Sir 
John  Evans  were  also  announced. 

On  the  motion  of  the  Chairman  it  was  resolved  that  a 
letter  of  condolence  be  sent  to  Lady  Evans. 

Mr.  A.  R.  Wright  and  Mr.  E.  Lovett  exhibited  and 
explained  a  large  number  of  Ancient  and  Modem  British 
Amulets  and  Charms,  and  an  interesting  discussion 
followed,  in  which  Mr.  Tabor,  Mr.  Hildburgh,  Mr.  Gomme, 
Mr.  Calderon  and  the  Chairman  took  part  A  hearty 
vote  of  thanks  was  accorded  to  the  exhibitors. 

The  following  papers  were  read,  viz. : — "  Female  Infanti- 
cide in  the  Punjab,"  by  Captain  O'Brien,  "  The  Balemba," 
by  M.  Henri  Junod,  and  "Turks  praying  for  Rain,"  by 
the  Rev.  G.  E.  White. 

The  Secretary  reported  that  the  following  books  and 
pamphlets  had  been  presented  to  the  Society  since  the 
17th  April,  1907,  viz. : 

24th  and  2jth  Annual  Reports  of  t tie  Bureau  of  American 
Ethnology,  presented  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution; 

Archaeological  Survey  of  Western  India,  Vol.  XXXIII.; 

The  Man  who  Married  the  Moon,  by  Charles  F. 
Lummis ; 

Yorkshire  Legends  and  Traditions^  by  the  Rev.  T. 
Parkinson  ; 

Symbolical  Language  of  Ancient  Art  and  Mythology,  by 
R.  Payne  Knight ; 

Tales  and  Legends  of  the  Tyrol,  by  Mme.  la  Comtesse 
A.  Von  Gunther ;  and 

Minutes  of  Meetings,  259 

Manx  Ballads  and  Music,  by  A.  W.  Moore,  presented 
by  Mr.  A,  R.  Wright ; 

The  Department  of  Anthropology  of  the  University  of 
California,  presented  by  the  University ; 

The  Village  Deities  of  Southern  India  (Madras  Govt. 
Museum,  Bulletin,  Vol.  V.,  No.  3),  presented  by  the  Govt, 
of  Madras ; 

Annual  Report  of  the  Archaeological  Survey  {Eastern 
Circle),  presented  by  the  Government  of  Bengal ; 

The  fournal  of  the  Anthropological  Society  of  Bombay, 
Vol.  VIII,  No.  I ; 

Archaeological  Survey  of  Ceylon  {North  Central  and 
Central  Provinces),  by  H.  C.  P.  Bell,  presented  by  the 
Government  of  Ceylon  ; 

AnaUcta  Bollandiana,  Vol  26,  Parts  2,  3,  4;  Vol.  27, 
Part  2,  by  Exchange; 

Le  lait  de  la  mh^e,  by  E.  Cosquin,  presented  by  the 
Author ; 

Mata.  Hari,  by  Professor  Dr.  Renward  Brandstetter, 
presented  by  the  Author ; 

Les  Soci^tes  secretes  an  Bas  Congo,  by  Ed.  de  Jonghe, 
presented  by  the  Author ; 

Historical  Account  of  North  American  Indians,  by  Cyrus 
Field,  presented  by  the  Author  ; 

Skeletal  remains  suggesting  or  attributed  to  early  man  in 
North  America  (Hureau  of  North  American  Ethnology, 
Bulletin  33),  presented  by  the  Smithsonian  Institution  ; 

Anthropometric  Data  from  Bombay  and  Anthropometric 
Data  from  Burma,  presented  by  the  Government  of  India ; 

Actes  de  XIV.  Congr^s  International  des  Orient  alls  tts, 
Alger,  1905  ; 

Slavische  Volkforschungen,  by  Dr.  F.  S.  Krauss,  pre- 
sented by  the  Author  ; 

Epigraphia  Zeylanica,  Parts  II.  and  III.,  presented  by 
the  Government  of  Ceylon  ; 

Annual  Progress   Report  of  tlu  Arcliaeological  Survey 

26o  Minutes  of  Meetings. 

Department  {Southern  Circle),  1906-07,  presented  by  the 
Government  of  Madras ; 

Preliminary y  second,  and  third  notes  on  the  Observations 
of  Stars  made  in  some  British  Stone  Circles,  by  Sir 
Norman  Lockyer,  F.R.S.,  presented  by  the  Board  of 
Education ; 

The  Commercial  Possibilities  of  West  Africa^  by 
Viscount  Mountmorres,  presented  by  the  University  of 

Proceedings  of  the  Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,  No.  47, 
and  T/te  Dual  Origin  of  the  Town  of  Cambridge,  by 
Arthur  Gray  (Cambridge  Antiquarian  Society,  Quarto 
Publication.     New  Series,  No.  i),  by  Exchange. 

Jahrbuch  des  Stadtischen  Museums  fiir  Volkerkunde  su 
Leipzig,  Part  I.,  1906; 

Annual  Report  of  the  Arcliaeological  Survey  of  India 
{Frontier  Circle),  1906-07,  and  {Eastern  Circle),  1905-06, 
presented  by  the  Government  of  India; 

Report  of  the  Superintendent,  Archaeological  Survey, 
Burma,  1906-07  ;  and  Annual  Report  of  tJu  Government 
Museum  and  Connemara  Library,  1906-07,  presented  by 
the  Government  of  Madras. 



In  the  Presidential  address  to  this  Society  this  season^ 
we  have  the  remark  that  Female  Infanticide  depends 
on  the  food  supply,  and  the  laws  of  marriage  on  female 
infanticide.  I  wish  to  lay  before  the  Society  a  series  of 
cases  of  female  infanticide  that  do  not  depend  on  the 
food  supply,  and  which  instead  of  influencing  the  laws 
of  marriage  are  due  to  their  influence.  I  feel  that  this 
account  will  be  the  more  welcome  to  this  Society,  because 
it  shows  that  one  effect  may  be  the  result  of  many 
different  causes,  and  one  action  may  have  several  different 
results.  It  may  be  bold  for  me  to  speak  out  in  the 
presence  of  so  much  erudition,  but  there  must  be  many 
others  like  myself  who  rebel  at  the  attempts  of  the 
learned  to  ascribe  all  results  to  a  single  cause.  There 
has  been  a  time  when  all  the  gods  in  the  world  were 
connected  with  the  sky  and  the  signs  of  the  zodiac 
Now-a-days  with  equal  skill  proof  is  given  that  every 
god  originated  from  some  heroic  human  being.  That  in 
one  part  of  the  world  the  celestial  bodies  should  be  deified, 
and  in  another  heroes,  seems  to  the  ultra-learned  as  im- 
possible. At  a  recent  meeting  a  member  spoke  of  the 
impossibility  of  savai^es  treating  degenerate  gods  as  dolls, 
and    as   an    instance   ari^ued    that    no   Catholics   had  yet 

*  i.e.  1907. 

262         Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab. 

made  dolls  of  the  Virgin  Mary.  It  is  the  same  with 
totemism,  early  marriage  and  the  theories  of  the  primeval 
family.  All  cases  whether  from  China  or  Peru,  Iceland 
or  Samoa  are  forced  into  the  same  mould.  The  evolution 
of  one  race  does  not  give  rise  to  the  same  results  as  the 
evolution  of  another  under  different  circumstances,  and 
the  same  may  be  said  of  their  gods,  dolls,  totems  and 
social  conditions.  To  accept  that  there  is  one  cause  for 
female  infanticide  is  like  trying  to  prove  one  origin  for 
all  forms  of  kingship. 

Poverty,  no  doubt,  in  certain  social  conditions  leads  to 
infanticide,  sometimes  of  females  only,  sometimes  whole- 
sale. But  there  are  many  other  causes  that  lead  to  the 
same  result.  A  desire  for  luxury  may  lead  to  infanticide 
among  the  comparatively  wealthy ;  fear  of  disgrace  may 
tend  to  the  same  result  among  the  unmarried;  while  in 
some  places  it  may  be  due  to  a  determination  to  get  rid 
of  weaklings.  The  cases  which  I  shall  place  before  you 
are  due  to  quite  different  conditions  from  those  alluded 
to  above.  They  are  confined  to  the  removal  of  female 
children  only.  Before  I  go  on,  I  must  point  out  that 
the  word  infanticide  must  be  allowed  to  include  not  only 
direct  destruction,  but  also  neglect,  both  criminal,  and 
that  due  to  lack  of  interest  There  are  constantly  cases 
in  which  a  child's  life  might  be  saved  by  resort  to  medical 
advice,  or  by  change  of  diet  or  by  change  of  air.  I  ask 
you,  in  considering  the  statistics  that  will  be  laid  before 
you,  to  calculate  also  the  effect  that  would  be  produced 
in  a  country  where  all  affection  is  lavished  on  the  boy» 
and  no  expense  or  trouble  is  too  great  to  be  spent  in  his 
preservation,  and  where  a  girl  is  a  burden  to  be  tolerated 
at  best. 

Now  I  gather  that  in  a  Society  like  this  I  shall  not  be 
at  all  popular  if  I  weary  my  hearers  with  a  string  of 
statistics  destined  to  prove  my  point  I  will,  therefore, 
cut  that   part  of  my  paper  as  short  as  possible.    Any 

Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab.         263 

loubters  will  find  the  Punjab  Census  Volumes  of  Mr. 
Rose  extremely  interesting,  and  can  search  in  them  for 
"urther  details.  It  will  be  accepted  that,  other  things 
Kiual,  there  ought  to  be  a  thousand  of  one  sex  where 
Jiere  are  a  thousand  of  the  other.  Actually  we  find 
variations  everywhere.  Thus  in  England  there  are  1050 
nale  births  to  1000  female  births,  but  this  is  corrected 
>wing  to  excessive  male  mortality  among  infants,  and  to 
Tiale  emigration,  until,  as  we  know,  there  is  a  surplusage 
)f  females.  In  the  Punjab  we  find  that  not  only  are  there 
[1 10  male  births  to  1000  female  births,  but  the  mortality 
imong  females  is  greater  at  almost  every  age.  This  is 
:he  case  not  only  among  the  tribes  that  will  come  under 
lotice,  but  also  among  tribes  in  which  females  are 
marketable  commodities  commanding  useful  prices.  In 
the  arid  district  of  Mianwali,  in  which  I  have  served  for 
some  years,  the  tribes  are  Mahomedan,  and  there  is  not 
iie  least  suspicion  that  the  girls  are  put  out  of  the  way 
It  birth,  and  yet  the  proportion  of  infant  females  falls 
fis  low  as  839  to  1000  males.  In  Beluchistan,  a  country 
peopled  by  a  similar  population,  where  the  struggle  for 
ife  is  equally  hard,  a  like  proportion  is  ascribed  by  Mr. 
Hughes  Builer  simply  to  the  severity  of  life.  Whether 
iie  has  any  valid  reasons  for  this  assertion  I  do  not  know, 
3ut  I  bring  this  in  because  I  am  very  anxious  to  avoid 
my  tendency  to  dogmatic  assertion.  Even  among  the 
^oups  which  I  shall  deal  with  there  may  be  causes 
iimilar  to  those  of  Beluchistan  and  Mianwali,  which 
t%'ould  in  any  case  reduce  the  number  of  females  con- 
siderably. But  it  will  be  admitted  that  when  the  figures 
"or  female  children  fall  below  850  per  mille,  they  may 
xasonably  be  viewed  with  suspicion,  and  when  to  this 
»ve  add  the  knowledge  that  in  the  pre-British  period, 
ind  even  for  some  time  after  annexation,  there  existed 
/illages  without  a  female  child,  I  do  not  think  that  I  shall 
lave  any  difficulty  in   proving  that  female  infanticide  is 

264         Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab. 

still  in  existence  in  sections  which  show  from  850  to  450 
girls  to  a  thousand  boys. 

The  first  premise  which  I  must  put  forward  to  be  noted 
is  that  in  a  greater  portion  of  the  tribes  of  the  Punjab, 
especially  those  professing  the  Hindu  and  Sikh  religions, 
the  rule  holds  good  that  all  girls  must  have  undei^one 
the  ceremonial  part  of  marriage  before  puberty,  and  that 
cohabitation  commences  shortly  after  puberty  appears. 
The  origin  of  this  social  custom  is  the  mistrust  that 
Orientals  have  of  the  possibility  of  females  to  endure  a 
celibate  life,  and  is  also  due  to  the  penalties  which  breaches 
of  the  social  laws  entail  not  only  on  the  offenders,  but 
on  the  families  of  these  offenders.  In  our  individualistic 
society  those  who  find  it  impossible  to  "  walk  with  clean 
feet  through  the  streets  of  experience"  bear  their  own 
burden.  But  in  India,  where  the  ties  not  only  of  family 
but  of  clanship  are  much  stronger,  the  parents,  brothers 
and  relations  of  an  offender  come  under  the  ban  of  society. 
Here  thousands  are  able  to  and  do  live  a  completely 
celibate  life  without  reproach,  but  the  East  has  not  yet 
realized  the  possibility,  except  perhaps  in  the  case  of 
nuns  vowed  to  the  Deity,  for  whom  the  bonds  of  their 
religion  form  additional  protection. 

Having  shown  that  marriage  is  obligatory  for  females 
in  the  classes  under  consideration,  I  now  proceed  to 
show  that  certain  other  social  conditions  may  place  girls 
in  such  a  position  that  marriage  is  impossible  for  them, 
and  that  these  two  conflicting  premises,  of  which  the 
first,  the  necessity  for  marriage,  is  predominant,  lead 
logically  to  female  infanticide.  The  social  conditions  to 
which  I  refer  are  the  group  of  causes  that  lead  to  female 
hypergamy,  that  is  to  the  rule  that  girls  must  marry 
above  them,  and  conversely  that  men  should  marry  girls 
of  a  lower  social  standing.  The  usual  cause  to  which 
this  custom  is  ascribed  is  marriage  by  capture,  and  this 
must  certainly  have  had  its  effect  in  the  Punjab,  which 

Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab.         265 

has  always  lain  in  the  track  of  invading  armies.  I  shall, 
however,  show  that  this  is  but  one  of  the  causes  that 
lead  to  the  same  result.  We  must  allow  also  for  sanctity, 
for  the  respect  due  to  families  descended  from  holy  men. 
We  must  allow  for  the  kindly  nature  of  kings  and  nobles, 
which  impels  them  to  honour  their  subjects  by  association 
with  the  best-looking  of  their  maidens;  and  .we  must 
also  allow  for  that  imitation  which  is  the  sincerest  form 
of  flattery,  and  which  leads  menials  to  ape  the  customs 
of  their  betters. 

The  first  and  perhaps  the  most  interesting  class  I  have 
to  refer  to  is  the  saintly  class,  and  as  is  the  case  with 
perversions  of  religious  ideas  elsewhere,  the  worst  results 
almost  are  attained  in  this  class.  Let  me  point  out  here 
what  a  debt  of  gratitude  we  owe  to  those  who,  when 
the  Christian  religion  was  going  through  a  similar  form 
of  evolution,  decided  that  the  priests  from  whom  the 
majority  of  saints  were  drawn  must  be  celibate.  It  is 
obvious  that  just  as  our  society  papers  pay  regard  to  an 
Honourable,  because  he  or  she  is  the  offspring  of  a  peer, 
it  is  impossible  to  conceive  a  race  that  paid  great  homage 
to  a  St.  Jerome,  a  St.  Augustine,  or  a  St.  Patrick  not 
paying  a  considerable  degree  of  respect  to  their  children, 
had  they  had  any.  In  India  among  those  for  whom  celi- 
bacy is  not  the  badge  of  a  saint,  we  have  the  latter  condi- 
tion. The  children  of  holy  men  are  holy  too — not  perhaps 
as  holy  as  their  parents — but  still  holy.  This  sanctity  will 
descend  for  several  generations,  and  the  time  when  the 
sanctity  becomes  too  diffused  for  further  respect  varies 
with  the  degree  of  .sanctity  attained  by  the  original  holder. 
I  must  not  continue  this  subject,  which  is  in  itself  a 
fascinating  one,  but  will  merely  point  as  a  well-known 
example  to  the  respect  paid  all  over  the  East  to  the 
Sycds,  the  descendants  of  Mahomed's  daughter,  and  of 
Ali.  Given  this  fact,  it  is  clear  that  not  only  the  sons 
of  holy  men  are  holy,  but  their  daughters  are  also  entitled 

266         Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab. 

to  veneration.  This  being  so,  it  follows  that  while  the 
sons  of  holy  men  can  honour  the  daughters  of  mere 
mortals  by  association  with  them,  for  a  layman  to 
approach  a  saintly  damsel  is  sacrilege.  This  law  works 
both  ways.  Not  only  will  the  relations  of  a  saintly  girl 
feel  themselves  disgraced  by  the  mere  thought  of  a 
relationship  with  a  humbler  individual,  but  that  indi- 
vidual himself  will  be  restrained  from  offering  the  indignity 
of  a  proposal  to  one  so  vastly  his  superior.  Among  the 
polygamists  this  may  do  no  harm.  The  Syed  alluded 
to  above  marries  his  cousin  as  his  first  wife,  and  takes 
other  lowlier  females  as  well.  But  Hindus  and  Sikhs 
are  in  the  main  restricted  to  one  wife,  and  hence  diffi- 
culties arise.  Thus  while  the  males  of  the  saintly  caste 
have  an  unlimited  field  of  choice,  and  competition  to 
secure  them  as  husbands  may  lead  to  handsome  dowers 
accompanying  their  brides,  the  godly  females  have  to 
compete  in  a  market  already  overcrowded.  Hence  the 
result  that  if  they  are  kept  alive  in  races  where  marriage 
is  a  necessity  and  monogamy  the  rule,  the  parents  must 
at  all  hazards  purchase  husbands  for  them  at  whatever 
the  cost  before  the  girls  attain  the  age  of  puberty.  The 
logical  consequences  of  this  is  that  when  a  female  child 
is  born  in  such  a  family  the  parents  calculate  the  chance 
of  her  marriage,  and  if  they  do  not  see  a  probability  of 
raising  the  necessary  dower  in  time,  they  decide  to  remove 
her  from  the  world  before  she  has  had  time  to  realize 
her  existence  in  the  world. 

Now  let  us  take  another  form  of  society  that  leads 
to  the  same  result.  When  the  gfreat  Moghul  King 
Akbar  was  consolidating  his  empire  he  came  to  the 
conclusion  that  by  accepting  wives  from  various  leading 
tribes  he  would  link  them  in  kinship  with  himself  and 
thus  obtain  their  loyalty.  Among  the  other  girls  that 
he  married  in  this  way  were  girls  of  some  Punjab 
J  at    Clans.     His   successors    Shahjehan    and    Aurangzeb 

Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab.         267 

followed  his  example,  with  the  result  that  a  dozen  or 
so  of  the  stout  Northern  Clans  were  connected  by 
marriages  with  the  Emperors  of  Delhi.  Now  look  at 
the  effect  this  had  on  the  aforesaid  Jat  Clans.  Their 
males  obtained  distinction  by  the  distinction  bestowed 
on  their  clan.  Their  daughters  had  married  Royalties. 
Obviously  it  followed  that  it  was  impossible  to  demean 
themselves  by  allowing  other  daughters  to  marry  subjects. 
Hence  if  daughters  were  born  into  the  world  they  must 
be  removed  from  the  world  again.  As  among  the 
Saints,  the  men  of  the  Royal  Jat  Clans  could  find 
wives  from  the  humbler  circles.  However,  wholesale 
destruction  was  found  to  be  too  much,  and  a  modi- 
fication was  made  later  on,  by  which  these  clans  if 
they  kept  the  girls  alive  could  give  them  to  men  of 
the  other  clans  with  like  pretensions.  But  here  as 
before  a  difficulty  still  remained.  The  girls  of  the 
families  that  moved  in  Royal  circles  could  only  marry 
men  of  other  families  with  similar  connections,  but  these 
men  were  able  to  get  girls  from  numerous  families  only 
too  proud  to  give  them.  It  followed  that  a  very  heavy 
dowry  was  necessary  for  the  purchase  of  husbands  by 
these  superior  girls,  and  only  where  it  was  in  sight 
could  they  be  kept  alive.  Statistics  show  clans  with 
proportions  as  low  as  572,  524  and   574. 

Now  let  us  look  at  the  Khatri  organization.  There 
are  variations  in  it  from  district  to  district,  but  roughly 
speaking  the  tribe  is  arranged  as  follows :  At  the  head 
of  the  social  scale  we  have  four  clans  called  the  Dhai- 
Ghar  or  two  and  a  half  house  group ;  below  them  are 
the  Chahar-Ghar  or  four  house  group;  after  them  the 
Bari  or  twelve  house  group ;  and  lastly  the  Bunjahi  or 
fifty-two  house  j^roup.  The  above  Khatri  organization 
is  hypergamous  for  females,  or  rather  here  we  have  a 
variation  in  that  girls  may  also  marry  on  their  own 
level,  but   never  beneath   them.      I    forgot   to  state  that 

268         Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab. 

among  Hindus  and  Sikhs  it  is  almost  universally  the 
rule  that  one  must  never  marry  within  one's  own 
house.  Hence  the  girls  of  the  Bunjahi  group  can  marry 
on  their  own  level  into  any  of  the  other  fifty-one  clans 
of  the  Bunjahi,  or  above  into  the  twelve  Ban,  or  four 
Chahar-Ghar  or  four  Dhai-Ghar  clans.  They  have, 
therefore,  a  wide  matrimonial  field.  The  Ban  girls 
have  eleven  clans  on  their  level  and  two  groups  of 
four  above  them.  The  Chahar-Ghar  have  three  other 
Chahar-Ghar  and  four  Dhai-Ghar  sections  that  they  may 
join,  and  finally  the  Dhai-Ghar  can  only  marry  into 
the  other  three  clans  of  their  own  group,  or  rather  as 
near  relations  of  the  mother  are  also  barred,  into  two 
and  a  half  houses  as  designated  in  the  group  named. 
Conversely  the  Dhai-Ghar  men  can  marry  into  many 
groups  on  the  same  level  or  down  below,  and  they 
therefore  have  the  parents  of  Dhai-Ghar  girls  at  a 
disadvantage,  should  the  latter  come  forward  with  only 
a  small  dot.  Hence  we  have  reasons  preparing  us  to 
find  female  infanticide  among  the  Dhai-Ghars,  and  the 
statistics  show  that  our  suspicions  are  not  ill-founded. 

Why  the  Khatris  are  thus  organized  is  not  well 
known,  and  I  cannot  tell  you  how  it  comes  that  the 
Dhai-Ghar  Clans  are  able  to  arrogate  a  superior 
position.  It  is  not  the  least  use  turning  to  the  clans 
themselves  for  information.  Although  the  Khatris  in 
the  Punjab  are  among  the  most  keen-witted  and  best 
educated  of  Punjabis,  their  minds  are  not  turned  to  the 
historical  or  antiquarian,  and  I  have  never  been  able  to 
obtain  explanations  for  the  clan  names  derived  from 
trees,  animals  and  flowers  from  the  members  of  the 
clans  themselves.  In  the  case  of  the  Rajputs,  however, 
we  are  on  firmer  ground.  They  are  in  the  main — 
nothing  can  be  said  dogmatically  about  anything 
Indian — they  are  in  the  main  related  in  a  near  or  far 
degree  to  princes  who  have  exercised   rule  at  one  time 

Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab.         269 

another  over  principalities  of  varying  sizes.  Hence 
aijputs  can  always  obtain  brides  from  non-Rajput 
bes,  to  whom  of  course  they  would  not  think  of 
iring  their  daughters.     Hence,  again,  all   Rajputs  are 

a  greater  or  less  degree  in  a  difficulty  of  disposing 

their  daughters.  But  the  Rajputs  among  themselves 
e  arranged  in  tables  of  precedence  which  vary 
imensely  according  to  the  status  obtained  by  their 
cestors.  It  would  be  impossible  for  me  to  g^ve 
itails  of  their  grouping  in  an  easily  intelligible  form. 

one  district  a  clan  might  have  obtained  power  and 
e-eminence  that  it  did  not  achieve  in  another.  It 
ight  in  the  one  place   be  at  the  top,  and  in  another 

the  middle  of  the  social  ladder.  But  whatever  the 
Duping  may  be,  the  status  all   turns  on   the  question 

the  marriage  of  the  daughters.     Would  group  A  give 

take  a  daughter  from  group  B.^  It  may  safely  be 
id  that  marriage  is  expensive  for  every  Rajput 
iiden,  and  temptations  to  limit  families  must  always 
ist,  but  owing    to  this  constant   change  of   status  it 

only  when  we  turn  to  the  Rajput  families  of  the 
1   district   of  Kangra,   which   claim   and    are   admitted 

possess  the  bluest  blood,  that  we  get  really  distinctive 
ures.     Where  there  are  a  thousand  boys,  there  are  in 
ne  of  these  sections  from  500  to  450  girls. 
The   last   and    most   curious   feature   to  which    I    shall 
1    your   attention    is   that   some   of   the    menial    castes 

certain  places  have  as  small  a  percentage  of  female 
ildren    as    their   more   distinguished    neighbours.     This 

due  to  the  fact  that  they  organize  themselves  into 
3ups,  which    in    some   places   reflect    the   organizations 

the  masters  whom  they  serve.  I  have  heard  that 
I  coachman   and   butlers  of  great  men  arc  alluded  to 

their  own  circles  as  the  Duke  of  Westminster  or 
►rd    Rosebery,   and  that  their  status  among   lesser  fry 

like   that   of    their   masters.      Similarly   it    is  obvious 

270         Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab, 

that  a  sweeper  who  sweeps  for  a  Durban  Jat  family 
is  superior  to  the  menial  who  plies  his  broom  on 
behalf  of  Jats  of  a  lower  status,  and  it  is  not  to  be 
expected  that  he  will  give  his  daughter  to  such  low 
people,  though  willing  enough  to  accept  homage  in  the 
form  of  a  maiden  from  below.  Nothing,  perhaps,  is  so 
surprising  to  the  uninitiated  as  the  fact  that  those 
beings  that  we  are  accustomed  to  consider  in  India  to 
be  the  lowest  of  the  low — the  cobbler,  the  sweeper  or 
the  groom — have  as  many  grades  of  precedence  and 
social  distinctions  as  the  nobility,  gentry  and  priesthood. 
The  sweeper  who  eats  carrion  or  lizards,  may  g^ve  his 
daughter  to  the  sweeper,  who  will  eat  the  leavings  of 
Europeans,  but  will  never  be  honoured  by  an  exchange 
of  girls.  The  Plantagenet  or  Knight  of  the  lowly 
broom  serving  a  European  may  give  his  daughter  to 
a  fellow  casteman  who  observes  the  Mahomedan  rules 
of  diet  The  Mazhabi  Sikhs — sweepers  by  origin,  who 
having  accepted  the  Sikh  religion  are  recruited  into 
our  Pioneer  regiments — are  divided  into  two  grades, 
whom  we  may  call  the  "old  originals"  and  the  "latter- 
day  men,"  with  the  usual  results.  The  first  sect  take 
the  girls  from  the  latter  but  do  not  reciprocate,  and 
both  will  take  brides  from  the  common  herd  of  non- 
Sikh  sweepers  mentioned  above.  The  result  is  that 
they  have  about  as  bad  a  proportion  of  females  as 
is  to  be  found  anywhere — 703  to  1000  of  the  other 
sex.  You  can  see  that  this  state  of  affairs  tends  to 
multiply  itself,  and  nothing  but  the  closest  intimacy 
and  most  minute  statistics  could  reveal  the  truth.  I 
see  that  there  are  only  800  girls  among  Sikh  Barbers 
to  1000  boys.  If  we  studied  their  organization,  which 
I  have  not  done,  we  should  probably  find,  as  we  have 
in  the  cases  above,  that  the  low  ratio  was  almost 
automatic.  Another  custom  which  might  have  the  same 
result  is  that  which   prevails  in  the   South-East  of  the 

Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab.         271 

Punjab.  Girls  of  some  classes  must  always  marry  out 
>f  their  own  village  and  into  a  village  situated  to  the 
ivcst  of  them.  Where  the  line  is  drawn  I  do  not 
know,  and  I  have  no  personal  knowledge  of  the 
:ustom,  but  presuming  it  to  exist  and  supposing,  as  is 
not  likely,  that  the  custom  underwent  no  modification, 
^ou  will  see  that  we  must  reach  a  far  western  village 
ivhere  female  infanticide  must  be  practised. 

It  may  be  asked  why  the  Government  does  not  prevent 
5uch  evils.  The  answer  is,  that  in  the  first  place  a  great 
improvement  has  taken  place  owing  to  the  action  of 
Government.  Formerly  there  were  villages  with  no  girl 
children  at  all  in  the  whole  village.  We  have  only  been 
in  the  Punjab  for  sixty  years — not  a  very  long  period  to 
revolutionize  a  deep-rooted  custom.  In  fact,  the  repressive 
action  taken  involves  an  enforcement  of  collective  responsi- 
bility and  a  modified  system  of  espionage,  which  would  be 
intolerable  but  for  the  necessity  of  such  action.  In  the 
second  place,  the  real  point  is,  that  all  social  improvement 
must  come  from  within,  and  where  a  whole  village  is 
agreed  on  the  beneficial  effect  of  female  infanticide,  it  is 
v'er>-  difficult  for  an  alien  Government  to  obtain  proof  of 
any  one  crime.  There  may  be  less  drinking  in  a  Prohibi- 
tionist State,  but,  as  is  well  known,  it  is  impossible  to 
LDsurc  that  there  shall  be  no  drinking  there.  We  with 
Western  ideas  may  think  it  a  terrible  thing  to  take  a 
child's  life,  and  would  at  any  rate  consider  that  its  mother, 
at  least,  would  make  some  defence  for  its  life.  But  those 
who  practise  these  customs  think  otherwise.  Consider  that 
the  mother  has  been  educated  to  consider  that  to  bring  a 
female  child  into  the  section  into  which  she  has  married 
is  a  crime,  and  the  child  itself  an  abomination  and  a 
disgrace.  Would  she  not,  if  she  did  give  birth  to  such  a 
child,  look  on  it  as  some  mothers  would  on  a  Richard 
Calmady,  and  wish  that  the  monster  should  be  taken 
away  from  her  at  once }     Do  not  let  me  give  my  hearers 

272         Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab. 

the  idea  that  I  make  any  defence  of  such  practices.  I 
only  wish  to  show  that  it  is  of  no  use  attempting  to 
examine  social  evils  without  looking  for  a  bit  at  the  point 
of  view  of  those  that  practise  the  evil. 

It  is  satisfactory  to  note  that  there  are  signs  of  great 
improvement  from  within,  and  of  readjusting  the  social 
laws  to  suit  present  conditions.  It  is  in  this  readjustment 
that  the  only  real  hope  of  success  lies.  I  think  I  may 
have  made  clear  to  you  that  as  long  as  the  organizations 
to  which  I  have  referred  are  rigid,  there  is  no  hope  of 
improvement.  Fortunately,  however,  the  silly  generaliza- 
tion about  the  "  Changeless  East,"  like  all  generalizations, 
is  entirely  a  false  one.  The  caste  organizations,  far  from 
being  rigid,  are  constantly  on  the  change,  and  the  repressive 
influence  of  our  Government  has  its  effect  as  well  as 
improvements  in  ideas.  Just  as  in  Prohibition  States  whole 
generations  grow  up,  who  have  no  desire  to  break  the 
prohibition  laws,  so  the  fact  that  female  infanticide  is 
discouraged  strongly  wherever  examples  can  be  made 
helps  to  increase  the  numbers  of  those  who  wish  to  do 
away  with  the  practice.  Thus  the  Bedi  Khatris,  sanctified 
by  having  produced  Sikh  Gurus,  who  have  at  present  only 
668  girls  to  a  1000  boys,  not  only  interchange  now-a- 
days  with  the  Sodhis,  another  holy  clan,  who  do  not 
really  belong  to  their  group,  but,  breaking  all  the  standard 
rules  of  exogamy,  have  started  inter-marriage  within  their 
own  clan.  Among  the  other  Khatris  there  have  been 
other  alterations.  The  lower  clans  have  rebelled  against 
giving  their  girls  to  the  superior  classes,  and  we  thus  sec 
the  breaking  off  of  blocks  like  the  Athzatias  or  Eight-dan 
men  from  the  main  organization  who  only  interchange 
girls  with  each  other  on  level  terms.  Every  rebellion  of 
this  kind  causes  a  diminution  of  possible  brides  to  the 
upper  castes,  who  therefore  are  stimulated  to  keep  their 
own  daughters  alive  for  purpose  of  exchange.  Or  again, 
we  find  families  ready  to  accept  degradation  in  order  to 

Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab.         273 

keq>  their  daughters  alive.  Men  of  the  two  and  a  half 
houses  will  sometimes  marry  their  daughter  to  four  house 
or  twelve  house  people.  This  entails  degradation  of  the 
whole  family  concerned  into  the  lower  house,  but  the 
degradation  is  occasionally  accepted  and  the  females  can 
be  kept  alive.  Hence  the  four  top  clans,  with  a  propor- 
tion of  800  to  880  female  children,  do  not  show  up  in  the 
statistics  so  badly  as  if  the  two  and  a  half  house  figure  had 
been  kept  separate.  There  are  other  curative  methods  at 
work.  A  J  at  of  the  top  group  may  give  his  daughter  to  a 
Rajput.  A  poor  Rajput  may  win  wealth  by  accepting 
as  a  son-in-law  a  Prince  of  the  distiller  class.  In  fact/ 
one  way  or  another,  the  practice  which  I  describe,  and 
which  was  a  very  real  one  in  the  past,  is  disappearing 
for  good  before  our  civilization  and  our  methods  of 

Yet  the  tendency  towards  hypergamy  is  always  liable 
to  crop  up  even  in  unlikely  places.  On  the  banks  of  the 
Indus  there  are  a  number  of  well-to-do  Mahomedan 
farmers,  among  whom  much  rivalry  and  party  feeling 
exists.  One  such  found  a  difficulty  in  obtaining  a  husband 
suitable  in  his  eyes  to  be  married  to  his  sister,  so  he  kept 
her  unmarried  in  his  house  long  after  she  had  come 
of  age.  It  followed  that  some  of  the  other  yeomen,  in 
order  to  show  that  they  were  as  good  as  he  was,  had 
to  keep  their  sisters  unmarried  also.  As  they  were 
Mahomedans,  there  were  no  religious  laws  binding  them 
to  marr>'.  Naturally,  as  in  the  similar  case  of  Aurangzeb's 
two  unmarried  sisters,  one  heard  whispers  of  scandal,  but 
intrigue  is  dangerous  in  such  households.  The  difficulties 
of  mating  Royal  and  Noble  females  has  always  been  a 
great  one.  If  caste  rules  are  relaxed,  as  in  the  case  of  the 
Duke  of  Fife,  we  hear  one  set  of  objections  ;  and  if  the 
hedge  between  religions  is  knocked  down,  as  with  the 
recent  Spanish  marriage,  there  are  other  protests.  The 
Pharaohs  and   other   kings  disposed   of  their    unmarried 

274         Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab. 

sisters  by  marrying  them  themselves.  The  argument  is 
simple.  A  king  cannot  give  his  sister  to  a  mere  subject. 
She  must  be  married.  He  is  the  only  possible  husband 
and  he  marries  her  accordingly.  In  Bengal  the  surplusage 
of  females  at  the  top  hypergamous  ladder  is  cured  by 
Kulinism.  This  means  that  there  exists  a  top  gfroup  of 
professional  married  men,  who,  for  a  consideration  in  each 
instance,  will  condescend  to  ally  themselves  in  matrimony 
with  fifty  or  sixty  girls  at  a  time.  The  rule  is  that  g^rls 
must  be  married  is  thus  adhered  to,  and  even  if  a  g^rl  gets 
but  the  sixtieth  part  of  a  husband,  at  least  she  can  show 
her  marriage  lines  to  the  public. 

Perhaps  I  can  best  end  this  paper  by  showing  a  bye- 
product  of  the  practice  of  h3T>ergamy.  In  the  first  place, 
at  the  top  of  the  tree  it  is  so  hard  for  a  maiden  to  find 
a  husband  that  it  is  absolutely  imperative  that  no  unfair 
competition  should  exist.  Hence  we  find  that  widow 
re-marriage  is  absolutely  prohibited.  This  from  their 
spectacles  is  perfectly  reasonable.  A  girl  is  lucky  to  get 
married,  and  if  after  marriage,  even  if  it  happen  that  she 
may  never  have  visited  her  husband,  she  loses  him,  that 
is  her  misfortune.  It  is  bad  luck,  no  doubt,  but  that  is 
no  reason  for  her  invading  the  over-stocked  market  again. 
On  the  other  hand,  while  bridegrooms  are  few  at  the  top 
of  the  scale,  and  have  to  be  purchased  with  substantial 
dowries,  as  we  go  lower,  men  increase  in  number  and 
girls  have  a  wider  field.  We  therefore  find  that  the  men 
at  the  bottom  have  to  purchase  their  wives — or,  to  put 
it  more  euphemistically,  have  to  pay  the  parents  the  cost 
of  a  girPs  upbringing.  Even  then  they  cannot  all  be 
mated,  and  as  nowhere  do  we  hear  of  the  slaughter  of 
male  children  to  balance  the  account,  we  find  other  social 
correctives  in  veiled  polyandry  and  widow  re-marriage. 
Where  women  are  few,  and  only  the  elder  brother  can 
marry,  he  is  not  supposed  to  pay  much  heed  to  the 
behaviour  of  his  brothers  to  his  wife.     When  her  husband 

Female  Infanticide  in  the  Punjab.         275 

dies,  unlike  the  ladies  above,  she  is  much  too  valuable 
to  be  wasted,  and  is  promptly  married  by  the  next 
brother.  See  here  how  again  we  have  a  similar  result 
from  dissimilar  causes.  This  practice  is  entirely  different 
from  the  Levirate  custom.  There  a  woman  married  her 
husband's  brother  or  nearest  kinsman,  not  because  he 
wanted  to,  but  because  she  had  a  right  to  claim  that  he 
would  perpetuate  through  her  the  race  of  her  deceased 
husband.  Here  a  woman  leaves  her  family  and  enters 
another  by  marriage,  and  when  her  husband  dies,  she 
has  no  right  to  dispose  of  herself,  but  remains  with  her 
husband  s  kinsfolk.  There  are  many  other  aspects  to  this 
custom  and  to  the  main  subject  of  my  thesis,  but  I  do 
not  pretend  to  do  more  than  give  a  sketch  of  some 
aspects  only. 



If  the  soil  of  Zoutpansberg  is  rich  in  mineral  deposits, 
its  native  population  abounds  also  in  interesting  ethno- 
graphical phenomena.  The  strangest  of  these  phenomena 
is  the  presence  of  the  Balemba  in  the  Spelonken  and 
Selati  districts :  a  Bantu  tribe  scattered  amongst  the 
Basuto  and  Bathonga  of  those  parts,  exactly  as  the  Jews 
amongst  European  nations,  a  tribe  having  no  chief, 
keeping  with  a  great  pertinacity  habits  totally  different 
from  those  of  the  masters  of  the  country,  living  and 
thriving  by  means  of  industry,  moreover  bearing  strong 
Semitic  characteristics,  is  it  not  enough  to  awake  the 
interest  of  the  ethnologist  and  to  puzzle  him  greatly.^ 
The  Balemba  or  Malcmba  are  called  so  by  the  Bathonga. 
The  Basuto  call  them  Balepa.  Their  existence  has  been 
noticed  long  ago  by  the  Boers,  who  said  they  were 
Moslems,  and  by  the  German  and  Swiss  missionaries 
working  in  the  Zoutpansberg.^/  The  Blue  Book  on  the 
history  of  the  native  tribes  of  the  Transvaal  (1905)  has 

^  Since  I  wrote  these  lines  the  Rev.  Mr.  Schloemann,  of  the  Berlin  Mission, 
kindly  sent  me  a  pap>er  published  by  him  in  the  Verkandlungen  der  Berliner 
anihropclogischen  Gaellschaft^  January  1 894.  He  has  given  there  m  full 
description  of  the  Balemba,  which  is  almost  entirely  in  accordance  with  the 
information  I  gathered. 

The  BaUmba.  277 

also  mentioned  them  (p.  164),  and  a  short  account  about 
them  has  been  given  by  Mr.  Wheelwright  in  his  paper 
on  "  Native  Circumcision  Lodges  *'  {Addresses  and  Papers 
read  at  the  S.A.A.A.S.,  1905,  vol.  iii.  p.  295). 

I  had  the  good  luck  to  get  new  information  about  them 
from  an  old  Shangaan  who  lived  in  the  neighbourhood 
in  the  Spelonken,  and  I  should  be  glad  if  the  publication 
of  these  notes  could  help  to  solve  the  problem  of  their 

In  fact,  nothing  precise  is  known  about  that  origin. 
Some  old  Balemba  of  both  the  Spelonken  and  the 
Modjadji  country  told  my  informant  the  following  legend  : 
"  We  have  come  from  a  verj'  remote  place,  on  the  other 
side  of  the  sea.  We  were  on  a  big  boat  A  terrible 
storm  nearly  destroyed  us  all.  The  boat  was  broken  into 
two  pieces.  One  half  of  us  reached  the  shores  of  this 
country;  the  others  were  taken  away  with  the  second 
half  of  the  boat,  and  we  do  not  know  where  they  are 
now.  We  climbed  the  mountains  and  arrived  among 
the  Banyai.  There  we  settled,  and  after  a  time  we 
jnoved  southwards  to  the  Transvaal ;  but  we  are  not 

The  Balemba  speak  a  language  of  their  own,  though 
they  have  learned  Sesuto  and  Shithonga.  In  making  out 
the  principal  grammatical  features  of  that  dialect  I  dis- 
covered at  once  that,  though  very  distinctly  Bantu,  it  does 
not  belong  to  our  south-eastern  group  of  Bantu  languages. 
It  has  no  special  inflexion  for  the  locative  case,  which  is 
formed,  not  by  the  suffix  ini  or  ng,  but  by  means  of  one 
of  the  three  locative  prefixes:  ku,  mu, pa,  zs  in  Central 
Africa.  As  regards  the  classes  of  the  nouns,  they  are 
all  present,  as  in  Zulu  and  Thonga,  except  perhaps  the 
class  iu'zin  {li-tin  in  Thonga) ;  but  a  strange  feature 
amongst  them  is  that  the  class  in-izin  (in  Thonga ^'/n-Ziii) 
has  no  plural  form.  Nwombe  (ox)  means  both  ox  and 
oxen  ;  mboudola,  lion  and    lions,  etc.      Here   is  a  list  of 

278  The  Balemba, 

some   of  the  most   characteristic   nouns  in  the  Balemba 

language  : 

Mundju,    pi.    bandju,  man     Nyumbe,  pi.  id.,  house. 

(homu).  Ndangwa,  morulatree. 
Murume,pl.banarume(?)man     Hobe,  pi.  id.,  fish. 

(vir).  Nguku,  pi.  id.,  hen. 

Mumbo,  chief.  Zina,  pi.  mazina,  name. 

Munyana,  child.  Badza,  pi.  mabadza,  pick. 

Muthi,  pi.  mithi  (tree).  Bonodi,  mabonodi,  mealies. 

Some  of  their  adverbs  :  Bi,  where  ;  Phedo,  near ;  Panapa, 
here ;  Ndjambo,  far  away,  etc. 

According  to  my  Shangaan  informant,  who  has  travelled 
in  the  Nyai  and  Ndjao  countries,  this  dialect  is  very  near 
the  Shindjao  of  Northern  Gazaland  (Musapa).  If  such 
be  the  case,  the  only  conclusion  we  can  draw  from  these 
grammatical  facts  is  this:  the  Balemba  must  have 
remained  a  long  time  amongst  the  Bandjao,  long  enough 
to  adopt  entirely  their  language,  and  thus  they  kept  it 
when  they  moved  further  south.  This  idiom  therefore 
does  not  throw  any  light  on  their  first  origin,  nor  does  it 
give  any  indication  regarding  the  place  where  they 
adopted  the  Semitic  customs  which  we  will  describe 
later  on. 

When  did  the  Balemba  penetrate  in  Zoutpansberg  ? 
They  reached  the  Selati  district  (neighbourhood  of 
Leydsdorp)  before  the  Ba-Thonga  of  the  Portuguese 
Territory.  As  the  immigration  of  the  Bi-Thonga  took 
place  in  or  about  1835,  it  is  possible  to  admit  that  the 
Balemba  made  their  appearance  at  the  end  of  the 
eighteenth  century.  They  were  there  before  the  reign 
of  the  queen  Male,  who  had  been  already  for  many  years 
the  chief  of  the  Suto  Kaha  tribe  when  the  Nkuna  clan 
of  the  Thonga  fled  into  that  district  in  1835.^ 

^  See  about  these  dates  my  paper  on  the  **  Ba-Thonga  of  the  Transvaal," 
vol.  iii.  S.A.A.A.S.^  1905,  p.  237.    The  date  of  1835  as  being  the  year  of 

The  Balemba.  279 

Tlu  indtistry  of  the  Balemba,  The  Balemba  were  well 
received  by  the  Suto  aborigines  because  they  brought 
at  least  two  new  industries  into  the  country:  Pottery 
and  metallurgy.  They  all  know  how  to  make  splendid 
pots.  The  Ba-Suto  had  only  small  coarse  earthenware, 
they  gladly  bought  from  the  Balemba  big  round  jars 
to  make  their  beer  or  carry  their  water.  They  usually 
filled  the  pot  with  mealies  or  sorgho,  the  Balemba 
taking  the  mealies  as  a  payment  for  the  pot  This  way 
of  buying  pots  by  exchanging  them  against  the  mealies 
they  can  contain  is  still  customary  among  natives.  But 
for  the  bigger  pots  the  Balemba  asked  one  or  two  iron 
picks.  Now  the  Ba-Suto  have  learned  to  make  their 
own  pots;  however,  those  manufactured  by  the  Balemba 
are  still  very  much  valued. 

But  what  made  even  more  impression  on  the  Ba-Suto 
was  the  metallurgic  art  of  the  newcomers.  The  Ba-Suto 
were  already  in  possession  of  iron  picks  and  hatchets. 
Where  and  how  did  they  get  them  first?  Nobody 
knows.  The  Ba-Lauti  of  the  Leydenburg  district,  it  is 
true,  had  still  wooden  picks  up  to  a  recent  date,  but 
they  used  to  chop  them  out  with  hatchets,  and  this 
proves  that  they  already  knew  iron.  But  the  Balemba 
gave  a  great  impetus  to  the  metallurgic  art  Having 
remained  in  touch  with  their  kinsmen  who  were  dwelling 
in  iron  or  copper  districts,  especially  in  the  Ba-Venda 
mountains,  they  bought  from  them  the  raw  material  which 
they  had  worked  in  their  various  homes.  The  copper 
was  sold  to  them  by  the  miners  under  the  form  of 
sticks  called  "  ritsondjolo,"  and  they  transformed  these 
sticks  into  a  fine  wire  to  make  bracelets.  For  that 
purpose,    they    used    two    special    tools    which    greatly 

the  cx.xius  of  the  Ba-Nkuna  has  been  confirmed  to  me  since  by  a  wonderful 
a-iuvc  chronul.»gist  whom  I  found  in  Spelonken.  His  name  is  Shinangana 
He  w.Ls  able  lu  tell  njc  the  principal  events  of  each  year  since  183$,  which 

i*»  fur  him  the  beginning  of  modem  era. 

28o  The  Balemba. 

astonished  the  natives :  One,  the  Magogo,  was  a  piece 
of  iron  with  holes  in  it,  of  different  sizes;  the  other,  a 
kind  of  pincers  called  ngwinya,  viz.  crocodile.  They 
used  to  forge  the  copper  into  long  slender  bits  which 
they  introduced  into  the  holes  of  the  Magogo,  pulling 
them  through  by  means  of  the  pincers,  till  it  was  fine 
enough  for  the  fabrication  of  the  bracelets  {busenga). 
These  consisted  of  a  ring  of  ox-tail  hair  covered  or 
surrounded  by  the  wire.  They  were  very  much  admired 
by  the  natives  and  had  a  ready  sale  everywhere.  With 
the  busengay  the  Balemba  used  to  buy  anything: 
Kaffir  corn,  goats,  cattle,  even  wives.  And  when  they 
had  done  good  business  in  one  place  they  would  leave 
the  country  and  go  to  trade  somewhere  else  with  their 
stock.  The  Balemba  have  been  the  true  pioneers  of 
civilisation  amongst  the  Ba-Suto,  who  were  then  in  a 
very  primitive  condition. 

Some  Ba-Suto  learned  from  them.  The  Palabora 
people,  for  instance,  became  quite  a  tribe  of  black- 
smiths, and  they  have  exploited  for  many  decades  the 
copper  of  the  Palabora  hills  and  sold  it  to  their 
countrymen  under  the  form  of  "  lirale,"  viz.  sticks  of 
about  i^  feet  in  length,  \  inch  in  breadth,  finished  oflf 
by  a  semicircular  head.  These  "  lirale "  are  still  some- 
times found  among  the  Low  Country  natives.  Have 
the  Suto  blacksmiths  of  the  Iron  Mountain  of  the 
Klein  Letaba  also  learned  their  art  from  the  Balemba? 
It  is  difficult  to  say.  I  heard  natives  assert  that  they 
"  came  out  from  the  reed,"  that  is  to  say  they  were 
created  holding  in  their  hands  the  instruments  of  their 
forge!  At  any  rate  the  iron  industry  of  Klein  Letaba 
is  very  old. 

The  Balemba  used  to  do  a  good  business  also  in 
special  medicines,  which  they  sold  at  high  prices  to 
the  Ba-Suto.  But  there  is  nothing  to  wonder  about  in 
that  fact.     Anybody  coming  from  far  away  and  bringing 

The  BaUmba.  281 

new  medicine  is  sure  to  become  a  great  doctor  amongst 
the  natives,  if  he  has  enough  pluck ;  the  further  away 
the  drug  has  been  found,  the  better  it  is!  And  this 
idea  is  by  no  means  confined  to  the  black  race! 

They  introduced  also  the  domestic  fowl  amongst  the 
Ba-Suto  of  Zoutpansberg.  Before  their  arrival  it  was 
unknown  in  the  country.  The  Thonga  of  the  Coast 
had  it  long  ago  but  not  the  Suto  of  the  Drakensberg, 
and  it  is  so  true  that  its  introduction  is  relatively  new 
that  some  old  men  and  women  do  not  eat  its  meat; 
they  have  not  yet  become  accustomed  to  it.  The  Bal- 
emba  called  it  nguku,  and  the  Suto  adopted  that  word 
and  transformed  it,  according  to  the  laws  of  their 
phonetics,  into  khugu,  Khugu,  hen,  corresponds  to  huku 
in  Thonga  and  nkuku  in  Zulu,  just  the  same  as  khushi^ 
chief,  to  hosi  and  nkosi  and  nkomUy  ox,  to  Aomu  and 

^  Here  let  me  submit  a  little  remark  to  Sir  Harry  Johnstone.  ...  In 
his  interesting  book  about  British  Central  Africa,  this  distinguished  ethnologist 
has  tried  to  fix  the  date  of  the  dispersion  of  Bantu  tribes,  and  he  states 
that  the  (mmitive,  the  Ur- Bantu  nation  (as  Germans  would  say),  has  split 
into  all  its  present  divisions  after  the  fourth  century  before  Christ  The 
hen,  strange  to  say,  has  something  to  do  with  this  hypothesis.  Sir  H. 
Johnstone  found  that  the  word  for  Aen  has  the  same  root  all  through  the 
Bantu  Languages :  he  infers  from  that  fact  that  this  root  must  have  existed 
in  the  Ur- Bantu.  On  the  other  hand,  it  is  proved  that  the  hen  reached 
Eg>pt  and  from  Egypt  the  other  countries  of  Africa  only  in  the  fourth 
century  before  Christ.  Conclusion  :  The  migration  of  the  Bantu  must  be 
posterior  to  that  date.  I  am  afraid  the  facts  which  I  have  just  stated 
about  the  Halemba  introducing  the  hen  among  the  Suto  and  bringing  its  name 
xvith  thtm  furni>h  a  strong  argument  against  the  conclusion  of  Sir  H.  Johnstone. 
It  i^  quite  possible  to  admit  that  the  hen  has  made  its  way  through  the 
various  Bantu  tribes,  from  Eg>pt  to  Zululand,  in  historical  times  just  in 
the  same  manner  as  it  reached  the  Suto  of  the  Low  Country :  its  name 
being  adopted  i(»gciher  wiih  the  animal  itself— all  the  more  easily  as  that 
name  \%hich  contain^  ku  in  its  root  is  a  kind  of  onomatopeon  reprodadng 
more  or  less  the  cry  oi  the  bird  :  kirikiki  kuku  !  The  identity  of  name 
uuuld  not  prove  thai  it  exi^icil  in  the  Ur-Bantu  prior  to  the  dispersion; 
It  \%ouM  only  l>e  the  result  of  a  posterior  introduction  of  both  the  animal 
and  Its  name  :iinong^:  the  already  settled  tribes.      I  do  not  want  to  raise 

282  The  Balemba. 

Where  had  the  Balemba  found  the  superior  know- 
ledge which  they  brought  with  them  ?  There  is  no 
doubt  that  they  had  been  submitted  to  Semitic  influences, 
and,  in  the  contact  with  Moslems  of  unknown  regions, 
they  adopted  some  striking  habits  which  they  preserved 
all  through  their  migrations  with  a  wonderful  obstinacy. 

The  most  characteristic  is  their  habit  of  eating  no 
meat  if  t/ie  animal  has  not  been  killed  by  tfum, 
according  to  their  rite,  viz.  by  cutting  its  throat  The 
ordinary  native  is  so  fond  of  meat  that  he  gladly  eats 
it  whatever  it  may  be.  The  Balemba  never  touch  any 
animal  found  dead  or  which  has  been  shot  My  old 
Shangaan  knew  a  Molemba  boy  who  accompanied  a 
Boer  in  a  hunting  trip  and  let  himself  almost  starve 
because  he  always  refused  to  eat  the  meat  of  bucks 
killed  by  his  master.  But  should  a  buck  be  shot  and 
be  still  alive,  he  would  ask  the  permission  to  cut  its 
throat,  and,  if  that  condition  were  fulfilled,  he  would 
satisfy  his  hunger  with  delight  Is  there  any  higher 
principle  at  the  base  of  that  custom  kept  so  sacredly 
by  the  Balemba.^  The  reason  why  the  Jews  cut  the 
throat  of  butchered  animals  before  eating  their  meat  is 
well  known.  They  act  according  to  the  old  saying  of 
Leviticus  that  the  soul  of  the  animal  is  in  its  blood. 
The  blood  must  be  kept  to  cover  the  soul  of  man,  for 
the  expiation  of  his  sins ;  it  has  a  sacred  function  to 
perform ;  therefore  it  must  not  be  eaten,  and  meat 
having  still  blood  in  it  is  prohibited.  For  the  Balemba 
it  is  not  so.  The  religious  side  of  the  Semitic  rite  is 
entirely  unknown.  My  informant  says  they  do  not  fear 
to  eat  the  blood.  It  seems  therefore  that  they  keep 
the  custom  without  knowing  why,  and  that  it  has  only 
become   for  them   a  national   habit   to  which   they  stick 

a  serious  objection  against   the  dale  suggested,  though  judging  a  prwri  it 
«>ecm5   10   be   very   recent.     But    I    think    the  hen   argument   ought   to   be 


The  Balemba.  283 

o  preserve  their  identity  as  a  tribe.  I  suppose  that 
t  is  much  the  same  amongst  most  of  modem  Jews 
¥ho  would  never  eat  meat  except  it  be  "cosher." 
Another  fact  which  shows  the  same  degeneracy  is  that, 
vhen  they  are  amongst  themselves,  without  foreign 
vitnesses,  they  eat  meat  of  animals  which  died  a 
latural  death  or  have  not  been  killed  according  to 
Jie  rite,  and  so  hypocrisy  has  set  in. 

I  may  add  here  that  the  Balemba  do  not  eat  the 
^ebra  nor  the  wild  pig,  not  on  account  of  totemistic 
reasons,  as  they  have  no  totems.  Some  think  that 
Jieir  aversion  for  wild  pig's  meat  is  another  Semitic 
'cature.  Such  might  be  the  case.  But  one  must 
•emember  that  the  domesticated  pig,  which  is  so 
repugnant  to  the  Semitic  nations,  has  but  recently  been 
introduced  amongst  the  Ba-Suto  of  the  Transvaal.  On 
the  contrary,  Balemba  are  very  fond  of  fish,  which  the 
Suto  did  not  eat,  and  of  fowls  which  they  liked  to 
Lake  with  them  in  their  travels  in  order  to  have  some 
lawfully-killed  meat  at  their  disposal. 

Another  very  strange  custom  which  they  still  keep  is 
to  shave  their  heads  very  often  :  it  is  generally  said,  at 
sach  new  moon.  Such  is  the  case  in  the  Ba-Venda 
i^illages  of  the  Thabina  Valley  (Selati  district);  but  in 
Spclonken  it  seems  that  they  do  not  do  it  so  regularly, 
and  that  the  day  of  the  new  moon  is  not  a  sacred  one 
for  them  as  it  is  in  other  places.  The  shaving  of  the 
hair  of  the  head  is  for  the  Suto  and  the  Thonga  one  of 
the  principal  signs  of  mourning,  and  this  custom  has 
done  much  to  accentuate  the  difference  between  the 
Balemba  and  the  other  tribes.  It  helped  them  to 
preserve  that  splendid  isolation  of  which  they  are  proud, 
as  we  shall  see. 

A  third  Semitic  rite  which  they  practise  with  great 
conviction  is  circumcision  {ngoma).  But  on  this  point 
they  agree  with   the   Ba-Suto,  who  have   all   adopted  it 

284  The  Balemba. 

My  informant  is  persuaded  that  the  Balemba  have  brought 
it  into  the  country,  and  that  the  Suto  and  even  the 
Thonga  have  borrowed  the  custom  from  theoL  It  is 
true,  at  anyrate,  for  the  great  Ba-Venda  tribe.  When 
Ramabulan,  the  grandfather  of  the  present  Venda  chief, 
was  living,  he  strongly  objected  to  the  ngoma  being 
introduced  amongst  his  people.  But  his  son  Makhatu 
got  into  a  circumcision  lodge,  and  was  initiated.  His 
father  said :  He  has  become  a  Molemba,  kill  him.  But 
the  people  had  pity  on  him,  and  when  he  became  chief 
the  nation  adopted  the  new  rite.  Amongst  other  Suto 
tribes  of  Zoutpansberg  circumcision  is  much  older,  and, 
for  instance,  amongst  the  Kaha,  old  men  absolutely  deny 
that  they  owe  it  to  the  Balemba.  In  Spelonken  it  might 
be  different.  My  old  Shangaan,  who  was  circumcised 
about  fifty  years  ago  near  the  Lebole  Mountain,  says 
that  the  Balemba  had  quite  a  special  position  in  the 
ngoma.  They  used  to  be  the  surgeons  trusted  with  the 
physical  operation.  They  provided  the  special  charms 
by  which  the  circular  fence  of  the  lodge  was  doctored  to 
protect  it  against  malignant  influences  from  outside. 
They  used  also  to  perform  the  last  operation,  viz. 
burning  the  lodge  on  the  day  of  the  liberation  of  the 
boys,  as  nobody  else  dared  to  do  it.  The  newly  initiated, 
as  it  is  well  known,  must  leave  the  lodge  and  run  to  a 
pool  to  bathe  there ;  it  is  strongly  prohibited  to  them  to 
look  backwards  when  the  houses  of  the  initiation  are 
burned,  as  the  sight  of  that  fire  might  "  pierce  their 
eyes  and  make  them  blind."  The  Balemba,  masters  of 
the  ngoma,  do  not  fear  that  All  those  facts  show,  that  in 
the  north  of  Zoutpansberg  at  least,  there  is  a  special 
relation  between  the  adoption  of  the  circumcision  and 
the  Balemba.  But  it  is  hardly  possible  to  explain  its 
presence  in  Zululand  in  the  eighteenth  century  in  pre- 
Chaka  days  by  the  migration  of  the  Balemba.  Bantu 
are   so   wonderfully  fond  of  that  rite  that  it   may  hzx^ 

The  Balemba.  285 

pread  under  similar  circumstances  in  many  other  places 
f  South  Africa.  In  that  respect  "the  Bantu  Jews" 
rcre  more  fortunate  than  the  European  ones,  who  kept 
lie  circumcision  for  themselves,  but  were  never  able  to 
itroduce  it  amongst  other  nations. 

Tfu  relations  of  ifte  Balemba  with  tJu  tribes  of  the 
mntry  were  always  good.  They  had  no  king  of  their 
wn,  and  submitted  readily  to  the  chiefs  paying  always 
ribute.  But  they  paid  it  in  busenga,  viz.  in  copper 
racelets  of  their  manufacture,  and  never  by  digging  the 
elds  of  the  chief  nor  by  giving  him  one  of  their  daughters 
s  a  wife.  Some  Suto  kinglets  tried  to  force  them  to 
ay  in  the  ordinary  way.  The  Balemba  did  not  refuse, 
^ut  on  the  day  which  had  been  prescribed  to  them  to 
ome  and  dig  the  royal  field,  they  all  appeared  with 
haved  skulls,  and  the  Ba-Suto  said  to  the  chief:  "  Do 
ot  allow  these  shaved  heads  to  enter  your  field !  It  is 
sign  of  death !  It  would  bring  unluck  to  you ! "  When 
bey  were  asked  to  bring  a  girl  as  wife  to  the  chief  they 
id  the  same ;  they  cut  her  hair  quite  off,  and  the  sight 
f  this  woman  in  mourning  attire  frightened  him  so 
luch  that  he  sent  her  back  home.  For  the  Balemba 
his  was  a  great  relief.  Should  the  chief  have  accepted 
he  girl  it  would  have  been  a  frightful  misfortune  to  them, 
ndeed,  one  of  their  most  sacred  principles  is  that  they 
lUst  not  intermarry  with  the  other  tribes.  They  call 
hem  disdainfully,  ''  Ba-Sifuljiy  bait  ba  nyama  ya  mafu,  the 
(indji,  eaters  of  dead  meat."^ 

They  do  not  give  them  their  daughters  at  any  price. 
tut    they  have   no    objection  to   take   foreign  women  as 

•That  word  Strtif/i  pres<rnts  a  very  special  interest,  and  also  throws  some 
ghi  on  the  orij^in  of  the  Balemba.  The  ancient  Arabian  geographers, 
specially  Masouiii,  who  wrote  in  943  A.D.  a  relation  of  his  travels  in 
frica  under  the  title  "Golden  Meadows,"  speaks  of  the  aborigines  of 
cntral  Africa  as  l>cing  the  Zituiji.  How  strange  to  see  that  word  prc- 
>rvcd  i»y  the  Balemba  during  loco  years  with  the  same  meaning  and  the 
imc  di»dain  I 

286  The  Balemba. 

wives,  provided  they  first  incorporate  them  to  their  tribe 
as  Balemba.  The  ceremony  of  naturalisation  was  per- 
formed in  the  following  curious  way:  The  day  they 
brought  to  their  home  the  Suto  bride  for  whom  they 
had  paid  lobola,  they  used  to  make  a  hole  in  the  back 
wall  of  one  of  their  huts.  The  woman  had  to  kneel  out- 
side and  only  introduce  her  head  into  the  hut.  Then 
they  would  shave  her  skull  as  completely  as  possible. 
She  was  then  a  Molemba. 

The  advent  of  European  civilisation  has  been  rather 
disastrous  to  the  Balemba.  European  ware  and  wire  are 
supplanting  theirs,  and  the  Kaffir  trade  has  now  passed 
from  their  hands  into  those  of  white  storekeepers.  When 
they  become  Christians,  as  is  the  case  with  some  of  them 
in  our  Spelonken  stations,  they  at  once  lose  their  charac- 
teristics, which  they  consider  as  being  their  special  form 
of  heathenism.  This  is  not  difficult  for  them  because, 
religiously  speaking,  the  Balemba  do  not  seem  to  have 
kept  the  slightest  trace  of  faith  in  Allah,*  and  they 
adore  the  spirits  of  their  forefathers  just  as  the  other 
natives  do. 

Whatever  may  be  the  fate  of  the  Balemba — and 
though  they  are  likely  to  be  soon  dragged  along  with 
their  Bantu  fellows  in  the  Christian isation  of  the  native 
races  of  South  Africa — the  fact  of  their  separate 
existence  and  of  the  retention  of  their  Semitic  habits 
for  two  centuries  at  least  is  full  of  meaning.  It  shows 
what  a  wonderful  grasp  Mahommedanism  has  on  the 
native  mind.  Consider  these  people  knowing  nothing  of 
Allah,  having  forgotten  entirely  all  higher  religious 
teaching,  if  they  ever  received  any,  and  notwithstanding 

*  The  Rev.  Mr.  Schloemann  says  that  they  hold  prayer-meetings  more  fre- 
quently than  other  natives,  and  that  they  conclude  their  prayers,  addressed  to 
their  ancestors,  by  the  word  "amena,"  which  he  thinks  to  be  identical  with  the 
Hebrew  *' Amen."  He  also  states  that  the  number  7  is  sacred  for  them, 
or  rather  that  they  fear  it,  as  some  Europeans  do  the  number  13. 

The  Balemba.  287 

this  sticking  for  generations  to  some  queer  rites,  the 
meaning  of  which  they  do  not  understand !  This  is  the 
way  Islam  wins  adepts,  not  in  bringing  to  them  light 
and  spiritual  principles,  but  in  enslaving  them  by  a 
number  of  external  habits  which  it  makes  them  adopt. 

Nowadays  the  African  soul  is  ready  to  part  with  its 
childish  animistic  representations.  But  it  is  solicited  by 
two  opposite  influences — Mahommedanism  and  Chris- 
tianity. Mahommedanism  is  making  tremendous  pro- 
gress. The  case  of  the  Balemba  shows  that  the  fight 
between  these  two  influences  is  bound  to  be  very  serious 
indeed,  and  that  in  the  interest  of  the  native  tribes  no 
eflTort  must  be  spared  to  prevent  the  religion  of  the 
letter  and  of  slavery  from  prevailing  over  the  religion  of 
the  spirit  and  of  liberty ! 


Specimens  of  Modern  Mascots  and  Ancient  Amulets  or 
THE  British  Isles. 

With  Plates  V.  and  VL 

{Exhibited  at  the  Society s  Meetings  June  17,  1908.) 

There  appears  to  have  been  a  great  revival  in  this  country^ 
during  the  last  few  years,  of  the  belief  in  luck  and  protective 
amulets.  Such  amulets  have,  of  course,  continued  to  be  used  by 
the  illiterate  from  prehistoric  times.  Amongst  the  educated  classes, 
while  protection  from  the  evil  eye  and  from  witchcraft  is  now 
rarely  sought,  "  pocket  pieces  ^  have  persisted  for  *  luck '  and  for 
the  prevention  and  cure  of  rheumatism  and  certain  other  ailmentSi 
and  these  classes  have  also  been  the  principal  field  for  the  huge 
sale  of  rheumatism  rings,  '  electropathic  *  belts,  and  other  objects 
which  appeal  to  the  charm  instinct  while  professing  to  have  a 
scientific  reason  for  their  success.  The  revival  and  survival  of 
amulets  have  been,  however,  mainly  amongst  bridge-players,  actoiSi 
sportsmen,  motorists,  gamblers,  burglars,  and  others  engaged  in 
risky  occupations. 

**For  in  these  days  when  Wisdom's  light 
On  ever}*thing  is  shining. 
Our  certainty  of  Reason's  right 

Is  by  degrees  declining ; 
And  in  a  year  or  two  the  man 

Who  seeks  un  worked -for  riches 
Will  ask  on  Macbeih's  noted  plan 
The  help  of  witches  !  '* 

{\.  W.  B.'mTk4  Tribmu.) 

This  belief  in  *  luck,'  and  in  obtaining  it  by  things  said  or  done 
or  worn,  is  relied  on  by  numerous  advertisers  in  various  journals 

Collectanea.  289 

and  periodicals,  but  most  of  all  in  those  making  a  special  appeal 
to  women,  where  can  be  found  such  advertisements  as  "  Do  you 
want  to  know  what  are  your  Lucky  Da3rs;  Numbers;  Months; 
Colours;  the  Christian  Name  of  the  person  you  should  mairy? 
Address,  etc"  While  the  servant  girl  still  studies  her  "  Dream 
Book,"  her  mistress  has  "PlaneU  of  the  Month,"  "Consult  the 
Oracle,"  and  many  other  books  telling  her  what  to  do  and  what 
to  avoid  for '  luck.'  Even  tea-leaf  fortune-telling  has  been  revived, 
and  Spiers  and  Pond's,  Hamle/s,  and  other  large  Stores  have  sold 
"  The  '  Nelros '  Cup  of  Fortune  "  for  that  purpose.  Astrologers, 
clairvoyants,  palmists,  writing  experts,  and  all  manner  of  sooth- 
sayers and  ctmning  men  advertise  so  expensively  that  they  must 
have  many  customers,  and  sandwichmen  promenade  London 
streets  to  invite  all  and  sundry  to  visit  Madam  This  or  Madam 
That  and  be  *  psychometrised'  The  fashion  of  sham  occultism, — 
sham,  because  most  of  its  devotees  seem  signally  ignorant  of  the 
history  and  philosophy  of  occult  studies, — has  no  doubt  been  a 
principal  cause  of  the  recent  diffusion  of  both  real  and  sham 
amulets,  but  other  forces  have  probably  helped.  Perhaps  the  most 
important  minor  cause  has  been  commercial  exploitation,  which 
has  led  to  the  advertisement  and  pushing  of  amulets  almost  as  if 
they  were  quack  remedies  for  •  that  tired  feeling.'  Another  minor 
aiuse  may  be  the  adoption  of  the  word  mascot  in  place  of  the  more 
superstitious-seeming  word  amulet.  The  word  mascot,  which 
covers  luck-bringing  persons  as  well  as  objects,  appears  to  have 
been  derived  from  a  Proven9al  word  mascotte  popularised  by 
Audran's  comic  opera  "  La  Mascotte,"  which  was  first  performed 
at  the  end  of  1880. 

•*  Un  jour,  le  diable,  ivre  d'orgneil, 

Choisit  dans  sa  jjrande  chaudiere 

Des  demons  qu'avaicni  T  mauvais  ceil 

Et  Ics  cnvoya  sur  la  lerrc  ! 

Mais  Ic  lx)n  Dicu,  not'  proiccteur, 

Quand  il  I'appril,  cr^nt  de  suite 

Dcs  an^es  qui  portaient  bonheur, 

Chez  nous  les  cnvoya  bien  nle  ! 
Ces  cnvoycs  du  paradis 
Soni  des  mascoiics,  mes  amis, 
Heureux  celui  que  le  del  dote 
D'unc  mascotte  !  .  .  . 

290  Collectanea, 

Est-ce  un  malade  ?  il  est  gueri ! 
Un  pauv'  ?  de  suite  il  fait  fortune  ! 
Si  c'est  un  malheureux  mari, 
II  perd  la  femm'  qui  I'importune  !  .  .  . 

The  word  mascotte  originally  meant  a  gambler's  *  fetish,* 
and  was  used  in  the  patois  of  Marseilles,  where  Audran  was 

It  is  not  necessary  to  refer  more  than  briefly  to  the  greatly 
increased  frequency  with  which  mascots  and  amulets  are  now 
mentioned  in  newspapers  and  which  suggests  a  growth  of  public 
interest  in  such  objects.  Every  folklorist  who  keeps  a  scrapbook 
must  have  pasted  into  it  many  such  extracts  as  the  following,  from 
the  report  in  the  Morning  Leader  of  July  11,  1908,  of  the  hearing 
of  a  summons  against  an  East  Ham  schoolmaster  for  caning  a 
thirteen-year-old  truant : 

"When  the  schoolmaster  told  you  he  was  going  to  cane  you, 
did  you  not  take  a  piece  of  coal  out  of  your  pocket  and  threaten 
to  throw  it  at  him? — Yes. 

"What  did  you  have  the  coal  for? — Luck. 

"What!— To  get  luck  with." 

Dr.  Tibbie^'  Vi-Cocoa  is  advertised  in  this  way.  "Never 
Despair  !  A  silver  sixpence  may  be  your  mascot  and  make  you  a 
survival  of  the  fittest.  .  .  .  Just  straightway  invest  it  in  a  packet," 
etc  Posters  issued  by  Pickfords,  the  carriers,  display  a  gigantic 
horseshoe,  having  seven  nails  and  inscribed  "good  luck."  At 
the  time  of  the  Townshend  enquiry  in  1906,  the  Marchioness 
of  Townshend  was  photographed  for  the  press  carrying  a  stray 
black  cat  in  her  arms  to  the  Court  as  a  mascot  for  luck,  and  in  the 
same  year  portraits  were  printed  of  little  Jimmie  Wray,  son  of  the 
trainer  of  the  visiting  Harvard  crew,  as  "  the  champion  mascot " 
of  that  crew.  Even  in  Parliamentary  bye-elections  the  mascot 
now  seems  to  play  its  part.  For  instance,  at  Leeds  in  1907,  the 
Conservative  candidate  was  given  by  an  enthusiastic  woman  a 
heavy  parcel,  saying,  "Si  tha !  Tak  that,  and  it'll  bring  tha  luck." 
It  was  a  lump  of  coal.  **  Put  it  i'  tha  pocket,  and  tha'll  be 
Member  o'  Parliament  to-night."  But  he  was  not !  At  Hereford 
the  Liberal  candidate  had  as  mascot  a  beautiful  Skye  terrier, 
which  turned  up  at  the  Committee  rooms  on  the  day  the  campaign 

Collectanea.  291 

was  started  and  from  that  time  never  left  the  candidate.  Yet  the 
Liberal  was  not  returned  I 

The  revived  'craze'  for  mascots  and  amulets  may  make  it 
interesting  to  illustrate  some  points  in  their  choice  and  use  by  the 
following  specimens,  which,  however,  are  not  by  any  means 
exhaustive  even  of  the  writers'  collections : — 

A,  Books,  Two  books  published  here  in  1907,  and  reviewed 
in  this  number  of  Folk-Lore^ — Dr.  W.  T.  Femie's  "Precious 
Stones  :  for  curative  wear ;  and  other  remedial  uses  :  likewise  the 
Nobler  Metals,"  and  Bratley's  "The  Power  of  Gems  and 
Charms," — quite  seriously  justify  the  use  of  amulets.  Bratley,  for 
instance,  writes  (pp.  vi-vii) : 

**  Is  the  belief  in  the  power  of  charms  all  imagination  ?  To  this  the  writer 
would  emphatically  say,  No ;  and  it  has  been  his  endeavour  to  show  in  the 
following  pages  the  reason  and  logic  of  the  power  claimed  for  these  things.  ,  .  . 
A  few  years  ago  wireless  telegraphy,  aerial  navigation,  human  radiations,  and 
many  other  achievements  of  modem  science  would  have  been  laughed  at  as  the 
vain  imaginings  of  a  superstitious  dreamer.  To-day  these  things  are  labelled 
science  ;  therefore  the  writer  ventures  to  suggest  that  the  eflficiency  of  charms 
and  precious  stones  may  be  recognised  and  placed  on  a  scientific  basis  before 
many  years  are  past." 

Dr.  Femie  writes  (p.  4) : 

**  A  main  purpose  of  the  volume  now  undertaken  is  to  vindicate  on  sound, 
and  even  scientiric,  cjrounds,  the  confidence  reposed  by  our  forefathers  in 
I'recious  Stones  for  remedial  uses,  whether  by  outward  wear,  or  by  such  other 
means  as  were  in>pired  by  nature  and  gleaned  by  simple  experience.'* 

Side  by  side  with  these  books  is  put  the  pamphlet,  "  A  modest 
defence  of  the  caveat  given  the  wearers  of  impoisoned  Amulets, 
as  Pr€seruativ€s  from  the  Plague  .•  .  .  .  by  Fr.  Hering,"  London, 
1604.  (The  term  amulet,  according  to  Dr.  Murray's  dictionary, 
did  not  come  into  regular  use  until  after  1600,  when  it  was 
adapted  from  amuletum,  a  word  of  unknown  origin.)  The 
pamphlet  examines  the  reasons  alleged  for  the  wearing  as  "plague 
cakes  "  of  bags  of  arsenic  over  the  heart  and  next  the  skin, — such 
as  "that  Arsenicke  doth  by  a  certaine  secret  Antipathy  or 
contrariety  oj)pugne,  vanquish  and  expell  the  poison  of  the 
Plague,"  urging,  very  sensibly,  **  Let  then  some  man  tell  me  how 
he  can  be  sure,  that  the  i)oison  of  the  Plague  shall  not  draw  to  it 
the  venim  of  the  outward  medecine ;  and  why  the  poison  thereof 

292  Collectanea. 

may  not  be  stronger  and  greater  than  the  other/'  and  complaining 
that  on  account  of  his  views,  "  I  haue  beene  of  late  discourteously 
and  hardly  intreated,  reiected  and  shut  out  from  conference.** 
Another  pamphlet, — "The  late  Dreadful  Plague  at  Marseilles 
Compared  with  that  terrible  Plague  In  London,  in  the  jrear 
1665.  .  ,  ,  By  the  Author  of  the  Practical  Scheme.  This  Book 
is  (for  the  Publick  Good)  Given  Gratis^  only  Up  one  Pair  of 
Stairs  at  the  Sign  ofthe  Celebrated  Anodyne  Necklace  .  .  .  1721," 
— advertises  Dr.  Tanner's  famous  Anodyne  Necklace,  8a3ang : 

'*  Hence  by  the  by,  may  be  inferred,  the  Reasonableness  of  Childrens 
wearing  an  Anodyne  Necklace,  which  may  be  assisting  to  them  in  the  Easy 
Breeding  and  Cutting  of  their  Teeth,  as  a  Dried  Toad  is  of  Service  in  the 
Plague.  .  .  .  And  as  for  Children  in  particular,  'tis  A  Fit  Remedy  for  them, 
who  never  are  very  willing  to  take  much  Physick  inwardly.  Si  emm  as 
Dodonreus  (Professor  of  Physick  at  Leyden\  I.  i.e.  6.  says  In&ntes  nolint,  aut 
non  possint  medicamenta  interna  sumere,  Amuleta  applicare  expedit :  infuitoli 
enim  non  Medicamentis  intemis,  adeo  quam  Amuletis  Curari  volant." 

B.  Motor  mascots.  These  can  now  be  obtained  at  Gamage's 
and  elsewhere,  but  so  far  are  used  much  more  generally  and  more 
seriously  on  motor  cars  in  the  United  States  and  France  than  here. 
Dunhill's  '  Motorities '  advertisements  comprise  rag-doll  and  metal 
mascots  for  fixing  to  the  cap  of  the  radiator.  The  one  usually 
illustrated  is  a  policeman  holding  out  his  hand  to  stop  traffic 
and  headed  "  Propitiate  the  fates  ! ! "  A  similar  French  mascot 
is  a  blindfolded  gendarme.  Advertisements  of  cars  show  them 
fitted  on  the  radiator  with  metal  dog  and  cat  mascots,  but  these 
figures  and  the  *  Teddy  bears,'  Caran  d'Ache  and  other  toys,  and 
wooden  models  of  motor  cars  which  are  to  be  seen  on  cars  in  the 
streets,  are  carried  *  for  fun '  rather  than  as  genuine  amulets.  The 
chauffeur,  however,  often  carries  as  a  real  charm  a  nail  which  has 
caused  a  puncture,  or  a  holed  stone,  and  there  has  been  also  an 
interesting  revival  of  mediaeval  travellers'  amulets  in  the  form  of 
representations  of  the  travellers'  patron,  St.  Christopher.  Two 
such  mascots  were  shown,  one  of  which  appears  in  Fig.  2.  It  will 
be  seen  that  this  engraved  disc,  which  is  screwed  to  the  front  of 
the  radiator,  while  beautifully  worked  would  not  be  conspicuous  at 
a  distance  or  specially  ornamental,  and  might  easily  be  mistaken 
for  a  trade  mark.  Some  French  St.  Christophers  for  motors  are 
said   to  be  inscribed,  "He  that  looks  upon  the  image  of  St 

Collectanea.  293 

Christopher  this  day  shall  neither  fall  nor  faint"  Other  genuine 
amulets  may  also  occasionally  be  seen  in  use.  One  day  this 
summer  a  magnificent  (Italian  ? )  car  at  Brooklands  had  hung  from 
its  radiator  cap  a  metal  plate  on  which  was  pasted  a  coloured 
figure  of  a  stork,  a  well-known  amulet  Fig.  3  shows  another 
motor  mascot,  a  horse-shoe  in  red  and  gilt,  with  seven  nail  heads, 
to  be  fastened  to  the  front  of  the  radiator  and  containing  in  its 
cup  on  a  red  ground  three  four-leaved  clovers.  One  would 
expect  a  horse-shoe  to  be  rather  injurious  than  protective  to  the 
horse's  motor  rival,  but  a  horse-shoe  was  also  carried  by  Edge  in 
his  twenty-four  hours'  ride  in  1907.  Relics  of  the  Hand  Cross 
motor  omnibus  disaster  were  eagerly  sought  by  some  motorists  as 
mascots  against  similar  accidents.  Miniature  copies  of  the 
policeman,  Caran  d'Ache  toys,  etc.,  are  advertised  by  Elkington 
&  Co.  as  "novelties  in  jewellery.  Elkington  motor  mascots." 
C.  Commercial  amulets^  or  modem  made-up  amulets  brought 
into  vogue  generally  by  skilful  advertising  and  by  the  circulation 
of  stories  of  their  power.  The  most  notable  of  these  commercial 
amulets  are  the  objects  made  of  New  2^1and  paunamu,  green- 
stone, or  "  lucky  jade,"  and  a  tiny  •  Hei  tiki,'  or  Maori  god,  and 
war  club  were  shown.  The  wearing  of  a  greenstone  necklace  by 
the  Queen,  and  the  stories  that  greenstone  objects  were  carried  by 
every  member  of  the  victorious  All  Blacks  football  team,  by  Lord 
Rosebery  when  Cicero  won  the  Derby,  by  Lord  Rothschild  when 
St.  Amant  won  his  race,  etc.,  no  doubt  are  responsible  for  the 
boom  in  **  lucky  jade."  Hei  tikis,  dwarf  figures,  and  lucky 
sixpences  are  the  favourite  bridge  mascots.  Two  Caran  d'Ache 
toys,  advertised  as  "  new  bridge  mascots,"  were  also  shown. 
Fig.  4  shows  one  of  twelve  scent  sachets  exhibited,  coloured  and 
marked  with  the  appropriate  astrological  symbol  for  each  month 
and  stamped,  absurdly,  on  the  side  not  shown,  "The  *Char- 
mides '  Sachet.  Regd."  Other  objects  exhibited  were  three 
small  discs  for  suspension,  of  different  colours  and  with  coloured 
stars  in  them,  and  inscribed,  **This  be  your  lucky  star";  silver 
lucky  pig  ;  mother-of-pearl  horse-shoe  brooch  ;  bunch  of  silver 
cross,  anchor,  and  heart  (faith,  hope,  and  love);  "lucky  farthing" 
with  imitation  gem  inserted,  and  possibly  suggested  by  the  famous 
**  Lee  penny  "  ;  '  zodiac  '  gold  ring,  engraved  with  the  signs  of  the 

294  Collectanea. 

zodiac  in  West  Africa  and  made  chiefly  for  the  London  market ; 
gilt  four-leaved  clover  marked  on  its  leaves  respectively  with  a 
three-leaved  clover,  horse-shoe,  pig,  and  the  words  "Good-luck"; 
and  bunch  of  hunchback,  harlequin,  policeman,  pantaloon,  and 
columbine.  The  most  interesting  of  these  exhibits  was  a  card  of 
**Your  lucky  birth-month  brooch"  (C.  A.  &  Go's.  Copyright). 
These  were  cheap  brooches  set  with  glass  coloured  in  imitation  of 
the  gems  allotted  to  the  different  months  for  Muck,'  and  the 
jeweller  from  whom  they  were  bought  said  that  he  had  sold  a  large 
number.  Other  similar  mascots,  seen  but  not  exhibited,  are  "  the 
lucky  princess  wedding  ring,"  inscribed  in  old  English  style  with 
any  one  chosen  of  a  set  of  posies,  and  golden  "lucky  horse- 
shoes," which  had  seven  nail  heads  and  were  engraved,  "  I  keep 
your  luck  in,"  the  card  holding  them  announcing,  "  Lucky  horse- 
shoes.    These  keep  your  luck  in." 

D,  Imported  ^^ lucky  charms^*  which  are  not  amulets  in  their 
country  of  origin.  A  common  Kaffir  bangle,  of  copper  and  iron 
wire  and  beads,  was  shown,  bought  from  a  jeweller's  shop  near  a 
girls'  training  college,  and  described  on  a  window  card  as  "  Kaffir 
Bangles.  Native  work.  Anti-rheumatic  and  lucky."  Native 
bangles  appear  to  have  gained  a  reputation,  quite  recently,  as 
lucky,  and  Miss  Phyllis  Dare,  in  London  Opinion  (June  29,  1907), 
tells  the  following  story,  quoted  here  as  an  example  of  the  kind 
of  tale  which  establishes  such  objects  as  amulets: 

*' A  particularly  curious  experience  happened  not  very  long  ago  to  a  friend 
of  mine  when  she  was  playing  in  pantomime  at  Glasgow.  About  a  fortnight 
before  the  piece  came  to  an  end  she  received,  anonymously,  one  morning  a 
Zulu  bangle.  Writing  to  me  the  same  day  she  referred  to  this  anon>'mons 
present  and  added,  *  I  am  quite  sure  that  I  shall  now  have  some  good  sUoke 
of  luck,  for  Zulu  bangles  are  very  lucky  indeed.'  And,  sure  enough,  she  did 
have  a  stroke  of  luck,  for  she  received  a  letter  the  same  evening  from  some 
solicitors  in  New  York  informing  her  that  an  uncle,  of  whose  very  existence  she 
had  almost  forgotten,  had  died  suddenly,  leaving  her  in  his  will  the  useful  sum 
of  ;£^I500.  It  seems  superfluous  to  add  that  those  members  of  the  profession 
who  hapjxjned  to  hear  of  this  curious  incident  have  ever  since  looked  upon  a 
Zulu  bangle  as  a  lucky  mascot." 

When  an  actress  eloped  in  August  from  her  company  in 
Dublin,  to  marry  a  rich  American,  it  was  recorded  that  she  had 
been  in  the  habit  of  wearing  no  jewellery  "except  two  Zulu 
bangles  for  luck." 

PLATE    V, 

jgmmmwtimi  4^  Cs* 


$iU*i*%i%  *nd  A«uil«ii  (tf  111*  UrlitfH  lia««» 

Collectanea.  297 

One  of  the  writers,  when  buying  several  Roman  Catholic  medals 
for  children,  also  eichibited,  from  a  London  street  stall,  noticed  on 
it  a  horse-shoe  which  had  once  been  gilded  and  was  supported, 
easel  fashion,  by  a  twisted  wire.  On  asking  the  price,  he  was 
told  it  could  not  be  sold.  "  The  fact  is,  it  belongs  to  a  neighbour. 
We've  had  very  bad  luck  since  we  started  this  stall,  and  he's  lent 
it  to  us  to  see  if  it'll  turn  our  luck.  But  I  don't  see  that  we've 
done  much  better."  It  will  be  remembered  that,  while  Mr.  Sievier 
was  awaiting  the  jury's  verdict  in  a  recent  Old  Bailey  trial,  a 
horse-shoe  in  a  bag  was  handed  up  to  him  ''for  luck."  When 
"  Ken's  Kabin  "  was  opened  by  the  revolting  waitresses  last  April, 
the  newspapers  noted  that 

"immediately  after  the  opening  hour  yesterday  a  Hmis  horse  cast  a  shoe 
opposite  the  '  Kabin '  door.  The  quick-eyed  attendant  outside  espied  this 
omen  of  good  fortune,  and  darted  after  it.  Returning  with  his  prize,  he  pre- 
sented it  to  '  Ken,'  who  passed  it  on  to  Mrs.  Holland,  who,  in  turn,  made 
an  interesting  discovery.  There  were  five  nails  in  the  discarded  shoe.  '  And 
there  are  five  more  years  of  the  lease  of  this  shop  to  run :  a  nail  for  each 
year,*  exclaimed  Mrs.  Holland  joyfully." 

A  few  days  later  "  Ken's  Kabin  "  was  closed. 

The  ring  charms  shown  comprised  a  silver  **  longevity  ring  "  of 
two  interlaced  snakes ;  evil-eye  ring  of  silver  set  with  a  red 
chalcedony ;  astrological  ring  made  under  the  sign  of  Libra ;  gold 

toadstone  ring  for  the  cure  of  king's  evil ;  ring  with  onyx  cut  to 
form  eye  for  warding  off  evil  eye ;  and  rheumatism  ring  contain- 
ing a  strip  of  squirrel's  skin.  In  connection  with  the  last  object, 
it  may  be  interesting  to  note  that  a  Sioux  Indian  amulet  against 
rheumatism  is  the  lower  jaw  of  a  squirrel. 

The  shell  charms  comprised  a  cowrie  attached  to  a  seal,  and  a 
cowrie  set  with  a  tiny  compass  and  sold  as  *  lucky'  by  a  London 

The  stone  amulets  comprise  the  two  most  original  forms  of 
amulet  siill  to  be  found  in  tlie  British  Isles,  the  naturally-perforated 
stone  and  the  many  objects  known  as  **  thunderbolts."  As  to  the 
primitive  mind  any  object  of  abnormal  shape  suggested  "magic," 
holed  stones,  nodules  of  iron  pyrites,  belemnites,  flint  arrow  heads, 
and  the  like  were  believed  to  possess  powers  of  protection  from 
lightning  and  from  many  of  the  ills  which  assail  the  body.  Such 
beliefs  appear  to  have  existed  in  prehistoric  times,  for  many  such 

298  Collectanea, 

objects  have  been  found  associated  with  deposits  of  Neolithic  age. 
Several  perforated  discs  of  stone  were  shown  to  illustrate  this,  as 
well  as  a  fossil  echinoderm  embedded  in  a  perforated  flint  and 
found  on  the  breast  of  the  skeleton  in  a  Saxon  interment  on  the 
South  Downs.  A  fossil  shown  from  the  Cretaceous  formation, 
known  as  Porosphora  globularis^  is  a  rounded  body  having  a 
natural  perforation,  and  it  was  suggested  that  this  may  have  been 
the  natural  type  from  which  globular  beads  were  derived,  tubular 
beads  originating  from  the  stems  of  encrinites,  known  in  York- 
shire as  St.  Cuthbert's  beads.  Both  these  fossils  have  been 
found  associated  with  prehistoric  burials.  A  large  water-worn 
stone,  perforated  for  suspension,  was  a  hag-stone  from  Lancashire, 
in  use  about  ninety  years  ago  as  a  protection  from  hags  or 
witches.  Upon  it  a  cross  had  been  engraved,  a  Christian 
symbol  being  thus  grafted  upon  a  pre-Christian  amulet.  A 
polished  Neolithic  celt  (Fig.  11),  found  deposited  upon  the 
open  roof  beam  of  a  cottage  near  Portrush,  Ireland,  had  been 
regarded  as  a  thunderbolt,^  and  a  belemnite  (Fig  12)  was  so 
regarded  in  Surrey,  as  also  were  nodules  of  iron  pyrites  from  the 
Cretaceous  formation  near  Croydon  collected  by  Mr.  Lovett 
about  forty  years  ago.  The  story  of  a  beautifully  polished  green- 
stone celt  shown  illustrates  the  difficulty  of  obtaining  such  objects 
from  their  possessors.  About  twenty-five  years  ago,  during  a  visit 
to  Jersey,  Mr.  Lovett  found  this  celt  in  a  labourer's  cottage,  and 
much  wished  to  add  it  to  his  collection  of  stone  implements.  The 
owner,  however,  would  not  part  with  it,  saying  that  it  was  a 
thunderbolt  and  would  save  his  family  from  sickness  and  harm. 
He  was  offered  five  shillings,  and  a  few  days  later  ten  shillings, 
but  would  not  listen  to  the  offers.  The  following  year  Mr.  Lovett 
again  called  upon  the  owner  of  the  thunderbolt  and  offered  him 
fifteen  shillings  for  it,  with  no  result.  The  bid  was  raised  to 
twenty  shillings,  but  without  success.    About  eight  months  later  a 

^  Such  celts  are  thought  in  Ireland  to  protect  cottages  from  lightning,  and 
the  same  protection  is  ascribed  in  England  to  the  house  leek,  sempervivum 
teciorttm,  and  may  have  led  to  its  growth  on  roofs.  In  Germany  semper- 
vivum soboliferuni  is  called  the  "thunder  flower,"  as  well  as  "Jupiter's 
beard,"  and  is  referred  to  in  an  edict  by  Charlemagne,  "  £t  habeat  quisque 
supra  domum  suum  Jovis  barbam."  In  Japan  the  "sunrise  grass"  or 
hittode^  if  growing  on  a  house- roof,  is  expected  to  protect  it  against  fire. 

PI  A  IK     VI. 


U'  t:.!.  I.:,  s. 

300  Collectanea. 

seed  of  a  West  Indian  plant,  Entada  scandens^  sometimes  washed 
up  by  the  Gulf  Stream  on  the  western  shores  of  Ireland  and 
Scotland,  and  as  a  *■  Virgin  Mary  bean '  thought  to  assist  women 
at  the  time  of  childbirth;  a  glass  locket  enclosing  white  heather;^ 
and  a  series  of  very  curious  rush  crosses,  somewhat  resembling 
the  svastika,  from  Antrim.  The  latter  are  locally  known  as  "  St 
Bridget's  crosses,"  and  are  hung  as  amulets  near  the  sleeping 
beds,  probably  as  a  charm  against  witches  in  the  form  of 

Other  miscellaneous  British  amulets  shown  were  a  hawk's  foot 
brooch,  the  silver  cover  of  an  ancient  amulet  case,  and  two  lucky 
doubly  bent  sixpences,  and  a  lucky  doubly  bent  shilling. 

G,  Ornaments  which  were  once  amulets.  Brass  horse  charms, 
of  which  some  are  shown  in  Figs.  14,  15,  and  16,  and  which  seem 
now  to  be  passing  out  of  use,  appear,  like  certain  British  phallic 
charms,  to  be  traceable  to  Roman  times,  the  lunar  t3rpe  (Fig.  17) 
having  persisted,  practically  unchanged,  ever  since.  These  were 
essentially  evil-eye  charms  for  the  protection  of  the  horse.  (See 
The  Reliquary^  April  and  October,  1906.)  Fig.  18  shows  a  shell 
necklace  from  Southport.  When  at  the  last  British  Association 
Meeting  there,  Mr.  Lovett  noticed  in  several  fancy  dealers'  shops 
bundles  of  shell  necklaces  of  identical  pattern.  When  he  came 
presently  to  another  shop  of  the  same  kind  in  which  there  was  an 
old  woman,  he  went  in  and  asked,  "  What  are  these  necklaces  ?  " 
"Three  pence."  **I  mean,  what  are  they  for?"  "For  visitors." 
"  I  will  buy  some.  But  why  are  they  all  made  exactly  the  same 
way  ?  "  "  Because  they  are  made  by  the  fishermen."  "  Why  do 
they  make  them  in  that  particular  way  ? "  "  Because  they  have 
always  been  made  in  that  way.  I  made  them  that  way  when  I 
was  a  girl,  and  ray  mother  used  to  make  them  that  way."  "  But 
you  can't  have  made  them  for  visitors  when  you  were  a  girL 
There  were  no  visitors.  What  did  you  make  them  for  then?" 
"Oh,  just  for  fun."  "No,  you  didn't  make  them  for  fun, — you 
made  them  for  luck."  "Who  told  you  that?  They  said  so, 
but  that  was   silly."     Another  old  woman  then   came   into  the 

•White  heather  (from  the  Surrey  hills?)  has  been  sold  by  gutter  mer- 
chants along  Cheapside,  London,  this  autumn  from  little  trays  bearing 
cards,   **  Real  Scotch  lucky  white  heather." 

Collectanea.  301 

hop,  and  was  presently  asked  by  the  shopkeeper  to  show  the 
spider  shell'  in  her  pocket  This  proved  to  be  a  i>elican's 
cx>t  shell,  which  she  would  not  part  with.  It  had  been  carried 
yj  her  husband  for  thirty  years,  and  was  now  carried  by  herself 
for  luck.'  Mr.  Lovett  would  be  glad  to  know  of  any  other 
hell  necklaces  of  special  design  made  by  fisher  folk. 

H.  Amulets  in  disguise^  or  objects  practically  serving  as  amulets 
hough  not  professedly  so,  were  illustrated  by  a  rheumatism  ring 
rith  advertisements  quoting  Ellen  Thomeycroft  Fowler,  the 
"ountess  of  Dudley,  W.  S.  Gilbert,  J.  L.  Toole,  etc.,  as  believers, 
Ad  tracing  the  descent  of  rheumatism  rings  from  the  story  of 
he  Westminster  Abbey  ring  of  Edward  the  Confessor.  An 
mopened  "  seal ''  of  Joanna  Southcott,  ensuring  salvation  to  one 
if  her  followers  over  90  years  ago,  was  exhibited  as  a  specimen 
A  the  "  amulets  "  distributed  by  several  religious  fanatics. 

A.  R.  Wright. 

E.   LoVETT. 

In  the  discussion  which  followed  the  exhibition,  Mr.  Tabor 
aid  he  wished  to  bear  testimony  to  the  great  amount  of  energy 
nd  research  Messrs.  Lovett  and  Wright  had  displayed  in  collect- 

Dg  the  articles  exhibited,  and  the  beliefs  in  connection  therewith, 
)ut  he  was  bound  to  say  he  was  not  altogether  in  accordance 
rith  them  as  to  the  popular  beliefs  in  the  efficacy  of  some  of 
he  mascots  exhibited ;  he  thought  that  vogue  rather  than 
upcrstition  was  accountable  for  the  use  of  many  of  these 
mulcts  by  people  who  knew  full  well  that  there  was  no 
nherent  talismanic  virtue  in  them.  At  a  recent  Whist  Drive, 
khere  many  of  the  guests  were  peoj)le  of  notoriety  in  the  world 
•f  letters,  he  noticed  several  of  the  unlucky  players  get  up  and 
urn  their  chairs  (not  always  in  the  same  direction),  and,  from 
he  way  in  which  this  was  done,  he  came  to  the  conclusion 
hat  they  did  not  anticipate  any  good  to  result,  but  merely  did 
t  pour  rirt,  Mr.  Tabor  admitted  that  there  might  be  one 
►crson  in  a  thousand  who  would  fix  some  well-known  old 
harm  to  their  motor  cars  in  full  belief  that  it  would  help  them 
o  avoid  accidents,  but  thought  that  the  majority  of  the  clients 

302  Collectanea, 

of  the  firms  who  advertised  mascots  bought  them  for  fun  and 
to  be  like  their  neighbours.  A  motor  car  is  a  costly  article, 
and  not  generally  owned  by  an  illiterate  person,  and  the 
speaker  could  not  bring  himself  to  believe  that  the  well- 
educated  man  or  woman  really  believed  in  the  efficacy  of 
charms  of  this  sort ;  the  lady  who  wears  a  lucky  pig  on  a 
bangle  surely  does  so  for  no  other  reason  than  that  of  fashion, 
although  she  may  be  illustrating  the  last  link  in  the  survival  of 
an  old  belief.  It  is  different  with  physical  curative  charms; 
in  this  case  a  process  of  faith-healing  may  have  proved  the 
efficacy  of  a  fixed  belief  in  the  power  of  a  certain  amulet,  and 
the  consequent  effect  of  mind  upon  body  is  often  undoubtedly 
attributed  to  talismanic  charms,  but  where  the  results  attained, 
or  desired,  are  objective  and  not  subjective,  he  could  not 
agree  with  the  readers  of  the  paper  as  to  the  prevalence  of 
a  popular  belief.  Mr.  Tabor  thought  the  preference  for  red 
over  white  flannel  for  chest  protectors  was  due  to  the  feet  that 
red  is  both  physically  and  artistically  a  warmer  colour,  and 
conserves  the  heat  of  the  body,  and  that  possibly  the  belief 
in  the  superior  efficacy  of  red  over  white  when  worn  as  a 
charm  in  the  form  of  a  skein  may  have  arisen  from  comparison 
of  results  obtained  with  the  two  colours  when  used  for  clothing; 
these  results  in  less  enlightened  days  may  have  been  attributed 
to  magic  influence.  The  London  shop-girl  did  not  appear  even 
parenthetically  to  hint  that  there  was  magic  in  the  colour  of 
her  red  stockings ;  she  probably  only  meant  that  they  kept  her 
legs  and  feet  warm,  although  they  were  exposed  to  the  draughts 
of  a  shoi>-counter. 

In  conclusion,  Mr.  Tabor  animadverted  rather  severely  on 
Mr.  Lovett's  method  of  collecting  information  by  asking  leading 
questions  ;  he  said  no  judge  would  allow  evidence  to  be  obtained 
in  this  manner;  the  old  lady  with  the  necklaces  herself  combated 
the  theory  the  joint  authors  of  the  paper  were  trying  to  prove 
(viz.,  a  present  popular  belief  in  amulets),  when  she  remarked : 
"They  said  so,  but  that  was  silly."  Mr.  Lovett's  own  witness 
would  not  fall  into  the  ideas  to  which  his  questions  were 
leading — a  clear  case  of  Balaam  and  Balak.  Mr.  Tabor  hoped 
folk-lore  collecting  would  always  be  done  without  suggestion,  as 

Collectanea.  303 

he  temptation  to  please  a  prospective  client  or  a  present 
>ene£aictor  might  often  be  too  great  for  the  narrator. 

Mr.  Gomme  pointed  out  that  the  two  collections  exhibited 
lovetailed  into  one  another,  and  that  the  genuine  folklore  character 
)f  the  modem  mascot  was  confirmed  by  its  resemblance  in  idea 
md  nature  to  the  ancient  amulet. 

Mr.  Calderon  suggested  that  the  tendency  to  revert  to  amulets 
ras  probably  due  in  great  part  to  literary  promulgation.  The 
Lttention  given  to  such  objects  by  the  halfpenny  press  led  to  their 
liffusion  amongst  readers. 

Mr.  Hild  burgh  drew  attention  to  a  penny  weekly,  The  Mystic^ 
md  the  advertisements  therein  of  "The  Mystic  Millinery, 
Luck  Millinery  and  Astrological  Fashions  Co.,  Ltd.,"^  and 
explained  that  the  **  Japanese  mascots "  shown  were  figures  of 
juppies  given  by  relatives  to  a  baby  boy  as  symbols  of  health 
md  vigour,  after  its  first  visit  to  a  temple. 

The  President  said  that  from  his  experience  the  modem  belief 
n  amulets  as  aids  to  luck  was  genuine  and  widely  spread 

FolkTales  of.  the  Aborigines  of  New  South  Wales. 

{Continued  from  /.   227.) 

IV.   Origin  of  the  Bar  in  the  Murrumbidcee  River  at 
Dalranald.     (  Wathi'ivaihi  Tribe.) 

About  two  miles  below  the  town  of  Balranald,  there  is  a 
low  rocky  bar  across  the  bed  of  the  Murrumbidgee  river,  which 
is  only  visible  in  dry  weather  whem  the  stream  is  low.  The 
iboriginal  name  of  this  bar  is  Bangonjee-butthu.  Its  formation 
is  accounted  for  by  the  following  native  legend.  A  large  tribe 
3f  blacks  were  camped  on  the  edge  of  a  sandhill  in  the  locality, 
ind  one  hot  summer  afternoon  a  number  of  little  boys  went 
into  the  river  for  a  bathe,  and  all  of  them  got  drowned.     The 

'  Thf.-  >N.\::ic  Wit  kly  :i!-j  .idvcrii^cs  /^400  |x?r  annum  for  ''Scholarships  for 
rhiltirin  ;  >un<kl  «  n  II>^r  )!»jopc-,"  for  which  "A  number  of  well-known 
mil  skiilci  U'U"I.M^'crs  will  Ixr  cn^i^d  U)  cast  ihe  horoscopes  according  to  the 
Jata  >u{  plicil.  a:itl  rh  ir  <iccisi  "H  inu>i  in  ever)*  case  be  considered  final.'' 

304  Collectanea. 

river  was  in  partial  flood  at  the  time  and  the  bodies  were 
not  recovered;  but  in  the  course  of  some  months,  when  the 
water  subsided,  the  bar  became  visible,  and  the  natives  believed 
that  it  was  composed  of  the  bodies  of  their  children. 

V.  A  Woman's  Waistbelt  a  Cure  for  Headache. 
{Kamilaroi  Tride,) 

The  wife  of  the  crow  was  persuaded  by  the  bat  to  leave 
her  husband  and  run  away  with  him.  So  one  day  the  crow 
went  out  hunting  with  his  friend  the  crimson-wing  parrot,  and 
on  returning  to  the  camp  Mrs.  Crow  was  not  there,  but  they 
soon  discovered  the  tracks  of  the  run-away  pair.  The  crimson- 
wing  said  to  the  crow,  "I  suppose  you  are  gomg  after  the 
bat  to  punish  him."  The  crow  replied  that  he  did  not  intend 
to  fight,  but  that  he  would  go  and  have  some  talk  with  the 
bat  upon  the  matter,  and  asked  the  crimson-wing  to  come  and 
listen.  In  a  day  or  two  they  overtook  the  fugitives,  and  the 
bat  prepared  to  defend  himself.  The  crow  addressed  him 
and  said,  **you  can  keep  my  wife,  now  that  she  has  gone 
away  from  me,  but  I  have  come  to  ask  you  for  the  Kummillera 
(apron)  which  she  wears  in  front,  and  also  for  her  wan^gin 
(waistbelt)."  The  wife  took  off  these  articles  of  dress  and 
handed  them  to  the  bat  who  gave  them  to  the  crow.  The 
crimson-wing  and  the  crow  then  started  back  to  their  own 
camp,  the  latter  using  the  KummilUra  to  brush  the  flies  and 
mosquitoes  off  his  face.  Next  day  the  crow  had  a  headache, 
caused  by  the  fatigue  and  worry  of  the  journey,  and  he  bound 
his  wife's  waist-belt  round  his  head.  He  explained  to  the  crimson- 
wing  that  he  always  cured  a  headache  by  this  means,  which  was 
the  reason  he  had  taken  so  much  trouble  to  recover  the  wan'gin. 

VI.    How  THE  Kamilaroi  acquired  Fire.    {Kamilarm  Tribe,) 

At  one  time  the  crow  was  the  only  one  who  was  acquainted 
with  fire  and  its  uses.  When  the  other  people  had  been  eating 
game,  blood  was  always  obser\'ed  around  their  mouths  and  jaws, 
but  nothing  of  that  kind  was  ever  noticed  about  the  crow's 
face.     Being  questioned  on  the  subject,  he  said  he  always  cot 

Collectanea.  305 

lis  meat  into  small  pieces  with  his  stone  knife,  but  his  answer 
Bras  not  considered  satisfactory.  He  was  invited  to  a  corroboree 
lehcre  some  comical  fellows  were  to  perform.  After  a  number 
Df  clever  dancers  had  taken  their  turn,  without  disturbing  the 
crow's  equanimity,  the  shingle-back  and  sleepy-lizard  danced 
along  by  the  camp-fires,  singing: 

**  Yamburngain  bumbaingo  nyi  dhu-u-ra 
Gunaga  bid-yeringga  bumbul  guna-guna."* 

All  the  time  they  were  performing,  the  ordure  was  trickling 
down  their  legs,  and  when  they  gave  a  special  jump  there 
was  an  extra  discharge  of  it.  This  so  completely  engrossed  the 
crow's  attention  that  the  sparrow-hawk,  Gur-gur,  came  up  beside 
him,  catching  hold  of  the  little  bag  containing  the  fire,  and 
running  away  with  it.  When  the  crow  saw  what  had  happened, 
he  rushed  after  Gur-gur,  and  in  the  scuffle  the  fire  got  jerked 
out  of  the  bag,  speedily  igniting  the  dry  grass  and  leaves. 
The  crow  tried  his  best  to  prevent  the  fire  from  getting  away 
by  stamping  upon  it  with  his  feet,  and  when  that  did  not 
succeed  he  lay  down  full  length  and  rolled  over  and  over 
among  the  burning  grass,  but  all  his  attempts  to  recover 
possession  of  the  fire  were  unavailing.  It  spread  through  the 
whole  countf}',  so  that  all  the  people  had  their  share  of  it, 
and  have  used  it  ever  since  for  cooking  and  other  purposes. 

The  crow  got  so  saturated  with  blackness  by  rolling  so  much 
in  the  burnt  grass,  that  he  has  retained  that  colour  to  the 
present  day.  The  whitish  rings  round  a  crow's  eyes  show  where 
the  skin  was  scorched  on  that  occasion.  (Most  of  my  Australian 
readers  will  know  tliai  when  a  blackfellow  is  burnt  severely, 
a  white  patch  usually  remains  where  the  skin  was  injured.) 

VII.    Tut:  Kml'  and  the  Crow.-     {Burranbinga  Trihe^ 

I'he  emu  and  the  crow  were  man  and  wife,  and  lived  in  a 
i^urli,  or  iuit.  One  very  wet  day  they  remained  indoors,  and 
the  emu,  who  was  always   addicted    to    kicking  his  legs  about, 

•  Rhyme  un>ui'.a^>le  for   lraa><»n. 

■  Mr^.  K.  L.  I.irkcr  narrates  a  >omcwhat  similar  story,  told  among  the 
V  jaicai  ui  »c.   m  1  cr  An  trauan  Li^'ttuiary  Talcs  (London,  1896),  pp.  73-74. 

3o6  Collectanea. 

lay  on  his  back  on  the  floor  to  pass  the  time,  and  kept  kicking 
at  the  roof.  After  a  while  he  struck  a  weak  spot,  and  made  a 
hole,  through  which  the  rain  beat  into  the  gurli.  He  was  too 
lazy  to  go  and  repair  the  damage,  but  sent  the  crow,  his  wife, 
out  in  the  wet  to  patch  the  breach  in  the  roof.  The  emu 
continued  his  play  of  kicking  upward,  and  presently  made 
another  hole  in  the  roof,  which  the  crow  had  likewise  to  go 
out  and  repair.  This  continued  for  some  time  till  the  crow 
became  exasperated,  and  taking  a  piece  of  bark,  scooped  up 
some  hot  coals  from  the  fire,  and  threw  them  on  the  emu's 
chest,  as  he  lay  on  his  back  disportmg  himself  by  kicking  at 
the  roof  of  the  gt*rlL  This  burnt  his  breast  so  severely  that 
even  to  the  present  time  there  is  a  callous,  dark  patch  on  the 
breast  of  a  cock  emu.  Moreover,  emus  continue  the  old  habit 
of  kicking  upward  with  their  legs  when  they  are  rolling  them- 
selves in  the  sand  or  elsewhere  to  clean  their  feathers. 

VIII.   How  BooLABOOLKA  Lare  WAS  FoRMED.    (Moilpurlgu 


Lake  Boolaboolka,  in  the  county  of  Livingstone,  New  South 
^Vales,  was  made  in  the  following  manner :  A  blackfellow  stood 
on  some  rising  ground,  near  where  the  lake  is  now  situated, 
and  tried  to  throw  his  boomerang,  but  it  fell  to  the  ground  at 
a  little  distance.  He  then  lit  a  fire,  at  which  he  warmed  the 
weapon  to  make  it  lithe.  He  manipulated  it,  putting  the  proper 
bend  upon  it,  and  threw  it  again.  This  time  the  boomerang 
went  and  tore  up  the  ground,  and  formed  Lake  Boolaboolka, 
and  came  whizzing  back  towards  its  owner.  While  it  was 
gyrating  in  the  air  near  him,  he  blew  strongly  upon  it  with  his 
breath,  and  it  went  to  one  side  of  the  lake,  and  started  off 
along  the  ground  in  a  winding  direction,  and  dug  a  water- 
course. Then  the  boomerang  came  back  to  the  thrower  as 
before,  and  he  blew  upon  it  again,  and  it  went  and  excavated 
another  watercourse.  Every  time  the  weapon  returned  to  its 
master,  he  im|)arted  fresh  vigour  to  it  with  his  breath.  These 
exploits  of  the  boomerang  were  repeated  until  all  the  water- 
courses  and   gullies   which    now  flow  into   Lake   Boolaboolka 

Collectanea.  307 

ere   made.     Then    a    thunderstorm    arose,    accompanied    by 
uch  rain,  which  flowed  along  the   watercourses   prepared  for 
and  filled  the  newly-made  lake. 

Some  days  afterward,  the  Lake-maker  was  sitting  under  a 
lady  tree  on  its  banks,  when  he  espied  a  number  of  strange 
ackfellows  approaching  it  to  make  their  camp.  He  took  up 
s  boomerang  and  threw  it  with  all  his  might  in  their  direction, 
his  magical  weapon  spun  round  and  round  among  them, 
riking  each  one  upon  the  chin,  cutting  a  triangular  piece  out 
'  their  beards,  whereupon  every  man  became  a  musk-duck, 
id  swam  out  into  the  water.  This  accounts  for  the  fork  in 
\t  beard-like  appendage  of  the  musk-ducks  which  now  inhabit 
le  lake. 

[X.  The  Native  Cat  and  the  Fishermen.    {Afailpurlgu 


In  ancient  times  the  Native  Cat,  Pupilla,  was  a  renowned 
)rcerer  and  warrior  of  the  Mailpurlgu  tribe,  and  belonged  to 
le  Kilpungurra  cycle.  He  had  his  camp  in  a  hole  in  the 
'ound  on  the  bank  of  the  Darling  river,  about  twenty  miles 
jove  where  the  town  of  Menindi  now  stands.  It  was  close 
)  what  the  white  people  call  "  Albemarle  Station,"  but  I  forgot 
)  enquire  the  aboriginal  name. 

One  day  a  family  of  strange  blacks  came  to  the  river  to 
Itch  fish,  and  at  night  they  made  their  camp  in  the  vicinity 
r  the  cat's  home.  At  early  dawn  next  morning,  the  Native 
at  was  roaming  along,  and,  finding  the  fishing  nets  lying 
ear  the  bank,  he  carried  them  away  with  him  to  his  camp, 
id  hid  them  there.  Then  he  sat  at  the  mouth  of  the  hole 
id  awaited  results.  When  the  strange  blacks  went  to  the  river 
)  resume  their  fishing,  they  found  their  nets  had  been  stolen, 
id  followed  on  along  the  tracks  of  the  purloiner.  When  they 
mie  close  to  his  abode  they  saw  one  of  his  legs  projecting 
jove  the  surface  of  the  ground.  Several  strong  men  sneaked 
3iselessly  up,  and,  catching  hold  of  the  leg,  applied  all  their 
rength  in  endeavouring  to  haul  the  cat  out  of  the  hole.  He 
as  too  strong  for  them,  however,  and,  drawing  his  foot  out 
■■    their  grasp,  retired    to    the    bottom    of    his    den.      All   the 

3o8  Collectanea. 

blacks,  men  and  women,  began  peering  down  at  him,  and  tried 
to  throw  spears,  but  he  spat  or  belched  a  dense  smoke  out  of 
his  mouth,  which  prevented  them  from  seeing  him.  This  smoke 
comprised  several  colours,  and  ascended  into  the  sky  and 
formed  the  rainbow.  When  the  smoke  cleared  away,  the  men 
and  women  came  to  the  brink  again  and  looked  down.  In 
those  old  times  the  women  had  beards  the  same  as  the  men. 
The  cat  immediately  belched  forth  fire,  which  reached  to  the 
surface.  When  the  men  saw  the  flame  ascending  they  turned 
their  faces  quickly  away,  but  the  women  were  so  intent  upon 
watching  this  new  manoeuvre  of  the  cat  that  the  blaze  singed 
their  beards  clean  off,  and  they  never  grew  again,  which 
explains  why  the  women  have  no  beards  at  the  present  day. 

When  the  men  saw  the  way  their  wives  and  daughters  had 
been  disfigured,  they  made  open  war  upon  the  Native  Cat, 
who  fled  away  towards  the  setting  sun,  till  he  got  dean  out 
of  their  reach.  There  he  made  a  camp,  and  lived  upon 
nardoo  seed.  After  a  time  he  made  up  his  mind  to  return  to 
his  own  haunts,  and  punish  the  people  who  had  driven  him- 
out  of  it.  One  morning  he  started  on  this  homeward  journey, 
carrying  with  him  the  stones  he  used  for  grinding  the  nardoo 
seed.  Although  he  travelled  a  long  way,  he  found  himself  at 
night  back  at  his  western  camp.  Next  day  he  made  another 
attempt,  but  again  discovered,  as  the  evening  drew  on,  that  he 
was  approaching  the  place  he  started  from  in  the  morning. 
Every  day  for  many  years  past  he  has  repeated  his  efforts  to 
reach  his  native  place,  but  each  setting  sun  has  found  him 
back  at  the  starting-point.  It  is  supposed  that  if  the  Native 
Cat  were  to  succeed  in  returning  to  Albemarle,  he  would  kill 
all  the  blacks  there. 

R.  H.  Mathews. 

Turks  Pr.wing  for  Rain. 

Agricultural  people  realise  their  absolute  dependence  upon 
God's  good  gift  of  rain,  especially  if,  as  in  Turkey,  the  mountains 
have  been  despoiled  of  their  forests  and  the  rainfall  is  scanty. 

Collectanea.  309 

[le  Turks  use  the  word  rahmet  for  rain,  which  literally  means 
mercy,"  and  recognises  the  fruitful  showers  as  a  heavenly 
essing.  Winter  grain,  the  staple  crop,  cannot  be  sown  in  the 
itumn  until  the  ground  is  softened  by  the  "early  rains,"  but 
lecial  prayers  are  not  offered  then  "because  there  is  another 
lance."  Seed  may  be  sown  at  any  time  before  the  last  snows 
elt  The  "latter  rains"  are  due  in  spring,  when  the  grain 
rgins  its  season  of  rapid  growth.  Then  the  need  of  moistening 
owers  is  most  keenly  felt.  Protracted  delay  means  crop  fiEulure, 
id  that  means  grim  hunger.  So  in  the  spring  the  village 
)pulation,  and  in  general  all  the  people  of  Anatolia — the  local 
une  for  Asia  Minor — offer  prayer  and  sacrifice  to  God  for  rain, 
id  sometimes  add  other  more  surprising  ceremonies. 

Every  Turkish  village,  whether  Sunnite  or  Shiite  by  profession, 

a  rule  has  a  special  place  of  prayer,  not  a  mosque,  to  which  any 
dividual  or  the  whole  community  resorts  in  an  emergency.  The 
K)t  is  usually  made  sacred  by  a  grave,  and  suppliants  there 
)nfide  in  the  intercession  of  their  dead  saint  Usually  every 
rar,  and  certainly  in  a  season  of  drought,  the  villagers  unite  in 
'oviding  one  or  two  sheep  or  goats,  or  a  cow  or  buffalo,  a 
iantity  of  cracked  wheat,  and  unleavened  bread  such  as  is  found 
1  every  village  table.  The  animal  is  slain  with  simple  sacrificial 
tes  and  cooked,  the  cracked  wheat  is  boiled  in  an  immense 
luldron  of  soup,  the  village  hcja  leads  in  a  devout  prayer,  the 
jrdcn  of  which  is  the  appeal  lor  God's  mercy  in  the  form  of  rain, 
id  then  all  the  people  and  any  chance  visitors  partake  together 

the  convivial  meal. 

I  have  eaten  sacrificial  food,  but  none  offered  at  a  rain-service. 
1  May  of  last  year  I  rode  into  a  Shia  village  on  a  Friday  rather 
c{)ccting  to  hnd  the  annual  ceremony  in  progress,  and  quite 
)nhdent  oi  an  invitation  to  use  a  wooden  spoon  at  the  table. 
he  simple  peasants  ret  civet  I  us  cordially,  and  soon  produced  a 
nail  table  with  lood  for  us,  but  there  was  no  sign  of  the  sacrificial 
remony.  Wiicn  I  inquired  about  it,  they  said  it  would  be  held  a 
L-ek  or  two  later.     Accordini^ly  the  next  Friday  I  made  occasion 

visit  the  same  viiiag.-.  Again  there  was  nothing  unusual  to  be 
en.  Meeting  a  man  of  whom  I  could  inquire  w^ithout  seeming 
trusive  I  asked  about  their  annual  festival.     "  Oh,"  he  replied. 

3IO  Collectanea. 

"  we  held  that  last  week."  To  this  day  I  do  not  know  which  of 
those  men  tricked  me.  Shia  Turks  says  ^'  Ibadet  gizli ;  kababat 
gizli^^  which  being  interpreted  means,  "  worshipping  and  sinning 
are  secret." 

On  another  occasion  I  was  more  fortunate.  The  place  was  a 
spacious  graveyard  with  a  rich  carpet  of  grass,  a  fountain  playing 
at  one  side,  and  massive  plane  trees  shading  part  of  the  ground. 
A  few  fields  of  snow  still  glistened  on  the  mountain  tops.  The 
first  comers  had  begun  the  service  before  the  soft  June  daylight 
dawned,  but  the  great  crowd  had  assembled  about  sunrise,  and 
could  hardly  have  numbered  less  than  3000  men,  when  my  friend 
the  mufii^  venerable  in  grey  beard,  white  turban  and  fur  robe, 
seated  himself  on  a  flight  of  stone  stairs  leading  to  a  ruined  place 
of  prayer,  and  began  to  preach. 

The  speaker  urged  his  people  to  repent  of  their  sins  as  the  first 
condition  of  receiving  divine  favour.  **  Let  us  forsake  our  sins," 
he  said,  "  and  return  with  all  our  hearts  to  God.  Let  us  say,  •  O 
Allah,  we  have  wandered  from  the  right  path,  we  have  sinned 
against  thee,  but  we  have  no  other  recourse,  and  we  come  back  to 
thee  for  pardon  and  blessing.' " 

"  In  any  case,"  he  continued,  "  we  can  plead  with  the  Almighty 
not  to  keep  the  poor  brutes  in  misery.  They  have  committed  no 
sin,  and  they  deserve  no  punishment,  though  we  men  do.  The 
Almighty  once  informed  his  servant  Moses  that  there  would  be 
unusual  cold  and  snow  the  next  winter.  The  prophet  informed 
the  people,  and  everybody  laid  in  an  extra  supply  of  wood  and 
charcoal,  but  the  air  continued  mild  and  there  was  no  snow.  At 
the  end  of  the  season  the  people  turned  on  Moses  and  complained : 
*  You  told  us  the  cold  would  be  excessive  this  winter,  and  we  hgve 
spent  all  our  money  for  fuel  that  we  did  not  need  :  why  is  this?' 
The  prophet,  greatly  ashamed,  asked  the  Almighty  for  the 
explanation.  He  was  answered,  *  True,  I  intended  to  send  unusual 
cold  and  snow,  but  a  poor  mangy  dog,  footsore  and  diseased, 
overheard  my  remarks.  He  cried  to  me,  saying  :  "  If  the  winter 
is  severe  what  am  I  to  do  ?  These  men  can  warm  their  houses 
with  wood  and  charcoal.  Other  animals  have  their  burrows,  at 
least  they  have  warm  coats  on  their  backs,  while  I  have  no  home 
and  have  not  even  hair  to  cover  me.     Where  shall  I  go  ?    Show 

Collectanea.  3 1 1 

le  a  door  by  which  to  escape.' "  And  for  the  sake  of  that  poor 
uimal  the  Most  High  withheld  the  intended  cold  and  snow." 

The  preacher,  with  frequent  references  to  the  Arabic  Koran 
efore  him,  went  on :  "  We  too  must  cultivate  the  quality  of 
lercy,  and  must  show  it  to  all,  to  Christians  as  well  as  to 
lohamroedans,  to  unbelievers  as  well  as  to  the  faithful.  I  hear 
lat  in  yonder  distant  quarter  of  the  city  a  poor  woman  is  lying 
ck  in  an  empty  house.  We  must  care  for  such.  In  another 
lace  I  am  told  a  woman's  helpless  condition  becomes  a  source  of 
rmptation  to  her.     We  must  care  for  such. 

"  We  have  fallen  upon  evil  times.  Our  crops  have  been  thin, 
ur  poor  have  multiplied.  Here  is  an  appeal " — he  held  up  the 
aper — ''from  a  minor  official  who  has  had  no  pay  for  three 
lonths.  But  the  higher  officials  who  employ  him  have  had  no 
ay  for  six  months.  We  are  all  suffering  together.  The  officers 
uinot  pay  except  as  they  ux  people,  and  the  people  cannot  pay 
Lxes  except  as  God  gives  us  a  harvest.  May  God  have  mercy 
pon  us,  and  reform  us  from  all  our  sins ! "  And  the  great 
ongregation  cried  "  Amin,  Amin,"  and  rocked  to  and  fro  upon 
leir  bended  knees.  "  And  let  us  offer  our  plea,"  said  the  mufU^ 
not  only  in  the  name  of  our  Prophet  of  Exalted  Memoiy,  but  in 
le  name  of  Noah,  of  Abraham,  of  Moses,  and  of  Jesus,  all  of 
Lxalted  Memor>'."  And  3000  men  swaying  as  one  in  the  morning 
inshine  replied,  "  Amin,  Amin.'' 

A  few  days  later  on  a  horseback  ride  of  fifty  miles  I  found  how 
rayer  and  sacritice  had  been  offered  in  every  village,  and  when  I 
ave  myself  the  pleasure  of  telling  some  of  the  heavy-hearted 
jmers  that  the  rain  was  just  at  hand,  for  the  barometer  was 
illing,  their  politeness  to  me  could  hardly  have  been  greater  if  I 
ad  been  the  actual  cause  of  the  rain. 

Flocks  of  lambs  are  sometimes  brought  to  such  services  that 
leir  bleating  may  ascend  to  the  Lord's  ears  and  move  his  Heart  to 
ity.  Sometimes  they  "  read  "  from  a  sacred  book  over  several 
ones,  j>lace  them  in  a  pund  or  lank  of  water  for  three  days,  and 
len,  if  rain  has  not  come  in  the  interval,  repeat  the  ceremony. 
his,  I  sup|x>se,  is  sympathetic  magic,  and  perhaps  there  is  also  the 
lea  of  breaking  the  spell  of  some  evil  eye.     Similarly,  they  place 

toad  in  a  sieve  or  basket,  douse  it  plentifully  with  water,  and 

3 1 2  Collectanea. 

give  money  or  food  to  the  boys  who  carry  it  about.  A  more 
extreme  measure  is  to  bum  a  snake,  "  for  they  say  if  you  bum  a 
snake  rain  will  come  undoubtedly." 

One  custom  is  for  a  man  or  boy  to  wrap  himself  in  a  blanket 
with  a  rope  tied  round  his  waist  The  rope  is  held  by  a 
second  man,  and  together  they  parade  the  streets.  "  WTiat  docs 
Jejoumena  ask  for?"  says  the  second  to  his  companion,  who 
impersonates  Jejoumena^  whatever  that  may  mean.  ^^ Jejoumena 
asks  rain  of  heaven  and  money  of  men,"  is  the  answer.  People 
from  their  windows  and  house^oors  then  give  small  presents  of 
money  to  the  Jejoumena  and  pour  pails  of  water  over  his  head 
in  imitation  of  a  rainstorm.  Sometimes  a  broom  is  dressed 
up  instead  of  a  human  being,  marched  about  and  soused  with 

The  most  peculiar  combination  of  horse-play  with  such  a 
pathetic  appeal  to  the  mercy  of  God  consists  in  dressing  a  donkey 
like  a  bride  with  silk  drawers,  gold  fillet  across  the  forehead,  etc 
Then  a  kind  of  carnival  crowd  escorts  the  animal  through  the 
streets,  the  idea  being  to  shame  the  clouds  into  doing  their  duty, 
to  show  the  clouds  that  their  conduct  is  as  unnatural  as  it  would 
be  to  substitute  a  donkey  for  a  real  bride.  As  the  crowd  escorts 
its  monstrosity  they  shout  a  ditty  which  may  be  roughly 
rendered  by : 

Fitter,  patter,  Lord  give  rain ; 

Roaring,  pouring,  give  us  rain ; 

Can  a  donkey  l)c  a  bride? 

Can  the  earth  in  drought  abide? 

Let  rains  and  l)ams  be  unconfined  ; 

Let  the  madrama^h  go  blind." 

The  madramagh  is  evidently  some  evil  spirit  or  evil  eye. 

Turkish  officials  have  recently  in  some  cases  prohibited  these 
coarser  ceremonies,  and  it  is  only  a  question  of  time  when  faith 
in  God  will  find  truer  outlets  for  its  expression,  and  such  customs 
will  be  a  thing  of  the  past. 

G.  E.  White, 

Anatolia  ColUgCy  Manofzszn. 

Collectanea,  313 

A  Survival  of  Incubation? 

(In  the  Abruzzi.) 

With  Plate  VIL 

The  festival  of  the  Madonna  della  Libera  is  held  on  the  first 
Sunday  in  May  at  Pratola  Peligna,  a  few  miles  from  Sulmona. 
All  the  preceding  day  a  constant  succession  of  waggons  full  of 
country  women  and  parties  of  pilgrims  on  foot,  singing  the  Viva 
Maria  as  they  went,  had  been  passing  through  Sulmona  on  their 
way  to  the  sanctuary  of  this  renowned  Madonna,  where  they 
would  pass  the  night  in  the  church  before  taking  part  in  the 

Early  on  the  Sunday  morning  we  (Don  Antonio  de  Nino,  with 
his  wife  and  niece  and  myself)  reached  the  foot  of  the  steep  road 
leading  from  the  valley  to  the  little  town  of  Pratola  Peligna, 
which  stands  on  an  eminence  facing  Mount  Morrone,  with  its 
hermitage  of  Celestino  V.  and  the  ruins  of  Ovid's  villa,  and 
looking  over  the  fertile  valley  of  Sulmona.  The  way  was 
crowded  with  country  folk,  who  had  come  to  look  on  at  the 
famous  procession.  Before  we  had  gone  many  steps  upward  we 
could  hear  strange  cries  and  shouts  ahead,  and  then  saw  lying  in 
the  centre  of  the  road  a  poor  cripple  sufficiently  uncovered  to  show 
his  terrible  deformity,  while  a  young  man,  apparently  in  charge 
of  the  cripple,  gesticulated  and  uttered  loud  cries  and  appeals 
for  help  to  the  passers-by.  A  few  paces  further  on  was  another 
similar  object,  also  with  a  lad  in  attendance,  shouting  and 
gesticulating,  and  all  the  way  up  there  lay  at  short  intervals  at 
least  twenty  of  these  poor  deformed  creatures,  each  lying  in  the 
centre  of  the  road. 

Once  within  the  town  gales  we  made  our  way  through  the 
streets,  crowded  with  peasants — the  women  and  older  men 
mostly  in  the  picturesque  and  distinctive  costumes  of  the  different 
mountain  villages  of  tiie  Abruzzi.  Among  them  we  noticed  the 
women  of  Introdacqua,  in  dark  skirts  and  bodices,  showing  the 
white  chemise  and  sleeves,  with  embroidered  apron,  a  long  white 
mvagiia  or  iR-ad-cloth  covering  the  shaven  heads  of  the  married 
w  )men  ;  the  women  of  Cocullo  and  Sulmona  in  bright  coloured 
skirts  and  head  kerchief-,  and  the  stately  Eastern-looking  Scannesi, 

3 1 4  Collectanea. 

in  black  cloth  skirts  and  high  bodices  with  silver  buttons  and 
turban-like  head-dress,  two,  indeed,  of  them  wearing  the  tokens 
of  moumingi  the  hair  braided  with  black  wool  and  a  black  cloth 
fastened  across  the  lower  part  of  the  face,  leaving  the  eyes  just 

The  principal  street  was  lined  with  stalls,  where  rosaries, 
sacred  pictures,  and  charms  against  the  evil  eye,  together  with 
fruit  and  coloured  kerchiefs  were  exposed  for  sale.  At  the  door 
of  the  large  handsome  church  of  the  Madonna  della  Libera  stood 
a  man  selling  coloured  pictures  of  the  Madonna,  and  a  woman 
with  fillets  of  white  cotton  with  coloured  flecks  to  be  worn  as 
charms  against  snake-bite. 

On  entering  the  church  we  found  the  floor  covered  with  the 
recumbent  figures  of  persons  who  had  been  there  through  the 
night,  and  we  could  only  reach  the  High  Altar  and  the  shrine 
ot  the  Madonna  by  slowly  and  carefully  making  our  way  through 
a  side  aisle  where  the  crowd  was  less  thick  and  the  sleepers 
had  begun  to  move  away.  Later  on  we  asked  two  women  if 
they  had  dreamt  in  the  church,  but  they  said  it  had  been 
im]:ossibIe  to  sleep  on  account  of  the  number  of  folk  in  the 
church,  and  that  they  had  spent  the  night  there  simply  as  an 
act  of  devotion. 

Soon  alter  mid-day  the  great  procession  left  the  church  (Fig. 
i).  The  statue  of  the  Madonna  della  Libera,  in  magnificent 
robes  and  hung  with  jewels,  was  borne  shoulder-high  by  four 
men  and  accompanied  by  clergy  and  officials,  and  was  followed 
by  long  rows  of  women,  who,  rosary  in  hand  and  bearing  huge 
candles,  walked  in  double  file  through  the  streets  (Fig.  2). 
Officials,  carr)'ing  trays  to  receive  the  contributions  of  the  faithful, 
walked  beside  the  cortege,  and  the  front  of  the  Madonna's  dress 
was  nearly  covered  with  bank-notes  of  five  and  ten  lire,  offered 
by  JKT  devotees;  while  close  behind  the  statue  a  standard  was 
carried  on  which  bank-notes  of  higher  values — 50  and  100  lire* — 
were  affixed,  offerings  in  fulfilment  of  vows  made  in  some  time  of 
sickness  or  trouble.  The  procession  had  to  make  constant  halts 
to  enable  the  offerings  to  be  presented  and  fastened  to  the 
Madonna's  dress  (Fig.  3),  as  it  i)assed  through  the  streets  and  out 

'  icx>  lirc=;^4  sterling. 

PLATE    Vll. 




v^Bl          ..."^'^            ^- 


!•••.  rNs,,,n   ..f   \W   M  .J'  n-  a   Jo!:.!   I  iIhm.i. 

The  M.iJunna  JelLi  Libe 

.1    I    N  -a,    I'-j'-.a    I\l!i:na. 

Collectanea.  3 1 7 

'om  the  back  of  the  hand  down  between  the  first  and  second 
ngers,  up  again  between  the  second  and  third,  and  down 
gain  between  the  third  and  fourth.  This  should  be  done  on 
bree  successive  nights^  (E.  McK.,  Cavan). 

In  the  County  Louth  about  twenty  years  ago  a  girl  drove  a 
eedle  into  her  hand,  and  as  the  local  dispensary  doctor  could 
o  nothing  for  her,  her  parents  had  recourse  to  a  wise  man 
ben  living  near  Castlebellingham.  He  prescribed  the  making 
f  a  hole  in  the  patient  near  where  the  needle  was  supposed 
3  be,  and  the  insertion  of  a  fox's  tongue  and  a  magnet, 
sserting  that  this  combination  was  strong  enough  to  "draw  a 
eedle  out  of  the  Devil."  I  believe  that  this  treatment  was 
ied,  but  I  never  heard  the  result. 

To  remove  ringworm  rub  a  gold  wedding-ring  three  times 
Dund  the  spot  (Limerick). 

If  a  person  has  whooping-cough,  or  "chin-cough"  as  the 
eople  call  it,  get  him  to  cough  on  a  piece  of  bread,  and  give 
le  bread  to  a  dog  to  eat  The  cough  will  pass  to  the  dog, 
nd  the  man  will  get  well  at  once  (Limerick). 

Anyone  who  licks  a  "man-creeper"^  (newt)  will  ever  after 
ave  the  power  of  curing  bums  and  scalds  by  licking  them, 
uch  a  man's  tongue,  it  appears,  becomes  incombustible.  "O 
lat's  perfectly  true,"  said  a  Meath  man  to  me  a  short  time 
zp.  **  I  seen  him  set  his  tongue  to  the  red  iron.  Ye  could 
ear  it  hissing  like  bacon  frying  on  the  pan,  and  yet  it  wasn't 
umt."  The  man-creeper  is  elsewhere  called  "man-keeper," 
man-lepper,"  "dark-looker,"  " alpluachra,"  and  other  names. 
he  belief  that  it  will  enter  the  mouth  of  a  sleeping  person, 
nd  live  inside  him  until  he  dies,  seems  to  be  universal  in 
reland,  and  is  well  illustrated  by  a  story  in  Dr.  Douglas 
[yde's  Beside  the  Fire?     I   have  been  told  in   Co.  Louth  that 

decoction  ot  nettles  is  beneficial  in  such  a  case,  and  that  the 
lan-creeper  dies  if  laid  on  a  bunch  of  nettles. 

An  old  woman  at  Ardce  once  told  me  that  it  is  a  bad  sign 
i  jn  a  sick  person  rallies  on  a  Sunday. 

Thr- -  -hrccs  .  r  tiinc>  t:\ch   ni^ht,  says  M.    H.  of  Mcalh. 
'  I  }ic   <Jo.    I,.  w'M    name. 
''-7.   .1!^  )  rji'j  (!cm -n    >\  vor.icity  in  the    I'ision  of  MiU    Con^lintu, — Ed. 

3 1 8  Collectanea. 

Death  Warnings. 

If  a  cat  directly  after  wiping  its  face  with  its  paw  looks  straight 
into  your  face  you  will  be  dead  before  that  day  twelvemonth 
(E.  McK.,  Cavan). 

The  coming  of  a  cricket  to  a  house  is  a  sign  of  death,  but 
the  evil  may  be  averted  and  the  insect  driven  away  by  sajring 
to  it,  "  Cricket,  cricket,  if  you  come  for  good  luck,  stay ;  but  if 
you  come  for  bad  luck,  go."  This  belief  was  obtained  from  a 
policeman  in  Tipperary,  but  I  do  not  know  what  part  of 
Ireland  he  came  from. 

A  hen  crowing  or  going  about  with  a  straw  hanging  from 
her  tail  is  a  death  omen.  So  is  a  '*thrusht"  or  sound  like 
the  distant  explosion  of  a  blasting  charge  when  heard  at  night 
A  singing  in  the  head  foretells  the  death  of  a  friend.  These 
are  Kerry  beliefs  (D.  L.). 

The  squirrel  is  a  very  recent  importation  into  Ireland,  and 
was  almost  unknown  in  most  parts  of  the  County  Louth,  when 
about  fifteen  years  ago  one  made  its  appearance  in  the  woods 
surrounding  my  father's  house  near  Ardee.  Our  cowherd  was 
extremely  anxious  that  I  should  shoot  the  new  arrival,  which  I 
refused  to  do.  Some  of  the  other  servants  told  me  thai 
Johnnie  Devann  looked  upon  the  coming  of  the  squirrel  as 
foretelling  the  death  of  his  mother,  who  was  lying  ill.  Mrs. 
Devann  did  die  some  months  later,  which  probably  confirmed 
her  son  in  a  belief  which  I  imagine  he  must  have  evolved 
from  his  own  inner  consciousness. 

A  Rat  Charm. 

The  following  is  a  literal  translation  of  a  rhyming  charm  used 
by  the  people  about  Caherciveen  to  expel  rats  : 

*'  Bo  off  lo  Muskcrr)*,  or  east  over  Cnoc  Druinge, 
Or  east  across  the  Inny's  flooil, 
Where  there  are  dry  potatoes  and  sacks  of  meal, 
And  you  may  be  eating  them  at  your  pleasure." 

Drung  Hill  and  the  Inny  lie  a  few  miles  to  the  eastward  ot 
Caherciveen.  Muskerry  is  the  nearest  barony  of  Cork.  The 
charm  was  HTitten  on  paper  and  put  down  a  rat-hole  (D.  L.). 

Collectanea.  319 

Beliefs  about  Hair. 

.  child's  hair  should  always  be  cut  for  the  first  time  by  a 
lan.  If  a  woman  does  it  the  child  will  be  cowardly  and 
eakly  (M.  H.,  Meath). 

It  is  most  unlucky  to  bum  any  of  your  hair,  as  on  the  Last 
)ay  you  will  have  to  collect  it  so  as  to  appear  with  the  whole 
f  it  as  God  created  you  (E.  McK.,  Cavan). 

It  is  unlucky  to  give  or  receive  hair,  but  it  may  be  stolen 
ith  ill  results. 

A  man  whose  hair  is  cut  on  a  Monday  will  go  bald.     Hence 

kind  of  comic  imprecation  used  in  Kerry:  '^ Lamradh  an 
tain  or/"  "the  shearing  of  Monday  on  you." 

Seafolks  and  Seals. 

N  West  Irish  belief  there  seems  to  be  a  close  resemblance 
etween  the  seals  and  the  seafolk  proper.  Individuals  of  both 
ices  are  said  to  have  lived  on  land  in  human  form,  and  by 
carriage  with  men  have  left  families  whose  descendants  are  still 
ointed  out  I  have,  indeed,  been  assured  that  the  two  races 
re  identical,  but  this  seems  to  be  contrary  to  the  general  belief 
'hich  recognises  a  distinction.  Seals,  it  would  appear,  only 
ecome  human  in  form  when  they  land  and  doff  their  skins, 
hile  the  sea  maiden,  on  the  other  hand,  wears  at  all  times  the 
bape  of  a  beautiful  woman,  and  is  dependent  on  the  possession 
f  a  little  magic  caj),  the  cochaillin  draoidheachta^  for  the  ability 
:>  live  under  water. 

In  Galway  the  Conneeley  family  is  said  to  be  descended  from 

seal  woman.  About  three  years  ago  I  asked  a  young  man 
f  the  name,  who  lived  on  the  island  of  LettermuUan,  why  the 
!onnccleys  were  always  called  na  rointc  (the  seals),  but  he 
jplied  that  it  was  because  they  were  all  such  good  swimmers ! 

Near  Ballinskelligs,  in  Kerry,  is  a  family  named  Hennessy, 
hich  had  a  mermaid  ancestress.  Her  descendants  always 
jtum  from  the  fishing  with  their  boats  full  of  fish  when  others 
an  catch  nothing  (I).   L.). 

\\  Hallyfemtcr,  in  the  same  county,  I  heard  of  a  Flaherty 
miily  which  had  a  similar  origin.  The  men  of  it  are  said  to 
e  of  fine  physique,  web-footed,  and  unlucky  at  fishing. 

320  Collectanea. 

The  Dead  Coach  and  Ghost  Funerals. 

The  main  raison  d'etre  of  the  Dead  Coach,  as  it  is  called  in 
Louth  and  Meath,  with  its  headless  driver  and  headless  horses, 
seems  to  be  to  give  notice  of  an  approaching  death  in  a  certain 
district,  or  among  the  members  of  some  particular  family.  For 
instance,  there  are  Dead  Coaches  at  Kilcurry^  and  Ardec,  in 
Louth,  that  appear  when  anyone  in  the  parish  is  about  to  die; 
while  at  one  place  in  Meath  there  is  a  Dead  Coach  that  is 
never  seen  except  the  night  before  the  decease  of  the  local 
squire  or  one  of  his  relations.  There  is  a  Limerick  family  which 
enjoys  a  similar  privilege.  In  their  case  the  Headless  Coach 
drives  up  to  the  hall  door,  and  on  arrival  there  every  seat  save 
one  is  seen  to  be  occupied  by  the  ghost  of  an  ancestor. 

There  is,  however,  another  function  of  the  Dead  Coach,  as  the 
following  tale  from  Meath  shows.  Some  years  ago  there  died 
a  large  landowner  who  had  made  himself  popular  with  the 
country  people  by  giving  land  to  enlarge  an  ancient  grave- 
yard that  was  situated  on  his  property.  According  to  them  he 
was  so  fond  of  the  place  that  he  gave  directions  that  he  should 
be  buried  there,  but  when  he  died  his  relations  said   that  no 

gentleman    had   ever   been   buried  at   T ,  so  they  laid  him 

to  rest  in  the  churchyard  in  a  neighbouring  town.  The  night 
after  the  funeral,  as  a  labourer  named  Barney  Boylan  was  on  his 
way  to  the  town,  he  heard  the  rumble  of  a  carriage  behind  him 
on  the  road  and  stepped  aside  to  let  it  pass.  The  sound  passed 
him  by,  and  he  could  hear  it  proceeding  along  the  road  in 
front  of  him,  but  he  could  see  nothing.  Presently  the  vehicle 
seemed  to  stop  in  front  of  a  gate,  but  when  he  drew  near  it 
went  on  again.  Boylan  turned  and  made  for  home,  where  his 
wife  asked  him  what  the  carriage  was  that  had  passed  the  cottage 
going  towards  the  town.  While  they  were  talking  the  carriage 
passed  by  in  the  opposite  direction,  "  tattering  up  the  road  for 
all  it  was  worth."  Another  woman  heard  the  same  sounds  that 
night.  It  was  the  Headless  Coach  bringing  Mr.  Y.'s  body 
to  T (H.  T.  R.,  from  Boylan). 

'  Dcscrilx'd  in  Fclk-Lcrc^  vol.  x.  p.  119. 

-The  Kilcurry  Dead  Coach  is  »aid  to  pass  noiselessly,  in  which  it  resembles 
I  Co.  Cork  one,  described   by  Crofiun-Croker,  but  I  think  that  these  are  ex- 

Collectanea.  321 

The  Dead  Coach  in  this  story  seems  to  bear  some  rela- 
ionship  to  the  ghost  funerals  that  one  sometimes  hears  of. 
^or  example,  last  year  at  Ballyferriter  I  was  told  of  a  case  in 
rhich  a  man  was  buried  in  a  strange  graveyard.  The  following 
light  a  funeral  procession  was  seen  making  its  way  to  the 
mrial  ground  of  the  dead  man's  ancestors.  A  tale  of  some 
ength  narrates  how  during  the  famine  a  Kerry  labourer  migrated 
o  a  neighbouring  county  in  search  of  work,  taking  with  him  hb 
ittle  girl.  He  found  employment,  but  before  long  he  fell  ill  of 
he  famine  fever  and  died.  The  farm  hands  laid  out  the  body 
n  the  bam,  and  after  nightfall  they  began  the  wake.  They 
irere  a  rough  lot,  and  before  long  one  of  them,  a  red-headed 
nan,  put  a  pipe  in  the  mouth  of  the  corpse,  and  he  and  his 
:ompanions  began  to  amuse  themselves  by  throwing  sods  of  turf 
It  it  Suddenly  there  came  a  knock  at  the  door,  and  four  men 
n  black  entered  carrying  a  coffin.  They  placed  the  corpse  in  it, 
md  laid  the  child,  who  was  asleep,  on  the  lid.  Then  they 
aised  their  burden  from  the  ground  and  tximed  to  go.  As  they 
eft  the  bam  one  of  the  mysterious  strangers  stmck  the  red- 
laired  man  in  the  face,  so  that  his  mouth  was  crooked  all  the 
'est  of  his  life.  Next  day  there  was  a  new  made  grave  in  the 
dead  man's  family  burial  place  at  Waterville,  sixty  miles  away,  and 
:he  child  was  found  lying  on  it  still  asleep  (D.  L.). 

Sleeping  Armies. 

There  arc  many  forts  and  hills  about  Ireland  that  conceal 
incient  heroes  and  their  armies  waiting  in  magic  slumber  for  the 
riay  when  the  spell  will  he  broken  and  they  will  be  free  to  return 
f*nce  more  to  the  world  01  men.  The  wizard  Earl  of  Kildare,  for 
instance,  acrordint;  to  a  well-known  story,  sleeps  in  the  Rath  of 
Mulia^hmast,  from  which  he  sallies  forth  once  in  every  seven 
sears  to  ride  round  the  Curragh  on  a  steed  with  silver  shoes, 

rciti.  nal  c.xw<--.  In  Limerick  the  Headless  Coach  is  said  to  make  more  noise 
h.m  \\\  .rtlm.iry  carria^'c.  .\\\  old  woman  once  told  Miss  Ferguson,  that  the 
\\\<  'wwv  :^a!  a  railway  train  j-asscd  thrt'Ugh  .Adarc  she  and  several  Others, 
v^h  A-  rv  A;l^hln^  clutho  it  the  fountain,  fell  on  their  knees  and  prayed,  for 
:hc-.   Acre  -' f.  ^v  :::c  .^  und  that  it  wa>  the  coach  come  to  fetch  them  away. 


32  2  Collectanea, 

which  must  be  worn  as  thin  as  a  cat's  ear  before  he  can  be  freed.* 
But  there  are  other  places  which  lay  claim  to  Earl  Gerald,  and 
one  of  them  is  in  my  own  county,  and  has  traditions  differing 
considerably  from  the  Kildare  ones.  It  is  a  fort  standing  on  the 
southern  banks  of  the  river  Dee,  and  a  few  hundred  yards  east 
of  the  village  of  Ardee,  marked  on  the  Ordnance  Survey  as 
Dawson's  Mount,  but  locally  known  as  Garret's  Fort  The 
people  say  that  Garret  Early^  and  his  men  were  enchanted  by 
a  man  named  Ameris  or  Awmeris,  who  still  frequents  the  neigh- 
bouring fairs  for  the  purpose  of  buying  horses  for  the  sleeping 
army.  They  say  that  this  personage  behaves  just  like  an  ordinary 
dealer,  except  that  he  never  pays  for  a  purchase  in  the  fair,  but 
arranges  to  meet  the  seller  in  some  solitary  place.  He  pays  in 
good  money. 

A  story  of  the  usual  type  is  told  of  a  man  who  found  his  way 
into  the  fort,  and  almost  broke  the  spell  by  drawing  a  sword 
which  he  found  there.  On  another  occasion  a  girl  standing  on 
a  hill  above  the  fort  looked  down  and  saw  it  wide  open  and  the 
fields  round  covered  with  soldiers,  all  busily  engaged  in  grooming 
horses  and  cleaning  arms.  Before  she  had  time  to  do  anything 
someone  tapped  her  on  the  shoulder,  and  a  voice  said  in  her  ear, 
"  Never  mind,  youVe  seen  enough."  She  turned  round,  but 
there  was  nobody  there,  and  when  she  looked  at  the  fort  again  it 
looked  just  the  same  as  usual. 

When  the  destined  day  does  dawn  Garret  will  rise  with  ten 
thousand  men  and  slay  all  before  him  from  the  fort  to  the  bridge 
of  Ardee.  The  road  between  these  two  points  will  be  piled  high 
with  corpses,  and  the  river  will  run  red  with  blood.  But  when 
Garret  and  his  men  reach  the  bridge  a  red-haired  woman,  who 
will  be  living  near  it  in  those  times,  will  tell  them  that  they  have 
slain  enough,  and  the  slaughter  will  cease.  During  the  fight, 
a  miller,  with  two  heels  on  one  foot  and  six  fingers  on  each 
hand,  will  hold  Garret's  horse. 

In  Meath,  about  fifteen  miles  from  Ardee,  there  is  a  troop 
of  cavalry  enchanted  in  the  Mote  of  Kilbeg.  The  spell  can  only 
be  broken  by  firing  a  loaded  gun  which  is  in  the  cave.     A  man 

*  There  is  a  good  version  in  Kennedy's  Legendary  Fictions^  pp.  1 53-5. 
^  F"rom  the  Irish  Gearalt  laria^  i.e.  Gerald  the  Eail. 

Collectanea,  323 

^ot  in  ODce  and  saw  the  troopers  asleep  in  the  saddle,  with  their 
iwres  on  their  horses'  necks.  He  half-cocked  the  gun,  and  the 
loldiers  at  once  sat  half  up,  but  he  was  afraid  to  do  more  and 
fent  away,  leaving  the  gun  on  half-cock  and  the  men  sitting 
lalf  up  (H.  T.  R.). 

Why  the  Pigeon  cannot  Build  a  Proper  Nest. 

!)nce  upon  a  time  the  pigeon  went  to  the  crow,  who  was  a 
naster  builder,  to  learn  how  to  build  a  nest. 

"  Now,"  says  the  crow,  "  ye  take  a  stick  and  lay  it  like  this." 

"I  know,"  says  the  pigeon. 

"Then  ye  take  another,  and  lay  it  like  that,"  says  the  crow. 

"  I  know,"  says  the  pigeon. 

"Then  ye  put  a  stick  across  so,"  says  the  crow. 

"I  know,  I  know,"  says  the  pigeon. 

"Well,  if  ye  know  all  about  it,"  says  the  crow,  getting 
^P7»  "yc  can  go  and  build  a  nest  for  yourself." 

And  from  that  day  to  this  the  pigeon  has  never  learnt  to 
)uild  a  nest  (H.  T.  R.). 

Various   Beliefs. 

Jt  you  hide  a  blade  bone  of  mutton  under  a  man's  pillow,  and 
end  him  to  bed  in  a  bad  temper,  he  will  dream  of  his  future 
vife  (Limerick). 

If  you  eat  your  supper  by  a  bonfire  on  Bonfire  Night  (Mid- 
;ummer  Eve)  you  will  not  want  for  food  during  the  following 
•ear  (K.  McK.,  Cavan).  In  Kerry  a  lighted  sod  from  a 
)onfire  is  thrown  into  a  field  to  keep  the  crop  from  blight 
D.  L.). 

If  you  put  a  |)od  with  nine  peas  in  it  up  over  the  door,  the 
irst  person  who  enters  will  have  the  same  name  as  your 
Muiure"  (E.   McK). 

Bryan  H.  Jones. 

324  Collectanea. 

Billy  Beg,  Tom  Beg,  and  the  Fairies. 


Not  far  from  Dalby,  Billy  beg  and  Tom  beg,  two  hunchback 
cobblers,  lived  together  on  a  lonely  croft  Billy  beg  was 
sharper  and  cleverer  than  Tom  beg,  who  was  always  at  his 
command.  One  day  Billy  beg  gave  Tom  beg  a  staff,  and 
quoth  he: 

"Tom  beg,  go  to  the  mountain  and  fetch  home  the  white 

Tom  beg  took  the  staff  and  went  to  the  mountain,  but  he 
could  not  find  the  white  sheep.  At  last,  when  he  was  far  from 
home  and  dusk  was  coming  on,  he  began  to  think  that  he  had 
best  go  back.  The  night  was  fine,  and  stars  and  a  small 
crescent  moon  were  in  the  sky.  No  sound  was  to  be  heard 
but  the  curlew's  sharp  whistle.  Tom  was  hastening  home,  and 
had  almost  reached  Glen  Rushen  when  a  grey  mist  gathered, 
and  he  lost  his  way.  But  it  was  not  long  before  the  mist 
cleared  and  Tom  beg  found  himself  in  a  green  glen,  such  as  he 
had  never  seen  before,  though  he  thought  he  knew  every  glen 
within  five  miles  of  him,  for  he  was  bom  and  reared  in  the 
neighbourhood.  He  was  marvelling  and  wondering  where  he 
could  be  when  he  heard  a  far-away  sound  drawing  near  to  him. 
"Aw,"  said  he  to  himself,  "there  are  more  than  myself  afoot 
on  the  mountains  to-night;   TU  have  company." 

The  sound  grew  louder.  First  it  was  like  the  humming  of 
bees,  then  like  the  rushing  of  Glen  Meay  waterfall,  and  last  it 
was  like  the  marching  and  the  murmur  of  a  crowd.  It  was 
the  fairy  host.  Of  a  sudden  the  glen  was  full  of  fine  horses 
and  of  little  people  riding  on  them,  with  the  lights  on  their 
red  caps  shining  like  the  stars  above,  and  making  the  night  as 
bright  as  day.  There  was  the  blowing  of  horns,  the  waving  of 
flags,  the  playing  of  music,  and  the  barking  of  many  little  dogs. 
Tom  beg  thought  that  he  had  never  seen  anything  so  splendid 
as  all  he  saw  there.  In  the  midst  of  the  drilling  and  dancing 
and  singing  one  of  them  spied  Tom,  and  then  Tom  saw 
coming  towards  him  the  grandest  litlle  man  he  had  ever  set 

Collectanea.  325 

^yes  upon,  dressed  in  gold  and  silver,  and  silk  and  satin, 
ihining  like  a  raven's  wing. 

"  It  is  a  bad  time  you  have  chosen  to  come  this  way,"  said 
iie  little  man,  who  was  the  king. 

"Yes;  but  it  is  not  here  that  I  wish  to  be,"  said  Tom. 

Then  said  the  king:  "Are  you  one  of  us  to-night,  Tom?" 

"I  am  surely,"  said  Tom. 

"Then,"  said  the  king,  "it  will  be  your  duty  to  take  the 
>ass-word.  You  must  stand  at  the  foot  of  the  glen,  and  as  each 
egiment  goes  by  you  must  take  the  pass-word ;  it  is  '  Monday, 
Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday,  Saturday.'" 

"  I  will  do  that  with  a  heart  and  a  half,"  said  Tom. 

At  daybreak  the  fiddlers  took  up  their  fiddles,  the  fairy  army 
let  itself  in  order,  the  fiddlers  played  before  them  out  of  the 
^len,  and  sweet  that  music  was.  Each  regiment  gave  the  pass- 
rord  to  Tom  as  it  went  by — Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday, 
Thursday,  Friday,  Saturday,  and  last  of  all  came  the  king, 
ind  he  too  gave  it — Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thursday, 
■''riday,  Saturday.  Then  he  called  in  Manx  to  one  of  his 
nen : 

*<Take  the  hump  from  this  fellow's  back,"  and  before  the 
rords  were  out  of  his  mouth  the  hump  was  whisked  off  Tom 
)eg's  back  and  thrown  into  the  hedge.  How  proud  now  was 
Pom,  who  so  found  himself  the  straightest  man  in  the  Isle  of 
4an.  He  went  down  the  mountain,  and  came  home  early  in 
he  morning  with  light  heart  and  eager  step.  Billy  beg  wondered 
:reatly  when  he  saw  Tom  beg  so  straight  and  strong;  and  when 
Pom  beg  had  rested  and  refreshed  himself  he  told  his  story, 
iow  he  had  met  the  fairies,  who  came  every  night  to  Glen 
<ushen  to  drill. 

The  next  night  Billy  beg  set  off  along  the  mountain  road, 
md  came  at  last  to  the  green  glen.  About  midnight  he  heard 
he  trampling  of  horses,  the  lashing  of  whips,  the  barking  of 
logs,  and  a  great  hullabaloo,  and  behold  the  fairies  and  their 
Lini;,  iheir  dogs  and  their  horses  all  at  drill  in  the  glen  as  Tom 
)eg  had  said. 

When  they  saw  the  humpback  they  all  stopped,  and  one 
amc  forward  and  very  crossly  asked  his  business. 

326  Collectanea. 

'^  I  am  one  of  yourselves  for  the  night,  and  should  be  glad  to 
do  you  some  service/'  said  Billy  beg.  So  he  was  sent  to  take  the 
pass-word — Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thursday,  Friday, 
Saturday.  And  at  daybreak  the  king  said,  "It  is  time  for  us 
to  be  off,"  and  up  came  regiment  after  regiment,  giving  Billy 
beg  the  pass-word — Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thursday, 
Friday,  Saturday.  Last  of  all  came  the  king  with  his  men,  and 
gave  the  pass- word  also — Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  Thurs- 
day, Friday,  Saturday. 

"And  Sunday,"  says  Billy  beg,  thinking  himself  clever. 
Then  there  was  a  great  outcry. 

"  Get  the  hump  that  was  taken  off  that  fellow's  back  last 
night,  and  put  it  on  this  man's  back,"  cried  the  king,  with 
flashing  eyes,  pointing  to  the  hump  that  lay  under  the  hedge. 

Before  the  words  were  well  out  of  his  mouth,  the  hump  was 
clapt  on  Billy  beg's  back. 

"  Now,"  said  the  king,  "  be  off;  and  if  ever  I  find  you  here 
again,  I  will  clap  another  hump  on  to  your  front  1" 

And  on  that  they  all  marched  away  with  one  great  shout, 
and  left  poor  Billy  beg  standing  where  they  had  found  him, 
with  a  hump  growing  on  to  each  shoulder.  And  he  came 
home  next  day,  dragging  one  foot  after  another,  with  a  wizened 
face,  and  as  cross  as  two  sticks,  with  his  two  humps  on  his 
back,  and  if  they  are  not  off  they  are  there  stilL 

Sophia  Morrison. 


Note.  [With  regard  to  this  story  Miss  Morrison  writes :  "  I 
] licked  it  up  from  an  old  man  about  two  years  ago.  He  had 
heard  it  in  his  youth  on  board  his  herring  lugger  from  an  old 
Manxman.  I  wrote  the  yarn  first  in  Manx,  then  turned  it 
into  English.  It  bears  some  resemblance  to  an  Irish  stor>'  of 
Croker's,  but  where  the  hunchback  in  the  Irish  yam  sings 
*  Monday,  Tuesday '  over  and  over  again,  once  out  of  tunc,  the 
nrst  hunchback  in  the  Manx  yam  says  all  the  days  of  the  week 
except  Sunday,  and  the  second  hunchback  says  that  day  with 
dire  results  to  himself.     In  Manx  mythology  fairies  are  antagcv 

Collectanea,  327 

^c  to  the  Christian  faith,  and  cannot  bear  the  sound  of  holy 

A  number  of  variants  of  this  tale  are  given  by  Clouston  in 
>pular  Talcs  and  Fictions y  i.  p.  352  seq,  Crofton  Croker's 
sh  story,  alluded  to  above,  is  probably  the  best  known.  It 
ty  be  noted  that  the  fairies  sing  (in  Irish)  "  Monday  and 
lesday"  again  and  again  to  an  imperfect  air,  and  the  first 
nchback  earns  their  gratitude  by  adding  ''Wednesday,"  at 
t  same  time  completing  their  air.  The  air,  as  well  as  the 
ish  words,  is  given  by  Croker.  The  second  hunchback  spoils 
B  melody  by  adding  "Thursday." 

Miss  Busk's  Italian  version  is  similar,  the  days  being  Satur- 
y,  Sunday,  Monday,  and  Tuesday.  The  nearest  parallels  to 
t  Manx  story  are  the  Spanish  version  and  the  Breton  story 
iren  by  Keightley.  In  the  Spanish  tale  the  fairies  sing 
Monday,  Tuesday,  Wednesday,  three";  the  first  hunchback 
ds  '*  Thursday,  Friday,  Saturday,  six,"  while  the  second  spoils 
by  putting  in  "Sunday  seven."  In  the  Breton  story  Thurs- 
7  and  Friday  are  added  by  the  first,  and  Saturday  and 
mday  by  the  second.  Thus  it  appears  that  only  in  the  Manx 
d  Spanish  stories  is  the  addition  of  Sunday  the  Catal  word 
lich  breaks  the  charm. — Ed.]. 

Ghost-Raising    in   Wales. 

The  possibility  of  raising  spirits,  or  to  cause  them  to  appear, 
IS  once  believed  in  in  Wales,  even  in  recent  times;  and 
lakespeare,  in  his   Henr)'  the  Fourth,  Act  iii.  s.   i,  makes  the 

elshman,  Glendower,  say  : 

*'I  c.\n  call  spirits  fruin  the  vasty  deep." 

izards   and  others  who  practised   magical   arts   were  supposed 
t>e  able  to  summon  spirits  at  will. 

About  three  years  ago,  when  I  was  allowed  to  search  the 
>rary  of  **  Harries  Cwrt-y-Cadno,"  a  most  popular  Welsh 
lijaror   who    iived  in  Carmarthenshire  about  two  generations 

328  Collectanea, 

ago,  I   discovered,  amongst  other  curious  things,  the  following 
"  Invocation  "  : 

"  How   to  obtain    the  Familiar  of  the   Genius  or  Good  Spirit 
and  cause  him  to  appear. 

**  After  the  manner  prescribed  by  magicians,  the  Exorcist 
must  inform  himself  of  the  name  of  his  Good  Genius,  which 
he  may  find  in  the  Rules  of  the  Travins  and  Philermus;  as 
also,  what  Chonactes  and  Pentacie,  or  Larim^  belongs  to  every 

"After  this  is  done,  let  him  compose  an  earnest  prayer 
unto  the  said  Genius,  which  he  must  repeat  thrice  every 
morning  for  seven  days  before  the  invocation.  .  .  .  When  the 
day  is  come  wherein  the  magician  would  Invocate  his  prayer 
to  Genius  he  must  enter  into  a  private  closet,  having  a  little 
table  and  silk  carpet,  and  two  waxen  candles  lighted;  as  also 
a  crystal  stone  shaped  triangularly  about  the  quantity  of  an 
apple,  which  stone  must  be  fixed  upon  a  frame  in  the  centre 
of  the  table;  and  then  proceeding  with  great  devotion  to  Invo- 
cation, he  must  thrice  repeat  the  former  prayer,  concluding  the 
same  with  Pater  Noster,  etc.,  and  a  Missale  de  Spiritu  Sancto. 

"  Then  he  must  begin  to  consecrate  the  candles,  carpet, 
table  and  crystal,  sprinkling  the  same  with  his  own  blood, 
and  saying :  *  I  do  by  the  power  of  the  holy  names  Agiaon, 
Eloi,  Eioiy  SabbatJion,  Anepturaton,  Jah,  Agian,  Jah^  Jeh4rvah% 
Immanuel,  Archon,  Archonton,  Sadai,  Sadai,  Jeovaschap,  etc, 
sanctifie  and  consecrate  these  holy  utensils  to  the  performance 
of  this  holy  work,  in  the  name  of  the  Father,  Son,  and  Holy 
Ghost     Amen.' 

"  Which  done,  the  Exorcist  must  say  the  following  prayer 
with  his  face  towards  the  East,  and  kneeling  with  his  back 
to  the  consecrated  table :  *  O  thou  blessed  Phanael,  my  angel 
guardian,  vouchsafe  to  descend  with  thy  holy  influence  and 
presence  into  this  spotless  crystal,  that  I  may  behold  thy 
glory,'  etc. 

•*  This  prayer  being  first  repeated  towards  the  East,  must  be 
afterwards  said  towards  all  the  four  winds  thrice.  And  next 
the  70  Psalm,  repeated  out  of  a  Bible  that  hath  been  conse- 

Collectanea.  329 

crated  in  like  manner  as  the  rest  of  the  utensUs,  which  cere- 
monies being  seriously  performed,  the  magician  must  arise  from 
his  knees  and  sit  before  the  crystal  bareheaded  with  the  con- 
secrated  Bible  in  his  hand  and  the  waxen  candle  newly  lighted 
waiting  patiently  and  internally  for  coming  and  appearance  of 
the  Genius.  .  .  . 

"Now  about  a  quarter  of  an  hour  before  the  Spirit  come, 
there  will  appear  great  variety  of  apparitions  within  the  glass; 
as  first  a  beaten  road  or  tract,  and  travellers,  men,  and  women 
marching  silently  along. 

"Next  there  will  rivers,  wells,  mountains,  and  seas  appear, 
after  that  a  shepherd  upon  a  pleasant  hill  feeding  a  goodly 
flock  of  sheep,  and  the  sun  shining  brightly  at  his  going  down ; 
and  lastly,  innumerable  flows  of  birds  and  beasts,  monsters 
and  strange  appearance,  and  which  will  all  vanish  at  the 
appearance  of  the  Genius. 

"  The  Genius  will  be  familiar  in  the  stone  at  the  performance 
of  the  wizard." 

The  following  story  of  this  Welsh  wizard's  spirit-summoning 
was  related  to  roe  a  short  time  ago  by  a  clergyman  who  is  a 
native  of  Carmarthenshire : 

The  farmer  tcho  consulted  the  conjuror^  or  the  Familiar  Spirits 
and  the  Lost  Cows. 

A  farmer  who  lived  in  the  southern  part  of  Carmarthenshire 
lost  three  cows.  Having  searched  in  vain  for  them  every- 
where, he  at  last  went  to  Cwrt-y-Cadno,  though  he  had  a  very 
long  journey  to  go.  When  he  arrived  there  and  consulted 
Dr.  Harries,  the  worthy  wizard  told  him  that  he  could  not 
give  him  any  information  concerning  his  lost  cows  till  next 
day,  as  he  wanted  time  to  consult  his  magic  books.  The 
farmer  was  a  lutle  disappointed,  as  he  wanted  to  go  home  that 
evening  ;  but  under  the  circumstances  there  was  nothing  to  be 
done  but  try  and  get  a  bed  for  the  night  at  some  farm  in  the 

So  he  left  the  wizard  for  the  night  with  the  intention  of 
returning  to  him  again  in  the  morning,  when  he  hoped  to  hear 
something  of  his  lost  cows. 

330  Collectanea. 

But  after  going  out  of  the  house,  he  noticed  a  bam  dose 
by,  which  he  entered,  and  found  in  a  comer  a  heap  of  straw, 
where  he  thought  he  could  lie  down  and  sleep  comfortably  till 
next  morning. 

This  he  did  unknown  to  the  wizard,  who  took  for  granted 
that  the  farmer  had  gone  to  stay  for  the  night  at  some  house 
in  the  neighbourhood. 

He  slept  comfortably  in  the  bam  for  a  while ;  but  about  one 
o  clock  in  the  morning  he  was  awakened  by  the  sound  of  the 
wizard's  footsteps  entering  the  place  at  that  untimely  hour  with 
a  lantern  in  his  hand. 

The  disturbed  farmer  could  not  imagine  what  he  wanted  in 
the  bam  at  this  time  of  the  night,  and  he  was  afraid  of  being 

Presently,  however,  he  noticed  the  conjuror  drawing  a  circle 
around  himself  in  the  middle  of  the  room:  that  is  the  well- 
known  wizard's  circle. 

Then  he  stood  right  in  the  middle  of  this  circle,  and  having 
opened  a  book,  he  summoned  seven  demons  or  familiar  spirits 
to  appear,  and  in  an  instant  they  came  one  after  another  and 
stood  outside  the  circle. 

Then  he  addressed  or  called  out  to  the  first  spirit  something 
as  follows  : 

'*Tell  me  where  are  the  farmer's  lost  cows?" 

But  the  demon  answered  not. 

He  repeated  the  question  two  or  three  times,  but  the  Familiar 
was  quite  dumb.  At  last,  however,  it  shouted  out,  "A  pig  in 
the  straw,"  but  this  was  no  reply  to  the  wizard's  question. 

Having  failed  with  the  first  spirit,  the  wizard  addressed  the 
second  one,  and  then  the  third,  and  so  on  till  he  had  given 
the  question  to  each  one  of  the  familiars  except  one,  without 
any  result.  The  spirits  seemed  very  stupid  on  this  occasion, 
and  would  not  give  the  information  required.  Fortunately, 
however,  when  the  question  was  given  to  the  seventh  and  last 
of  the  demons,  it  shouted  out,  "  The  farmer's  cows  will  be  on 
Carmarthen  bridge,  at  twelve  o'clock  to-morrow." 

Then  the  wizard  left  the  barn  and  went  to  bed  well 

Collectanea.  33 1 

rhe  fanner,  who  was  hiding  in  the  straw,  heard  everything, 
i  made  up  his  mind  to  travel  to  Carmarthen  at  once,  so  as 
be  there  in  time  to  find  his  cows  on  the  bridge. 
>o  ofif  he  went  to  Carmarthen,  and  reached  the  bridge  just 
twelve  o'clock,  and  to  his  great  joy  the  cows  were  there! 
rhen  he  drove  them  home,  but  when  he  had  gone  about 
f-a-mile  from  the  bridge,  the  cows  fell  down  as  if  half  dead 

the  roadside,  and  in  vain  did  he  try  to  get  them  to  move 
ward  any  further.  So  he  had  to  go  all  the  way  to  Cwrt-y- 
dno  again,  so  as  to  consult  what  to  do.  When  he  arrived 
Te  **  Serve  thee  right,"  said  the  wizard  to  him,  "  I  have  cast 
tpell  on  thy  cattle  for  running  away  secretly  last  night  from 
\  bam  without  paying  me  for  the  information  obtained  firom 
;  spirits," 

Fhen  the  farmer  gave  the  wizard  a  certain  sum  of  money 
i  returned  to  his  three  cows  which  he  had  left  on  the  road 
f-a-mile  from  Carmarthen  bridge,  and  to  his  great  joy  the 
vs  went  home  without  any  further  trouble. 
The  conjuror  I  have  mentioned  was  both  a  medical  man 
1  a  wizard,  and  there  is  a  tale  current  in  Carmarthenshire 
t  the  bearers  who  carried  his  body  to  the  churchyard  on  the 
iT  of  his  burial,  when  nearing  the  church,  felt  the  weight  of 

bier  with  the  body  get  very  light  in  weight,  and  that  the 
son  was  that  the  Evil  Spirit  then  took  possession  of  his 
jy,  having  previously  taken  possession  of  his  soul  at  the  time 
his  death. 

I  also  found  a  similar  tale  about  a  conjuror  who  was  buried 
rty  five  years  ago  at  Llanatan  Churchyard,  in  Cardiganshire. 
'  informant  was  present  at  the  funeral. 

Jonathan  Ceredig  Davies. 

332  Collectanea, 

The  Use  of  a  Skull  in  a  Rain-making  Ceremony  in 

The  following  note  is  translated  from  J.  B.  Marcaggi's  Handbook 
to  Corsica,  entitled  tile  de  Corse^  printed  in  Ajaccio,  1908. 
Cauro  is  a  village  among  the  hills,  380  metres  above  sea  level, 
east  of  the  Gulf  of  Ajaccio.  The  facts  narrated  were  attested 
by  M.  Frangois  Peraldi,  formerly  mayor  of  Cauro,  to  Dr.  Vico 
in  a  narrative  communicated  to  the  editors  of  the  Guide-book, 

F.  C.  Conybeare. 

"The  head  of  Sampiero  (the  Corsican  patriot)  was  buried  in 
the  church  of  Cauro,  on  Feb.  18,  1569.  The  governor  of 
Corsica,  George  Dona,  wrote  to  the  commissary  of  Ajaccio  to 
remove  the  head  and  limbs  of  Sampiero,  which  were  exposed 
on  the  ramparts  of  the  citadel,  and  to  bury  them  in  the 
Cathedral,  in  case  no  relative  or  friend  of  Alphonso  d'Omano, 
his  son,  should  claim  them.  The  following  were  the  curious 
circumstances  under  which  his  head  disappeared.  It  was  a 
traditional  custom  at  Cauro  to  carry  in  procession  in  times  of 
drought  a  dead  man's  head,  and  the  child  charged  with  the 
honourable  task  of  carrying  it  had  to  throw  it  into  the  first 
brook  he  came  to.  About  1838  or  1840,  the  young  Frangois 
Peraldi  and  three  of  his  little  comrades,  Leccia  Ange,  Pictri 
J.-M.,  and  Padovani  Charles,  discovered  in  the  church  of  Cauro 
and  took  possession  of  a  wooden  box,  covered  with  blue  paper, 
in  which  was  a  dead  man's  head,  labelled  San  Piiro,  They 
lost  no  time  and  took  care  to  make  it  figure  in  the  procession 
which  was  to  take  place  the  next  day,  and  they  laid  it  in  the 
little  brook  of  Cauro  Sottano.  A  heavy  rain  fell  in  the  night, 
and  Sampiero's  head  had  disappeared  next  day,  carried  away, 
no  doubt,  by  the  torrent." 


The  Pedlar  of  Swaffham. 

I  have  read  in  the  June  number  of  Folk-Lore  the  review  by 
Mr.  Andrew  Lang  of  Mr.  Gomme's  recent  book  on  Folklore  as 
an  Historical  Science.  While  it  displays  many  of  the  piquant 
and  delightful  characteristics  of  Mr.  Lang's  writing  I  hardly 
think  it  does  justice  to  the  keen  critical  power,  the  wide  know- 
ledge, and  the  fertility  of  suggestion  displayed  in  the  work.  On 
one  point,  however,  I  am  heartily  in  agreement  with  the 
reviewer,  namely,  his  opening  remark  that  "discussion  clean 
matters  up,  and  that  criticism  is  really  a  form  of  collaboration.'' 
^Vith  this  in  mind  I  venture  to  offer  a  few  observations  on 
Mr.  Gomine's  treatment  of  the  tale  of  the  Pedlar  of  Swaffham. 
It  is  a  mere  detail,  and  if  the  conclusion  I  am  about  to  con- 
trovert be  rejected  the  general  argument  of  the  book  will  be 
in  no  way  affected.  The  utmost  that  can  then  be  said  is  that 
some  other  story  would  have  formed  a  better  illustration  of  the 
possibilities  which  a  due  consideration  of  the  contents  of  tradi- 
tion may  evolve. 

All  the  British  variants  of  the  story  of  the  Pedlar  of  Swaff- 
ham represent  the  hero  to  have  been  directed  by  his  dream  to 
London  Bridge  as  the  place  where  he  was  to  hear  good  news. 
London  Bridge  is  also  mentioned  in  other  traditions,  English 
and  Welsh.  Moreover,  it  appears  in  a  Breton  story  not  belong- 
mg  to  the  Pedlar  cycle,  where  the  hero  disputes  with  another 
man  which  was  more  beautiful,  London  Bridge  or  the  grace  of 
<iod.     He  bets   all    his   possessions  on  the  latter,  and   by  the 

334  Correspondence. 

award  of  the  first  person  they  meet  loses  them.  Then  he 
makes  his  way  to  London  Bridge  to  see  it  for  himself,  and 
there  hears  something  which  finally  obtains  him  the  hand  of 
an  emperor's  daughter.  A  story  in  the  Heimskringla  also 
mentions  London  Bridge.  A  cripple  directed  to  St  Olafs 
Church  for  healing  meets  on  London  Bridge  a  mysterious  stranger 
who  shews  him  the  way  to  the  church.  Mr.  Gomme  claims 
that  these  traditions  prove  that  London  Bridge,  first  built  by  the 
Romans,  had  produced  a  profound  impression  on  the  minds  of 
the  natives  of  Britain  prior  to  the  emigration  to  Brittany,  as  well 
as  on  the  minds  of  the  raiding  Norsemen  centuries  later. 

Taking  the  Norsemen  first,  it  will  be  observed  that  the  mention 
of  the  bridge  is  merely  incidental.  To  a  man  coming  to  London 
from  France,  as  the  tale  represents,  London  Bridge  would 
be  the  entrance  to  the  city ;  and  it  is  there  (surely  the  most 
natural  place)  that  he  meets  the  stranger  who  conducts  him  to 
the  church.  All  the  other  stories  to  which  Mr.  Gomme  refers 
were  recorded  centuries  later  than  this.  The  earliest  recorded 
version  of  the  Pedlar  of  Swaffliam  is  by  Sir  William  Dugdale 
in  a  letter  to  Sir  Roger  Twysden  under  date  29th  Jan.,  1652-3. 
The  Welsh  tales  (which  do  not  belong  to  the  same  cycle, 
though  they  do  relate  to  buried  treasure)  were  not  recorded 
before  the  middle  of  the  last  century.  The  Breton  story  is 
later  still. 

Now  with  great  submission  I  think  this  is  rather  a  sandy 
foundation  for  Mr.  Gomme's  conclusion.  It  may  be  conceded 
that  London  Bridge  had  acquired  a  reputation  as  a  remarkable 
work,  and  one  of  the  wonders  of  the  capital,  in  all  sorts  of  out  of 
the  way  places.  But  it  is  far  too  large  an  assumption  that  it 
must  have  been  before  the  flight  of  the  British  emigrants  at 
the  time  of  the  Anglo-Saxon  invasion  to  their  new  home  in 
Brittany.  There  was  plenty  of  time  and  plenty  of  opportunity 
for  much  later  tidings  of  the  wonder  to  travel  to  remote  places 
and  become  fixed  in  the  mind  of  the  folk  before  any  of  the 
tales  were  recorded.  I  am  not  unmindftil  of  the  tenacity  of 
tradition,  nor  do  I  forget  that  the  date  of  the  record  is  by  no 
means  the  terminus  a  quo  from  which  the  date  of  the  tradition 
itself  is  to  be  reckoned.     The  stories,  however,  are,  in  the  form 

Correspondence,  335 

least  in  which  they  have  descended  to  us,  all  of  them  late, 
ne  of  them,  save  perhaps  the  song  "  London  Bridge  is  broken 
im,"  could  have  arisen  in  a  condition  of  society  where  hostility 
i  bloodshed  were  rife,  and  travel  and  commerce  were  unknown 
uncommon  and  unsafe.  In  a  sense  it  is  true  that,  as  Mr. 
mme  points  out,  legends  of  buried  treasure  belong  to  the 
lod  of  conquest  and  fighting.  But  in  this  form  they  point 
a  period  when  the  conquest  and  fighting  had  long  been 
le,  when  peace  had  been  re-established  in  such  prestige  that 
)p]e  could  safely  trade  and  journey  and  if  good  luck  attended 
m  recover  the  treasure  buried  by  others  long  ages  before, 
rhere  are  still  further  considerations.  The  tale  of  the  Pedlar 
Swafifham  is  common  all  over  central  Europe  as  far  north  as 
nmark  and  as  far  south  as  Sicily.  It  even  appears  in  the 
Man  Nights^  the  Masnavi  I  Ma'navi  and  other  Oriental  com- 
itions.  The  relations  of  these  variants  to  one  another  and 
the  British  variants  have  not  yet  been  fully  investigated, 
t  it  is  quite  clear  that  they  all  arose  in  much  the  same  state 
society ;  and  it  is  important  to  note  that  nearly  all  the 
ropean  variants  mention  a  bridge — sometimes  one  bridge, 
aetimes  another,  according  to  the  country  where  the  tale  is 
i — as  the  place  where  the  good  news  is  to  be  communicated 
the  treasure  heard  of.  Before  we  can  draw  any  certain 
•Fences  from  the  mention  in  the  British  tales  of  London 
dgc,  we  must  know  why  a  bridge  at  all  was  selected  as  the 
ne.  There  is  nothing  of  the  sort  in  the  Oriental  versions, 
i  the  remarkable  agreement  of  the  European  tales  on  this 
ail  points  to  a  common  source  for  them  all.  If,  when  the 
t  came  to  England,  probably — nay,  certainly — long  after  the 
glo-Saxon  settlement,  a  bridge  had  to  be  found  as  the  scene, 
ny  reasons  may  be  suggested  for  choosing  London  Bridge, 
hout  going  back  to  the  days  of  the  Romans  for  its  renown. 
The  Lambeth  window  cannot  upon  the  evidence  be  connected 
h  tlie  stor>-.  It  did  indeed  agree  with  the  stone  figure  at 
iffham  m  representing  a  pedlar  with  his  pack  and  dog.  But 
far  as  local  tradition  goes,  it  was  intended  simply  to  com- 
morate  a  benefaction  to  the  parish  by  a  pedlar  called  Dog 
ith.     Dog   Smith   was   an   historical   character  who   lived   in 

2^6  Correspondence. 

the  seventeenth  century.  It  seems,  however,  that  a  painting 
of  a  pedlar  existed  in  the  window  long  before  his  death,  but 
whom  or  what  it  referred  to  there  is  nothing  to  show.^  No  tale 
corresponding  to  that  of  the  Pedlar  of  Swaffham  has  been 
recovered  in  the  parish.  The  dog,  it  should  be  observed, 
though  found  in  the  representations  both  at  Swaffham  and  at 
Lambeth,  does  not  make  his  appearance  in  the  story. 

In  view  of  these  considerations  I  cannot  think  that  Mr. 
Gomme  is  well  advised  in  adducing  the  tale  of  the  Pedlar 
of  Swaffham  as  revealing  anything  of  the  stage  of  civiliza- 
tion of  the  native  Britons  when  the  Romans  first  built  London 
Bridge,  or  of  the  impression  made  by  the  bridge  upon  theur 

E.  Sidney  Hartland. 

Opening  Windows  for  the  Dead. 

Apropos  of  the  above  subject,  referred  to  in  Folk-Lore^  March, 
1908,  a  comparatively  recent  occurrence  of  the  practice  is  cited 
from  the  Times  of  4th  September,  1863,  copied  from  the  Bridge- 
water  Mercury^  by  Mr.  P.  H.  Chavasse  in  Advice  to  a  Mother 
on  the  Management  of  her  Children^  in  connection  with  the 
necessity  of  ventilation  in  scarlatina.  As  the  book  may  be  out  of 
print  I  give  the  extract. 

"  Gross  Superstition. — In  one  of  the  streets  of  Taunton  there 
resides  a  man  and  his  wife  who  have  the  care  of  a  child.  This 
child  was  attacked  with  scarlatina,  and  to  all  appearance  death 
was  inevitable.  A  jury  of  matrons  was,  as  it  were,  empanelled, 
and  to  prevent  the  child  *  dying  hard  '  all  the  doors  in  the  house, 
all  the  drawers,  all  the  boxes,  all  the  cupboards  were  thrown 
wide  open,  the  keys  taken  out,  and  the  body  of  the  child  placed 
under  a  beam,  whereby  a  sure,  certain,  and  easy  passage  into 
eternity  could  be  secured.  Watchers  held  their  vigils  throughout 
the  weary  night,  and  in  the  morning  the  child,  to  the  surprise  of 
all,  did  not  die,  and  is  now  gradually  recovering." 

^  See  Mr.  Gomme's  full  discussion  of  the  matter,  Antiquary^  vol.  x.  p.  202. 

Correspondence.  337 

Last  year  I  heard  of  shutting  windows,  after  death,  from  a 
ambridge  woman  sixty  years  old.  She  did  not  know  why  it  was 

W.  Innes  Pocock. 


At  the  December  meeting  (1905)  I  exhibited  a  so-called  Thar- 
lake,  a  species  of  Parken,  that  a  Lancashire  lady  had  sent  me. 
"he  exhibit  elicited  a  deal  of  correspondence,  and  I  now  beg  to 
ommunicate,  what  I  consider  to  be,  the  most  important  facts  I 
ave  been  able  to  collect. 

The  lady  (Miss  Berry  of  Oldham,  Lancashire),  who  sent  me  the 
ake  confirms  what  she  previously  stated,  viz.,  that  the  cake  is 
enerally  made  for,  and  eaten  on,  November  5th.  According 
3  local  authorities  this  date  coincides  with  an  old  feast  in  honour 
f  the  Scandinavian  God  Thor ;  for  this  something  may  be  said 
%eq.\  The  same  kind  of  cake  is  made  in  Yorkshire,  but  is  called 
^ork  Parken. 

Mrs.  Gomme  suggested  I  should  publish  the  recipe — Voila !! 

Finely  ground  flour,  2  lbs. ;  granulated  sugar,  2  table-spoon- 
lis ;  ground  ginger,  \  oz. ;  baking  powder  (evidently  a  modem 
movation),  i  teaspoonful ;  candied  peel,  cut  fine,  2  oz. ;  sweet 
Imonds,  chopped,  i  oz.  ;  Kiel  butter,  5  oz. 

Rub  the  ingredients  well  together,  and  then  mix  with  a  tea- 
upful  of  milk  and  as  much  Scotch  treacle  as  will  make  it 
ghtly  stiff.  Bake  in  greased  tin  in  a  slow  oven.  My  corre- 
pondent  says  many  of  the  ingredients  are  modem  innovations, 
nd  the  very  old  people  in  her  neighbourhood  say  that  nothing 
ut  oatmeal,  butter,  and  treacle  should  be  used. 

Mr.  H.  Jewett  calls  my  attention  to  the  fact  that  it  is  customary 
1  Lancashire  to  make  and  eai  toffee  on  the  5th  November,  but 
iiss  Berry  says  that  toffee  is  always  looked  on  as  a  sort  of 
I'.pernumerary  adjunct,  not  a  necessity  for  the  day's  repast 
Ir.    Jewiit   quoting   from    Dr.    Tille's    Yule^Hdi  and   Christmas 


^^S  Correspondence. 

(Nutt)  says,  "It  (Yule-tide)  originally  extended  firom  mid- 
November  to  mid-January,  and  amongst  the  Goths  of  the  sixth 
century  covered  November  and  December,"  but  that  **  the  Anglo- 
Saxons  of  the  seventh  century  celebrated  December  and  January 
as  the  festal  months."  The  Scandinavian  Yule  festival  was  a 
product  of  the  ninth  century,  and  circa  950  King  Hakon  ordered 
the  celebration  to  be  on  the  same  day  as  the  Christian  Nativity 
festival."  Mr.  Jewitt  thinks  that  the  influence  of  the  Celtic  feast 
of  the  Winter  nights — November  eve — being  strong  in  Lancashire 
and  Yorkshire,  may  have  stereotyped  an  earlier  observance  of  the 
Yule-tide  feast  of  the  conquering  northern  race,  although  the 
name  of  Yule  was  transferred  to  the  accepted  date  of  the  Nativity. 
I  think,  speaking  philologically,  there  is  some  warrant  for  this 
latter  theory. 

Mr.  S.  J.  Heathcote  quotes  Edwin  Waugh,  the  Lancashire  poet, 
as  mentioning  Thar  Cake,  and  adds  there  are  very  many  Scandi- 
navian place-names  in  the  County  Palatine.  Brand  {Antiquities^ 
vol.  ii.  p.  585)  refers  to  Tharf  Cake,  and  says  it  is  used  by  Lang- 
land  {Piers  Plowman)  to  signify  unleavened  bread.  Philologically 
the  origin  of  the  word  is  as  follows  : 

Halliwell's  Dictionary  of  Archaic   Words^  2  vols.,  1865,  gives : 

Thurd  Cake,  a  thin  circular  cake  of  considerable  size,  made  of 
un fermented  dough,  chiefly  of  rye  and  barley,  rolled  very  thin  and 
baked  hard.  The  word  appears  to  be  a  corruption  of  "tharf," 
unleavened.     Thar  or  Thor  Cake — Derby,  5th  November  Cake. 

Parken,  a  cake  made  chiefly  of  treacle  and  oatmeal — North  of 

Wright's  English  Dialect  Dictionary^  vol.  vi.  p.  75,  Thar-cake, 
short  for  Tharf-cake. 

(i)  An  unleavened  cake  of  flour  or  meal,  mixed  with  milk  or 
water,  rolled  out  thin  and  baked. 

(2)  A  kind  of  cake  of  oatmeal,  butter,  and  treacle. 

Used  in  West  Yorkshire,  Lancashire,  Derby,  Cumberland,  and 

Professor  Skeat  writes  me :  "  The  Middle  English  form  is 
th erf-cake,  and  thus  occurs  in  Piers  Plowman,  The  A.S.  for 
thert  is  theorf  (very  common),  Old  Norse  Pjarfr  (thiarf-r).  Old 
High  German  dcrb,  all  meaning  unleavened."     It  would  therefore 

Correspondence.  339 

sm  as  though  the  cake  itself  was  of  Anglo-Saxon  or  possibly 
>thic  origin,  but,  unless  on  the  lines  suggested  by  Dr.  Tille,  it 
difiicult  to  say  why  it  should  be  so  closely  associated  with  the 
rly  days  of  November,  although  if  there  be  allowed  us  an 
planation  of  origins,  then  the  practice  of  eating  a  fancy  cake 
i  one  particular  day  in  November  in  connection  with  feasting 
Id  on  account  of  some  national  festival — such  as  the  discovery 
the  gunpowder  plot — may  have  developed  from  it.  Should 
ch  a  conjecture  be  correct,  there  would  be  nothing  novel  in 
to  folklorists,  as  they  are  constantly  finding  Christian  festivals 
Dchronising  with  older  heathen  observances  on  which  they  have 
en  engrafted. 

C.  J.  Tabor. 

Bees  and  Withered  Branches. 

You  take,  it  seems,  even  trivial  facts  of  local  superstitions, 
ay  I  mention  one  which  I  only  heard  some  two  weeks  back 
re  in  my  country,  Anglesey?  On  my  showing  a  cottager, 
illiam  Jones,  a  swarm  of  bees  on  a  laburnum,  which  I  wished 
hive,  he  remarked  how  a  swarm  had  on  a  previous  year  settled 
\  the  same  plant,  and  referred  to  the  local  idea  that,  wherever 
res  settled,  the  branch  withered,  pointing  out  such  a  branch  (or 
ig).  He  was  sjieaking  Welsh.  In  that  language  there  is  a 
und  similarity  between  gwenyn  and  gwyivo^  bees  and  wither^ 

H.  H.  Johnson. 

Wedding  Custom. 

A  trained  nurse,  a  Scotchwoman,  born  about  five  miles  from 
ilmoral,  tells  nie  that  in  that  part  of  the  country  when  a  younger 
iter  marries  before  the  elder,  the  latter  is  forcibly  made  to  wear 
een  garters  at  the  wedding,  and  any  young  man  who  takes  them 
r  is  destined  to  be  her  future  husband.  Her  eldest  sister  was 
best  maid "  to   the   younger  one  (though  I  believe  it  is  not 

340  Correspondence. 

correct  for  any  of  the  maids  to  be  older  than  the  bride)  and  the 
"best  man,"  whom  she  had  never  seen  before,  took  oflf  her 
green  garters,  and  is  now  her  husband. 

C.  S.  BURNE. 

[This  note  gives  an  interesting  expansion  of  the  custom  noted 
in  Gregorys  Folk-Lore  of  the  North-East  of  Scotland^  p.  90.  He 
only  says  that  if  a  younger  sister  was  married  she  had  to  give  her 
eldest  sister  green  garters.] 


I  enclose  two  newspaper  cuttings  which  may  be  of  interest  to 

It  is  popularly  believed  in  Devon  that  nobody  can  "  ill-wish " 
or  "over-look"  a  first-bom.  Is  this  a  universal  belief,  or  one 
peculiar  to  the  west  country  ? 

A  few  years  ago  there  was  a  quarrel  between  neighbours  in  a 
village  near  this  town.  One  woman  declared  that  her  health  had 
suffered  through  the  "  ill-wishing  '*  of  a  neighbour,  and  the  rector 
of  the  parish,  in  attempting  to  make  peace,  asked  her  how  it  had 
come  about.  She  told  him  that  when  her  husband  and  the 
woman  whom  she  accused  of  overlooking  her  were  in  a  field 
weeding  turnips,  "  her  was  ill-wishing  of  him  all  the  time."  The 
rector  asked  how  it  was  that  the  husband  had  not  suffered,  and 
was  told:  "Because  he  was  a  first-bom  and  her  couldn't  harm 
him.  It  had  to  pass  over  to  the  nearest  to  him,  and  that  was 

(Mrs.)  Amy  Montague. 

Western  Morning  NewSy  April  17th,  1906. 

Curious  Scene  at  Sutcombe,  North  Devon. 

Revival  of  an  Old  Faith  Cure, 

North  Devon  is  full  of  strange  folk-lore  and  beliefs  (we  won't  call  them 

superstitions).     On  Sunday  the  parish  church  of  Sutcombe,  a  small  village 

between  Holsworthy  and  Hartland,  was  the  scene  of  a  revival  of  an  interesting 

Correspondence,  341 

Id  £ulh  core.  A  woman  in  the  parish  has  of  late  been  a  sufferer  from 
pileptic  fits,  and  at  the  persuasion  of  a  neighbour,  who  nineteen  years  ago  had 
one  the  same  thing  and  had  not  stiffered  from  fits  since,  she  went  round  the 
arish  and  got  thirty  married  men  to  promise  to  attend  the  parish  church  at 
ie  morning  service.  It  was  a  gratifying  sight  to  see  so  large  a  congregation, 
rawn  together  out  of  sympathy  for  a  neighbour  and  a  desire  to  do  anything 
be  thought  might  help  her.  At  the  close  of  the  service  the  rector  desired  the 
sleeted  men  to  pass  out  one  by  one,  and  as  they  passed  through  the  porch 
ley  found  the  woman  seated  there,  accompanied  by  the  neighbour  who  had 
one  the  same  thing  nineteen  years  ago  (as  many  who  were  present  remem- 
ered).  Each  man  as  he  passed  out  put  a  penny  in  the  woman's  lap,  but  when 
le  thirtieth  man  (the  rector's  churchwarden)  came  he  took  the  twenty-nine 
ennies  and  pot  in  half  a  crown.  A  silver  ring  is  to  be  made  out  of  this  half* 
rown,  which  the  woman  is  to  wear,  and  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  result  will 
e  as  satisfactory  in  her  case  as  it  was  on  the  previous  occasion.  In  a  small 
arish  (less  than  300  population)  it  was  not  easy  to  find  thirty  married  men, 
ot  all  were  willing  to  help — farmers,  labourers,  and  tradesmen — and  the 
'hole  incident  passed  off  very  quietly,  and  all  was  done  with  the  utmost 
sverence  and  decorum.  The  woman  lakes  her  seat  in  the  porch  when  the 
reacher  begins  his  sermon,  and  from  the  rime  she  leaves  her  house  until  she 
:tums  she  must  not  speak  a  word.  We  have  not  heard  whether  she  complied 
ith  this  condition.  Can  any  of  your  readers  furnish  me  with  the  details  of 
ny  similar  case  ? 
Sutcombe  Rector>.  ^-  «•  Sc«lv«Nt». 

Wisictn  Morning  NezvSy  .^pril  19th,   1906. 
Revival  ok  an  Old  Faith  Cure. 

Sumo  fiflecn  ycar^  r,\  more  when  I  was  rector  of  Bideford,  a  young  woman 
ifiering  from  epileptic  fits  a>kcd  me  to  go  10  the  porch  after  preaching  and 
>l(i  her  hand  while  she  collected  a  penny  from  thirty  (I  thought  it  was 
^married,  hut  it  may  have  iK-en  married)  men  as  they  passed  out  of  church 
ic  f»>lluwin^  Sunda\  evening  ;  which  thirty  coppers  were  to  be  exchanged  for 
silver  half  crown,  uui  uf  which  a  rin^  was  to  be  made  which  she  would  wear, 
I'i  v.,  \k  cured  of  her  e[iilepsy.      I  fear  I  uas  not  so  complacent  as  the  rector 

Sutc<«in!>e,  and  decline*!  tu  fostei  such  superstition,  as  I  regarded  it.  The 
om.m  cea>cd,  in  c  n-ejuence  of  m\  refusal,  to  Ix:  a  member  of  the  Church  of 
n^lar.  1  and  j-inc!!  the  We-leyan  XnAy.  I  do  not  remember  hearing  that  she 
a>  more  ^ucce->ful,  however,  with  them.  On  another  occasion  a  young 
rnicr  tr.jtn  tl.e  r.e)^'i.l - 'uriL^Kl  of  Torringion  called  on  me  and  asked  me  to 
!i  Mm  \\t  .It  was  (I  ut.iH.ed  in  a  Uig  which  he  had  worn  round  his  neck  since 
f.mcy,  in  i  wfiKfi  a  uhiie  witch  had  L;iven  hi.s  mother  as  a  preventative 
;\i:.  t  t;'.-.  A:er  c;  ttin.;  ojx.Mi  >cveral  outer  cases,  well  worn  and  sweat- 
lined.  I  ..inn  r.;v  ;  t!ie  -ri^mal  inner  one,  which  contained  a  number  of 
cvv  (f  {Vi-jK^r.  c.u  .  '  cariiij;  one  word.     I'iecing  them  together  I  found  they 

342  Correspondence. 

formed  the  following  sentences:  "Sinner,  Jesus  died  for  thee"  (thrice 
repeated),  "Therefore  flee  that  sin."  At  the  man's  request  these  pieces  of 
paper  were  reinserted  in  their  several  bags,  and  my  maidservant  sewed  them 
up  again,  and  he,  replacing  the  charm  round  his  neck  once  more,  went  on  his 
way  rejoicing,  being  now  in  a  position  to  tell  a  neighbour,  whose  child  had 
abo  fits,  that  was  a  certain  cure  for  them. 

Pilton  House,  Pinhoe,  17th  April.  ROGBR  Grakvillb. 

Ghost  Invisible  to  a  First-born  Son. 

Some  twenty-five  years  ago  a  clerical  friend  of  mine  was  obliged 
to  change  his  residence  because  his  wife  and  the  servants  per- 
sistently declared  that  they  saw  ghosts  in  the  house.  That  he 
could  not  see  them  was  accounted  for  by  the  fiact  that  he  was 
a  first-bom  son.  This  occurred  in  Buckinghamshire,  but  the 
lady  belonged  to  a  North  Devon  family  in  close  touch  with  the 

C.  S.  Burns. 

[Cf.  "Lucky  and  Unlucky  Children,"  by  H.  A.  Rose,  Folk- 
Lore^  vol.  xiii.,  especially  pp.  63,  188,  278.] 

An  Historical  Ghost. 

I  think  you  may  like  the  following,  as  "  authenticated "  (so  to 
speak)  traditions  are  always  to  be  preserved : 

There  was  a  ghost  of  a  tall  old  man  dressed  in  ragged  soldier's 
uniform  (some  say  "  like  a  captain  ")  which  haunted  the  fork  of 
the  roads  at  "  Clagland's  Comer,"  on  the  Bridgwater-Stoke  Courcy 
high  road,  where  the  branch  to  Stowes  joins  it  A  week  or  two 
ago,  when  digging  the  hole  for  a  new  sign-post  on  the  triangular 
patch  of  grass  at  the  fork,  the  men  found  the  bones  of  a  tcdl  man 
who  had  been  long  interred  there.  They  were  but  a  few — say 
six — inches  below  the  surface,  and  had  been,  as  might  have  been 

Correspondence,  343 

^xpected,  either  disturbed  in  some  road-mending  operations 
>efore,  or  ebe  dislocated  and  broken  up  by  weight  of  occasional 
raffic  across  the  bit  of  grass.     Only  the  long  bones  were  left 

Presumably,  from  position,  this  would  be  a  suicide.  But  here 
t  is  possible,  and  perhaps  probable,  from  the  tradition  of  the 
miform,  that  the  body  was  that  of  a  Sedgmoor  fugitive — hung  by 
Cirke's  men  at  the  cross  roads — and  buried  there  by  our  villagers, 
Ls  a  stranger  to  them,  while  it  was  still  unsafe  to  show  any  interest 
n  Monmouth's  followers. 

Of  course  there  is  no  entry  of  suicide  burial  in  our  registers. 

Just  another  note.  At  Cannington  we  still  find  the  older 
dllagers  using  the  good  old  Saxon  term  "  Welsh^'  for  any  other 
han  Somerset  folk.  The  younger  use  ^^foreignt/* — translation  of 
course — alternatively.     May  be  worth  noting,  as  a  good  survival. 

Chas.  W.  Whistlbr. 

(Vol.  xviii.  p.  448.) 

I  be^  to  draw  attention  to  a  custom  practised  in  Swanetia  in 
he  Caucasus,  known  to  me  by  an  article  of  Mr.  Murko  in 
he  Artzinger  fur  deutsches  Altertum  i6  (1889),  338,  a  custom 
nuch  akin  to  the  ceremony  described  above,  and  apt  to  confirm 
he  views  of  Mr.  Hartland.  Linturali,  they  call  in  Swanetia,  a 
rereniony  engendering  the  relation  of  blood-kinship  between  a 
nan  and  a  woman,  married  or  not,  and  giving  to  the  former  the 
ight  to  •*  serve  '*  the  latter.  The  young  Swanetian  wishing  to 
inter  into  this  relation  with  any  unknown  lady,  intimates  to  her 
lis  intention  of  doing  so,  and  it  depends  on  her  to  accept 
)r  to  refuse  Linturali.  As  soon  as  the  knightly  Swanetian  has 
eceived  the  assent  of  the  parents  of  the  adored  lady,  he 
ransi)orts  himself  to  her  home  in  the  evening  of  a  fixed  day, 
iccompanied  by  a  friend  and  provided  with  brandy.  He  is 
leartily    welcomed   and    honourably   treated.      As   soon  as   the 

344  Correspondence. 

master  of  the  house  and  all  the  assembly  have  raised  their  goblets 
with  brandy  and  have  prayed  to  God  to  bless  Ldnturali  of  the 
male  and  female  Swanetian,  the  knight  advances  with  his  goblet 
to  the  adored  lady,  falls  on  one  knee  and  bows  his  head  as  a  sign 
of  unbreakable  faith.  Then  he  turns  devotedly  towards  her, 
asking  whether  it  is  he  who  shall  touch  her  breast  with  his  teeth» 
or  if  she  will  do  it  to  him  ;  that  is  to  say,  whether  she  will  be  his 
mother  or  he  shall  be  her  father.  In  the  first  case  he  opens  her 
dress,  bestrews  her  breast  with  salt  and  touches  it  with  his  teeth, 
repeating  thrice  "// ^/,  mi  gesiV  (thou  mother,  I  son).  By  this 
proceeding   blood-kinship    is   formed    between  the  knight  and 

the  lady. 

S.  Singer. 
Berne,  8th  Jan.  1908. 

Journey  Omen. 

In  1874,  or  thereby,  when  living  at  New  Galloway  in  the 
Glenkens,  Stewartry  of  Kirkcudbright,  I  frequently  met  an  old 
couple  who  then  lived  at  Gordonston  Mill.  (The  Mill  itself  was 
remarkable,  because  it  was  constructed  wholly  of  wood,  without 
even  nails  of  iron.)  The  old  dame  always  kept  a  bunch  of  the 
rowan-twigs  over  the  door,  and  observed  other  "  freits "  which  I 
have  since  forgotten.  But  one  day,  her  husband  came  up  the 
road,  eastward,  with  me,  when  suddenly  he  turned  abruptly  and 
began  walking  homewards.  I  turned  and  expostulated,  but  in 
vain.  At  length,  he  did  turn  in  the  direction  we  had  started, 
reached  the  sj^ot  where  we  halted,  stooped  down,  and  pointing  to 
a  minute  ol'joct  on  the  road  said,  "  D'ye  think  I  wad  gang  ony 
furder  that  road  the  day?"  It  was  a  bent  pin  that  caused  him 
to  i-ause. 

Fred.  R.  Coles. 

Soc.  AniKj.  Scot.,   Kdinburch. 

Correspondence.  345 

Sheep  in  Folk-Medicine. 

My  old  ex-housekeeper,  a  Devonshire  woman,  told  me  the 
her  day  of  a  cure  for  the  whooping-cough,  which  may  possibly 
\  worth  recording.  The  child  must  be  taken  in  early  morning 
a  field  with  dew  on  it,  and  a  sheep  must  be  turned  off  his 
form."  The  child  is  then  rolled  in  the  place  where  the  sheep 
IS  been  lying.  She  remembered  this  cure  being  told  her 
r  her  mother  in  Devonshire. 

VV.  Warde  Fowler. 


From  Carpathian  to  Pindus:  Pictures  of  Roumanian 
Country  Life.  By  Tareza  Stratilesco.  With  2  Maps 
and  63  Illustrations.     Fisher  Unwin.     15s.  net 

We  are  not  able  from  first  hand  knowledge  to  pronounce  on  the 
truth  of  this  picture  of  Roumanian  life,  but  there  is  no  doubt  as 
to  its  interest.  There  is  an  introduction  of  43  pp.  in  which  the 
history  of  Roumania  is  briefly  sketched,  with  illustrative  extracts 
from  its  ballads.  If  the  authoress  takes  a  more  rosy  view  of  the 
character  and  importance  of  the  people  than  some  might  do,  who 
shall  blame  her  ?  She  speaks  from  the  heart  The  succeeding 
chapters  take  the  Peasant  in  various  aspects :  Peasant  and  Soil, 
Peasant  in  the  Social  Scale,  and  as  related  to  the  State,  Religion, 
Home  and  Work,  Social  Life,  Pastimes  and  Foreigners.  Wherever 
possible,  the  statements  of  the  text  are  illustrated  by  ballads,  in 
the  original  Roumanian  and  in  translation.  These  ballads  are 
very  characteristic :  their  point  of  view  is  their  own,  their  imagery 
<lrawn  from  the  surrounding  country.  The  peasant  hates  the  large 
landowners,  and  he  hates  the  Greek,  the  Russian,  the  Tartar — 
all  the  many  peoples  that  have  oppressed  him  in  the  past  But 
he  is  always  a  poet :  all  his  feelings  are  expressed  in  verse,  even 
those  of  the  conscript  in  barracks.  The  tale  is  also  interspersed 
with  proverbs  and  anecdotes. 

Some  very  curious  and  primitive  myths  are  given  (for  example, 
the  cosmic  myth  on  p.  1 70) :  biblical  legends  are  mixed  up  with 
savagery,  devils  with   giants,  and   a  strange  gallimaufry  is  the 

Reviews.  347 

suit.  Unfortunately,  these  legends  are  only  given  in  brief  or  by 
ly  of  allusion.  Rain-making  charms  and  other  such  are  given 
ore  fully.  There  are  a  few  classical  survivals,  such  as  the 
ussaiii  (Lat.  Rosalia).  The  names  of  the  months  are  taken 
Dm  the  peasant's  occupations  or  the  earth's  changes :  January  is 
erary  frost ;  February,  Faur  (faber) ;  April,  Florar^  the  flower- 
'inger ;  June  is  Ciresar^  the  cherry  month,  and  so  forth.  Details 
e  given  of  Wedding  Customs  and  other  parts  of  social  life.  The 
hole  book  is  written  in  a  lively  and  romantic  style,  which  makes 
very  good  reading. 

W.  H.  D.  Rouse. 


TAPARVAN.  Deutsch  mit  Einleitung  und  Anmerkungen  von 
Johannes  Hertel.  Leipzig :  Verlag  von  Wilhelm  Heims, 

HB  present  volume  is  intended  to  be  the  first  of  a  series 
f  collections  of  tales  to  be  translated  from  various  Eastern 
inguages,    with    introductions    and   notes    and   indexes.    The 

oveming  idea  of  the  series  seems  to  be  "that  nothing  is  better 
ilculated  to  give  an  insight  into  the  thoughts  and  feelings  of 
jreign  nations  than  their  stories." 

Dr.  Hertel,  who  has  done  so  much  for  the  cause  of  Indian 
jlk-lore  by  his  investigations  into  the  various  recensions  of  the 
'anchatanira,  has  now  turned  his  attention  to  the  Parisishtaparvan 
f  the  famous  Jain  teacher,  Hemachandra,  who  flourished  during 
ie  reigns  of  Jayachandra  and  his  successor  Kum^apdla,  kings 
f  Gujarat.  He  was  bom  in  December,  1088  A.D.,  and  died  in 
173  A-D.  The  poem  of  Hemachandra,  from  which  Dr.  Hertel 
as  translated  these  extracts,  is  also  known  by  the  name  of 
ihaviravah'charita,  and  contains,  to  borrow  the  words  of  Professor 
acobi,  who  has  edited  the  Sanskrit  text  of  it,  the  history  of  the 
xty  three  **  great  personages,  divine  or  human,  who,  according 
)  the  belief  of  the  Jains,  have,  in  the  present  order  of  things, 
sen  in  the  histor>'  of  the  world,  and  directed,  or  influenced^  its 

348  Reviews. 

course.''  In  order  to  facilitate  comparison  with  the  Sanskrit 
original,  Dr.  Hertel  has  given  at  the  head  of  each  page  the 
number  of  the  canto  in  Roman  numerals,  and  noted  in  the  margin 
the  distichs  in  Arabic  figures.  This  work,  though,  undoubtedly, 
grains  of  historical  truth  are  embedded  in  it,  may  be  looked 
upon,  on  the  whole,  as  a  collection  of  pious  legends  told  for  the 
edification  of  the  Jain  church.  Like  the  Katha  Kosa,  and  other 
collections  ol  the  kind,  it  contains  many  tales  well  known  in 
Europe.  The  literary  references  in  Appendix  I.,  which  will  be 
found  at  the  end  of  Dr.  Hertel's  book,  puts  it  into  the  power  of 
any  reader,  who  takes  an  interest  in  this  branch  of  folk-lore,  to 
trace  the  migration  of  these  stories  through  the  various  countries 
of  the  world. 

The  best  known  of  the  tales  contained  in  this  volume  is, 
perhaps,  the  apologue  of  the  "  Man  in  the  Pit,"  which  figures  as 
No.  1 68  in  Swan's  Gesta  Romanorum  under  the  title  "Of  Eternal 
Condemnation,"  and  has  been  versified  by  Archbishop  Trench. 
According  to  Professor  Ernst  Kuhn,  the  oldest  source  of  this  tale 
is  the  great  Sanskrit  epic,  the  Mahabharata,  but  the  form  into 
which  it  has  been  cast  by  Hemachandra  for  the  edification  of  the 
Jain  community  is,  perhaps,  no  less  interesting.  It  runs  as 
follows  : 

"  A  man,  who  was  travelling  from  country  to  country  with  his 
caravan,  came  once  on  a  time  into  a  wood  infested  by  bandits. 
The  robbers  made  an  attack  on  the  caravan  to  plunder  it, 
and  the  members  of  it  ran  away.  The  man,  deserted  by  his 
caravan,  fled  into  the  depths  of  the  forest.  Then  a  wild  elephant 
suddenly  made  a  rush  towards  the  fugitive,  who  in  his  terror 
came  at  last  upon  a  pit,  the  sides  of  which  were  overgrown  with 
grass,  just  as  the  elephant  was  on  the  point  of  overtaking  him. 
He  flung  himself  into  it,  thinking  that  so  he  might  possibly  save 
his  life. 

"  Now  there  stood  on  the  edge  of  this  pit  a  banyan-tree,  and 
one  of  its  air-roots  hung  down  into  the  middle  of  the  pit  This 
root  the  man  caught  in  his  fall,  and  clung  to  it.  The  elephant 
stretched  his  trunk  down  into  the  pit,  and  touched  therewith  the 
man's  head  ;  however,  he  did  not  succeed  in  seizing  him.  Then 
the  unhappy  man  directed  his  eyes  downwards,  and  saw  in  the 

Reviews,  349 

>m  of  the  pit  an  enormous  serpent,  which  opened  its  caveraous 
I  making  ready  to  swallow  him  as  soon  as  he  fell  down.  On 
four  walls  of  the  pit  he  beheld  four  snakes,  which  were  trying 
ite  him.  In  the  meanwhile  two  mice,  one  white,  the  other 
c,  were  gnawing  at  the  pendent  root,  so  that  he  could  dis- 
ly  hear  the  nibbling  of  their  teeth.  And  as  the  elephant 
i  not  reach  the  man,  he  struck  with  his  trunk  the  bough, 
which  the  root  hung  down,  as  if  he  would  tear  up  the 

While  the  elephant  was  shaking  the  bough  with  its  trunk, 
flew  out  from  it,  and  stung  the  man  all  over,  fiut  from 
supply  of  honey  in  the  banyan-tree  drops  fell  on  him  from 
to  time,  and  rolled  down  his  forehead  into  his  mouth,  and 
relished  their  sweetness,  and  thought  that  an  exquisite 
yment  had  fallen  to  his  lot.'' 

he  Jain  teacher  goes  on  to  point  the  moral  of  the  apologue, 
man  is  a  being  in  this  transmigratory  existence  represented 
forest.  The  elephant  is  death;  the  pit  is  birth  as  a  man;  the 
itic  serpent  is  hell ;  the  other  snakes  are  anger,  pride,  deceit, 
greed.  The  banyan-tree  is  human  life ;  the  white  and  dark 
\  denote  the  light  and  dark  fortnights  which  eat  it  away. 
bees  are  diseases ;  the  drops  of  honey  are  the  pleasures 
?nse.  **\Vhat  wise  men  could  take  delight  in  them?" 
ofessor  Ernst  Kuhn  is  of  opinion  that  this  parable,  "  which 
edined  IJrahnians,  Jains,  Muhammadans,  Christians,  and 
;,"  filtered  into  \N'estem  literature  through  the  translations  of 
ililah  and  Dimnah,"  and  of  "  Barlaam  and  Joasaph."  His 
,  that  its  original  home  is  India,  will,  I  think,  meet  with 
ersal  acce[)tance. 

he  account  given  in  this  poem  (Canto  VI.)  of  the  founding 
ataliputra  differs  slightly  from  that  found  in  other  works.. 
>rdmg  to  this  form  of  the  legend,  Pitaliputra  was  so  named 
a  Patali  tree  (Bignonia  Suaveolens),  which  was  covered  with 
ass  of  red  flowers,  and  displayed  such  an  expanse  of  shade, 
**  it  looked  like  the  umbrella  of  the  earth."  On  this  tree 
scaled  a  blue  jay  into  whose  beak  insects  flew  of  their  own 
rd.  An  astrologer,  more  knowing  than  his  fellows,  was 
led  to  assert  that  this  tree  grew  out  of  the  right  cheek-bone 

350  Reviews, 

of  a  Jain  saint  called  Annika's  son,  whose  story  is  narrated  at 
full  length.  This  circumstance  and  the  auspicious  omen  of  the 
blue  jay  determined  the  party  of  wise  men,  who  had  been 
commissioned  by  Udayin,  king  of  Champa,  to  find  a  lucky  site 
for  a  town,  to  select  this  spot  on  the  banks  of  the  Ganges.  In 
marking  out  the  boundaries  of  the  future  city,  the  following 
principle  was  kept  in  view :  "  All  astrologers  are  agreed  that 
in  the  founding  of  a  city,  the  measuring  line  should  be  drawn 
until  the  cry  of  a  jackal  resounds."  The  king  gave  orders 
that  this  rule  was  to  be  followed.  "Accordingly  they  left 
the  Patali  tree  behind  them,  and  went  first  to  the  west,  then 
to  the  north,  then  again  to  the  east,  then  to  the  south,  and 
continued  till  they  heard  the  cry  of  a  jackal ;  then  they  let  the 
measuring  line  fall.  So  the  outline  of  the  city  was  of  a  square 
form."  The  city  of  Pataliputra  became  famous  in  Indian  history 
and  legend.     It  occupied  the  site  of  the  modem  Patna. 

In  Canto  VIII.  of  Hemachandra's  poem  (page  i86  of  Dr. 
Hertel's  translation),  we  are  introduced  to  historical  personages, 
Chandragupta  (Sandrocottus),  the  conqueror  and  subsequent  ally 
of  Seleucus  Nikator,  who  sent,  as  ambassador  to  his  court  at 
Pataliputra,  Megasthenes,  of  whose  work,  unfortunately,  we  possess 
only  fragments,  and  Chanakya,  his  famous  minister,  the  Machia- 
velli  of  India.  Having  been  offended  by  Nanda,  king  of  Patali- 
putra, Chanakya  took  a  vow  to  destroy  him  together  with  his 
servants,  friends,  sons,  and  army.  In  looking  about  for  a  fitting 
instrument,  he  came  upon  a  boy,  who,  like  the  infant  C5mis,  was 
in  the  habit  of  playing  the  king,  and  distributing  offices  and 
estates  to  his  youthful  companions.  He  took  this  child  away 
with  him,  promising  him  a  kingdom.  By  means  of  the  wealth, 
which  Chanakya  had  acquired  by  the  black  art,  he  provided 
himself  with  a  considerable  array.  In  the  first  attempt,  however, 
he  was  unsuccessful,  and  he  had  to  fiee  with  Chandragupta, 
whose  life  he  managed  by  his  wiles  to  save  from  his  pursuers. 
In  the  course  of  their  wanderings  they  arrived  at  a  village. 
In  this  village  Chanakya  set  out  on  a  begging  round.  He 
came  to  a  cottage  in  which  a  child  was  eating  a  dish  of  warm 
porridge  placed  before  it  by  its  mother.  The  child,  being 
hungry,  plunged  its  hand  at  once  into  the  middle  of  the  dish  and 

Reviews.  351 

i  its  fingers.  Its  mother  said  to  it,  "  You  are  as  ignorant 
le  childish  Chinakya."  Thereupon  Ch^nakya  rushed  into 
ottage  to  inquire  the  meaning  of  this  comparison.  The  old 
sm  said,  '*  The  stupid  Chinakya  made  a  blunder  in  trying 
ipture  Nanda's  capital  before  securing  a  hold  on  the  sur- 
iing  country.  In  the  same  way  this  child  has  burnt  its 
rs  with  the  hot  porridge,  because  it  thrust  its  hands  imme- 
ly  into  the  middle  of  the  dish,  instead  of  beginning  at  the 
"  Then  Chanakya  said  to  himself,  "  How  clever  this 
ui  is,  and  yet  she  is  only  a  woman  I "  He  laid  the  lesson 
eart,  and  associating  with  himself  a  king  named  Parvata, 
radually  conquered  the  territory  of  king  Nanda,  and  took 
apital  city  Pa^aliputra.^ 

lother  instance  of  Ch^nakya'a  sagacity,  recorded  in  Hema- 
dra's  poem,  throws  a  curious  light  upon  Indian  ideas.  A 
At  twelve  years*  famine  (the  second  of  this  duration 
ioned  in  Dr.  Hertel's  volume)  broke  out  in  Chandragupta's 
lom.  At  this  time  a  teacher  of  the  name  of  Susthita  was 
;  in  the  capital.  As  he  could  not  feed  his  pupils,  he  sent 
into  foreign  lands,  but  two  insisted  on  remaining  with  him. 
ng  the  pangs  of  hunger  intolerable,  they  determined  to  make 
f  a  collyrium,  the  secret  of  which  they  had  learned  from  their 
er,  which  rendered  them  invisible.  They  then  repaired  to 
dragupta's  palace  at  meal-times,  and  ate  out  of  his  plate,  "as 
y  were  two  blood-relations,  whom  he  loved  as  his  own  life." 
akya  was  much  grieved  at  finding  his  monarch  growing 
er  every  day,  and  questioned  him  on  the  subject.  The  king 
?d  that  as  much  food  as  usual  was  served  up  to  him,  but  some 
like  the  spirit  of  a  dead  man,  seemed  to  consume  half  of  it. 
resourceful  Chanakya  strewed  powder,  finer  than  barley-meal, 
und  the  place  where  the  king  sat  to  take  his  food.  After  the 
was  over,  the  footmarks  of  the  two  pupils  were  clearly  dis- 
ble  in  the  powder.     It  was  now  established  for  certain  that 

u.thcr  accouni  r,f  the  victon-  of  Chandragupta  over  king  Nanda  will 
Lin(i  in  a  well-known  Indian  drama,  entitled  **Thc  Ring  and  the 
cr,"  which  has  been  translated  l»y  the  late  Professor  H.  H.  Wilson, 
Sflfif  Sff  itrutiy  c/  thi-  rh(c,:tt  ct  th(  Hindus.  To  this  reference  is 
by   Dr.    Ilertcl. 

352  Reviews. 

the  creatures  who,  invisible  themselves,  shared  the  king's  food, 
were  not  gods  or  demons,  but  human  beings.  Having  ascertained 
so  much,  Chanakya  caused  the  king's  dining-room  to  be  filled 
with  smoke  so  thick  "that  one  might  stick  a  needle  in  it" 
Accordingly,  when  the  two  pupils  began,  as  before,  their  depreda- 
tions on  the  king's  food,  their  eyes  streamed  with  water  on  account 
of  the  overpowering  smoke.  The  coUyrium  was,  in  consequence, 
washed  away,  and  the  two  delinquents  became  visible  to  the 
servants  in  attendance  on  the  king,  who  knit  their  brows  in 
wrath,  but  did  not  dare  to  speak  harshly  to  them  for  fear  of 
Chanakya.  He,  for  his  part,  abstained  from  reproaching  the 
pupils,  but  said  to  them:  "Worthy  fathers,  it  appears  from  your 
ascetic  equipment,  that  you  are  mighty  lords.  Have  mercy  on 
us,  and  go  home  to  your  own  house."  He  afterwards  explained 
to  the  king  that  he  had  really  gained  merit  by  sharing  his  food 
with  pious  hermits. 

We  regret  that  space  does  not  permit  us  to  give  other  examples, 
but  enough  has  been  said  to  show  that  the  tales  extracted  by 
Dr.  Hertel  from  Hemachandra's  poem  are  closely  connected  with 
many  current  in  Europe.  It  might  be  objected  to  the  system 
followed  by  Dr.  Hertel,  that  a  brief  abstract  would  have  answered 
all  the  requirements  of  the  folk-lore  student.  But  it  is  difficult 
to  make  abstracts  that  do  not  omit  something  essential,  and 
under  the  most  favourable  circumstances,  much  of  the  local 
colouring,  and  of  the  Indian  aroma,  so  to  speak,  of  the  legends  is 
lost.  Those  who  desire  a  shorter  version  of  the  tales  can  con- 
sult the  skilfully  constructed  outline  prefixed  to  Professor 
Jacobi's  edition  of  the  Sanskrit  text.  For  the  Indologist,  Dr. 
Hertel's  volume  will  have  a  special  interest,  as  it  presents 
legends,  which  were  obviously  current  for  a  long  time  in  the 
mouths  of  the  people,  edited  from  the  point  of  view  of  a 
Jain  theologian,  who,  though  he  was,  no  doubt,  as  Dr.  Hertel 
says,  liberal  and  tolerant,  was,  nevertheless,  a  zealous  propa-  • 
gator  of  the  doctrines  of  his  sect,  and  was  able,  by  means  of 
the  ascendancy  which  he  gained  over  Kum^apSla,  to  transform 
Gujarat  for  a  time  into  a  model  Jain  kingdom. 

Charles  Henry  Tawnev. 

Reviews.  353 

GuDMUND  Schutte:  Oldsagn  om  Godtjod.  Bidrag  til 
Etnisk  KiLDEFORSKNiNGS  Metode,  ETC  Copenhagen:  H. 
Hagerup,  1907. 

We  have  in  Dr.  Schiitte's  work  concerning  the  ethnic  traditions 
the  result  of  great  originality  of  thought  One  of  the  most 
striking  chapters  is  devoted  to  the  study  of  the  name-lists, 
whether  of  gods,  heroes,  or  lands,  so  prominent  in  the  mjrthico- 
heroic  literature  of  the  Teutons.  Dr.  Schiitte's  examination  has 
led  him  to  formulate  the  law  of  initial-  and  terminal-stress  which 
may  be  stated  thus :  the  first  member  of  the  list  is  the  one  of  greatest 
general  importance ;  the  last,  the  one  in  which  the  framers  of  the 
tradition  have  most  special  interest  This  law,  here  formulated 
with  precision  for  the  first  time,  especially  as  regards  the  import- 
ance of  terminal-stress,  will  be  recognised  by  those  Oamiliar  with 
mythico-heroic  literature  as  a  valuable  test  in  cases  which  have 
hitherto  perplexed  the  student  E,g,  the  VVidsith  list  beginning 
with  Attila,  the  outstanding  figure  of  the  migration-period,  and 
closing  with  the  Anglian  Offa,  the  poet's  countryman.  Indeed, 
the  author  does  not  himself  realise  how  far-reaching  and  precise 
in  its  operation  is  the  law  he  has  formulated;  my  own  in- 
vestigations induce  me  to  believe  that  it  obtains  in  the  folk 
literature  of  many  barbaric  as  well  as  in  that  of  European  peoples, 
and  that  "Schutte's  law"  may  prove  as  efficient  in  folk-lore 
analysis  as  has  "  Verner's  law  "  in  phonetic  analysis. 

Dr.  Schutte  further  notes  that  the  geograj)hical-ethnographical 
lists  follow  an  "  East  to  West  course."  Huns  and  Goths  always 
o<:cuj>y  the  first  place.  But  this,  it  may  be  urged,  is  simply 
an  instance  of  the  law  formulated  above :  the  Huns  and  Goths 
uere  the  most  powerful  and  famous  peoples  known  to  the 
framers  of  the  tradition,  and  this  assumed  its  present  shape  in 
the  western  districts  of  Tcutondora.  Thus  Schiitte's  law  seems 
suflkicnt  to  account  for  the  many  examples  of  East  to  West 
lists  found  among  An-lcs,  Franks,  Icelanders,  etc.  An  apparent 
exception  is  the  Danish  live-kings  series  preserved  by  Saxo,  in 
which  the  order  (from  Scania  to  Jutland)  seems  independent  of 
initial-  or  terminal-stress.  But  even  here  close  scrutiny  reveab 
an  ol>scured  terminal-stress:  the  apparently  insignificant  King 
Korik,  is,  according  to  older  traditions,  the  father  of  the  great 


354  Reviews. 

King  Harold  Hildetand.  Whilst  it  is  undoubtedly  trae  that  a 
''sunwise"  tendency,  as  it  may  be  called,  is  manifest  in  these 
lists,  from  Jordanes'  enumeration  of  the  Scandian  tribes  to  those 
occurring  in  the  Danish  ballads,  it  has  neither  the  force  nor 
the  precision  of  the  law  of  initial-  and  terminal-stress. 

As  regards  numerical  groupings  Dr.  Schiitte  emphasises  the 
importance  of  the  triadic  form,  for  which,  as  he  says,  "  Europeans 
and  especially  our  own  group  of  peoples  seem  to  have  a  perfect 
craze."  As  hinted  above,  this  statement  of  the  case  is  too  restric- 
tive ;  the  same  tendency  is  manifest  in  the  popular  poetry  of  many 
peoples.  And  if  the  author  cannot  be  blamed  for  confining 
himself  to  the  Teutonic  field,  he  should  at  least  have  exhausted 
the  material  it  offers.  A  more  thorough  scrutiny  of  the  origin- 
traditions  than  that  which  he  has  provided,  will  exemplify  not 
only  the  predominant  significance  of  the  triadic  form  but  also 
the  essential  structural  likeness  of  the  traditions  themselves. 

(A)  The  M  annus  genealogy  in  Tacitus  offers  the  simplest  form 
of  the  type :  a  semi-mythical  ancestor  whose  personality  involves 
characteristic  saga-traits  (Tuisco,  deus  terra  editus);  a  purely 
eponymous  hero  (Mannus,  />.  Man);  finally  the  three  sons, 
eponyms  of  three  racial  groups  to  the  last  of  which  the  saga- 
teller  should,  eX'hypothesi^  belong. 

The  scheme  may  be  expressed  diagrammatically : 



where  the  clarendon  type  figures  mark  the  stresses. 

(B)  The  later  Prankish  Mannus  genealogy  conforms  to  the 
type  save  that,  owing  to  the  intervening  Christianisation  of  the 
people,  the  semi-mythical  ancestor  has  dropped  out 

(C)  The  Gotland  origin-saga  {Guta  Saga)  exhibits  the  original 
form  nearly  complete : 




I  I 

Outi  Graipr  Gunfian 

Reviews.  355 

Thielvar  being  the  semi-mythical  ancestor  who,  by  wizard-craft, 
won  the  island  from  the  fairies.  The  only  deviation  is  that 
the  three  sons  list  shows  initial-  instead  of  terminal-stress. 
Guti,  the  eponymous  ancestor  of  the  central  of  the  three 
Gotland  districts,  the  one  in  which  the  thing-moot  common 
to  all  three  was  situated,  has  completely  overshadowed  his 

(D)  The  god  genealogy  of  Norse  mythology  is  built  upon  the 
same  lines: 


I  I 

(V)o5inn  Vili  Ve 

where  Buri  ("licked  out  of  the  stones  of  the  earth ")- Tuisco, 
^^ terra  tditus'' \  Bor  (the  "one  bom,"  the  "son")  is  a  mere 
eponym  like  Mannus;  and  the  three  brothers  list  shows  the 
same  initial-stress  as  in  the  Guta  Saga,  There  is  this  further 
resemblance  between  the  two  origin-sagas,  that  both  specially 
mention  the  wife  of  the  second  member  of  the  triad  (Bestla,  wife 
of  Bor ;   Hwitastierna,  wife  of  Hafthi). 

(E)  In  the  Danish  twelfth  century  Lejre  Chronicle,  the  genealogy 
common  to  all  Scandinavia,  is  in  the  same  stage  as  the  Prankish 
version  of  the  Mannus  myth  ;  Upper  in  Upsala  ;  Nor  in  Norway ; 
Oesten  in  the  Kast ;  Dan  in  Denmark.  The  mythical  ancestor  has 
dropped  out ;  the  three  brothers  lists  show  terminal-stress. 

(F)  The  Icelandic  ^genealogical  tracts  entitled,  "  How  Norway 
was  Settled,"  offers  a  scheme  originally  similar:  a  common 
eponym  for  all  Norway,  Norr ;  three  sons  eponyms  of  the  legal 
division  of  the  land.  But  here  the  mythical  ancestor  is  represented 
by  an  ancestral  race  into  which  local  traditions  suggested  by 
family  names  (e.'^.  Jotunbiorn)  have  been  woven,  and  the  genealogy 
has  been  com[)licated  by  the  introduction  of  a  brother  to  Norr, 
(ior,  ancestor  of  the  Orkney  jarls. 

(G)  The  Prankish  legal  code  is  described  as  being  given  to 
I  he  people  by  three  lawgivers,  eponyms  of  the  three  Prankish 
territories.     This  seems   to   be   the  worn    down   remains  of  an 

356  Reviews. 

origin-legend  or  else  an  abortive  attempt  at  one.     The  common 
eponymous  ancestor  is  lacking. 

The  persistence  of  the  formula  framework  in  view  of  the 
great  variations  in  the  names  themselves  is  most  remarkable. 
As  recorded  in  the  Guta  Saga  and  in  the  mythical  genealogies 
of  Snorre's  thirteenth  century  compilation,  it  exhibits  precisely 
the  characteristic  features  of  the  twelve  centuries  older  Mannus 
genealogy:  a  vertical  triad  super-imposed  upon  a  horizontal 
one ;  initial-stress  for  the  series  as  a  whole ;  alliteration  within 
the  horizontal  triad,  but  none  between  the  elements  of  the  two 
triads  nor  within  the  vertical  triad  ;^  initial-  or  terminal-stress 
in  the  horizontal  triad. 

As  will  have  been  noticed,  genealogies  of  late  origin  or  repre- 
senting political  conditions  of  the  mediaeval  period  betray  only 
slight  deviations  from  the  primitive  form.  Alliteration  may  be 
lost ;  the  mythical  ancestor  may  be  lost  or  reappear  in  a  more 
complex  form ;  the  common  eponym,  the  triadic  order,  terminal 
stress  persist. 

How  important  is  the  strength  with  which  the  formula 
maintains  itself  is  manifest  when  we  essay  to  determine  its 
value  as  an  historical  source,  and  the  positive  ethnographical 
information  which  it  can  yield. 

Let  us  in  the  first  place  turn  to  a  series  of  genealogies 
occurring  in  texts  of  a  late  date  or  which  betray  a  literary 

(H)  The  English  kingly  genealogy: 

Sceldinus  "the  first   inhabitant   of  Germania";  Boerinus; 

nine  sons 
(Cinricius    and    8    eponyms    for    the    Scandinavian-Frisian 

Here  we  note  the  disregard  of  the  old  rules:    nine  instead  of 
three;  initial-stress  instead  of  terminal-stress;  a  purely  historical 

'  The  appxirent  exception  in  the  Norse  god-genealogy :  Buri-Bor,  is  doc 
to  the  etymoloj;ical  kinship  of  the  two  names.  Where  a  wife  is  introduced 
she  alHtcrates  with  her  husband :  Bor,  Bestla ;  Ilafthi,  Hvitastiemm.  As 
indicated  above,  the  Norse  god- genealogy  goes  back  to  a  time  when  the 
Scandinavian  form  of  Odin's  name  had  not  yet  lost  the  initial  retained  in 
the  South  Teutonic  form,  Wuotan. 

Reviews.  357 

rsonage  (Kynric  the  first  king  of  the  West  Saxons)  inserted 
the  representative    of  England   owing   to   the  lack    of   an 

(I)  The  genealogy  which  opens  Saxo's  history  is  in  even 
irse  plight :  Dan  et  Angu  patre  Humblo  procreati,  Duad ; 
tial-stress;  substitution  of  an  epic  personage,  Humbli,  for 
I  eponym ;  attribution  of  this  name,  Humbli,  to  Dan's  son, 
defiance  of  the  rules  of  nomenclature  which  obtained  among 
^  early  Teutons;  all  these  are  suspicious,  untraditional  traits. 
(K)  In  the  Halfdan  genealogy  in  the  tract  "How  Norway 
5  settled,"  the  "Ancestor"  has  a  human  name,  is  credited 
th  historical  exploits,  and  is  the  father  of  9  +  9  kings. 
(L)  The  Odin  genealogy  in  LangfeSgatal  and  Heimskringla. 
ere  the  ancestor  is  a  god,  father  of  seven  sons,  founders  of 
igdoms,  but  only  some  of  whom  have  the  character  of  eponyms. 
(M)  The  Rig-genealogy  (Rigs-Mai)  as  Dr.  Schiitte  well  remarks 
)ffers  no  formal  criteria  on  which  to  base  investigation." 
We  have  thus  two  groups:  A-G,  conforming  more  or  less 
ictly  to  the  traditional  formula;  H-M,  disregarding  it  almost 
mpletely.  If  we  use  conformity  as  a  test  we  must  pronounce 
t  former  genuine,  the  latter  more  or  less  spurious.  As  a 
itter  of  fact  this  conclusion  corroborates  results  based  on  the 
jinary  canons  of  historical  criticism  as  applied  to  sources. 
le  artificial  nature  of  the  Halfdan  genealogy  for  example  is 
inifest  if  we  compare  it  with  a  genuine  source  (the  tenth 
ntury  Hyndluijo^),  in  which  several  of  the  personages  and 
nerations  ap|)ear,  but  which  makes  no  pretence  of  embodying 
ethnic  tradition.  The  enumeration  of  the  sons  of  Odin 
id  the  wanderings  of  Odin  connected  with  them)  goes  back 
an  Anglo-Saxon  and  not  to  a  Xorse  genealogical  list,  and 
tracing  it  back  it  approves  itself  as  a  synthesis  of  diverse 
iL'ly  genealogies  all  deduced  from  Odin.  The  descent  of 
:  royal  family  from  the  chief  god  is  a  wide-spread  conception, 
t  |K3ssesses  no  special  ethnic  significance. 
These  late  artificial,  literary  origin  accounts  ought  never  to  be 
iuded  among  the  genuine  popular  traditions,  whose  testimony 
ncerning  the  real  conceptions  of  our  Teutonic  forefathers  they 
n  only  contuse.     True,  some  of  them,  e.g,  the  English  kingly 

358  Reviews. 

may  represent  a  distorted  reflection  of  the  old  formula ;  Sceldins 
may  be  looked  upon  as  the  mythical  ancestor  {cf.  the  Skild  saga 
in  Beowulf),  Boerinus  as  the  second  member  of  the  triad,  die 
sons  as  the  third.  But  it  is  precisely  this  third  element  whicfa 
approves  itself,  by  all  tests,  late  and  unreliable. 

It  follows  then  that  all  origin-legends  from  early  Teutonic 
antiquity  are  constructed  on  the  lines  of  a  strict  triadic  system 
with  its  pertinent  rules.  The  validity  of  the  formula  is  evident 
whether  we  consider  it  in  itself,  or  whether  we  reject  by  its  aid 
texts,  which  on  other  grounds,  show  their  spurious  character. 

But  the  insight  we  have  gained  concerning  the  nature  of  the 
mould  into  which  the  genuine  old  traditions  have  been  cast, 
enables  us  to  appreciate  more  precisely  the  historic  evidential 
value  of  the  traditions  themselves.  The  first  and  obvious 
conclusion  is  that  the  rigidity  of  the  triadic  formula  must  impair 
the  accuracy  with  which  it  represents  the  real  relationships  of  the 
Teutonic  tribes.  The  variety  of  life  cannot  be  accurately 
synthesised  by  a  uniformitarian  formula.  True,  Dr.  Schiitte  who 
does  this,  shrinks  from  drawing  extreme  logical  conclusions;  he 
likes  to  believe  that  our  forefathers  had  rich  and  reliable  hbtorical 
and  ethnical  traditions.  We  may  grant  that  the  heroic  poems  and 
genealogical  lists  at  the  disposal  of  each  tribe,  as  well  as  the 
information  accumulated  in  the  course  of  actual  contact  did 
furnish  them  with  fairly  precise  notions  concerning  the  existence, 
habitat,  and  fortunes  of  numerous  other  tribes.  But  the 
contention  of  a  community  of  ethnic  feeling  and  tradition  among 
the  various  Teutonic  peoples  must  be  decisively  negatived. 

Further  consideration  of  the  formula  makes  it  evident  that  the 
Mannus  genealogy,  for  instance,  cannot  be  used  as  heretofore,  to 
prove  that  Tuisco  and  Maimus  were  known  to  the  Teutons 
generally.  This  special  genealogy  with  its  termiiud-stress  is  only 
valid  for  the  Istaevonic  (/>.  Prankish)  peoples,  inhabiting  the 
region  of  the  lower  Rhine,  concerning  whom  on  other  grounds  it 
is  clear  Tacitus  was  best  informed.  The  order  given  suits  the 
Istaevones,  the  most  westerly  branch  of  the  Teutons ;  it  would 
necessarily  have  assumed  a  different  shape  among  any  other 
group,  and  would  almost  certainly  have  been  wider  in  range. 
Among  the  Istaevones  alone  can  we  understand  the  omission  of 

Reviews.  359 

representatives  of  the  Scandic-Hillevionic  and  Gothic-Vandalic 

It  must  further  remain  an  open  question  whether  a  similar 
conception  to  the  one  embodied  in  the  Mannus  genealogy 
necessarily  existed  among  Teutonic  tribes  other  than  the 
Istaevones,  and,  if  so,  what  names  would  figure  in  it  It  seems 
probable  for  instance  that  the  Ingaevones  believed  their  ancestor 
Ing  to  have  come  oversea,  and  did  not  regard  him  as  member  of 
an  autocthonous  tripartite  family. 

But  I  must  not  pursue  the  subject  further,  and  content  myself 
with  having  drawn  attention  to  the  value  of  Dr.  Schiitte's  anal3rsis 
of  the  formal  constructive  elements  in  sagas,  alike  in  the  narrower 
field  of  Teutonic  ethnography,  and  in  the  world-wide  one  of 
popular  traditions  generally.  I  can  only  express  my  hope  that 
the  line  of  investigation  thus  opened  up  will  be  pursued  by  the 
author  himself  and  by  other  students.^ 

Axel  Olrik. 

Te   Tohunga.     The  Ancient  Legends  and  Traditions  of  the 
Maoris,  Orally  Collected  and   Picttured   by  W.  DrmixiL 

Routledge,   1907.     4to.     25s.  net. 

This  book  is  not  primarily  for  the  Folk-lore  man;  its  aim  is 
aesthetic,  not  scientific.  The  traditions  are  put  into  the  mouths 
of  old  women  and  old  men,  but  we  are  to  understand  that  this 
is  mainly  a  literary  device,  and  their  real  source  is  in  the  standard 
printed  collections.  With  these  the  author  has  given  himself  a 
free  hand,  abridging  and  expanding  at  his  pleasure. 

With  the  aesthetic  side  of  Mr.  Dittmer's  work  our  Society  is 
not  concerned,  excej)t  in  so  far  as  it  affects  the  Folk-lore  side; 
but  I  feel  constrained,  while  recommending  the  book  to  the 
attention  of  those  who  like  that  sort  of  thing  (among  whom  I 
cannot  honestly  include  niyselQ,  to  warn  "the  serious  student 
of  Folk-lore,"  if  he  has  not  hitherto  turned  his  attention  to 
New  Zealand,  from  endeavouring  to  make  acquaintance  with  it 
through  the  pages  of  TV  Tohunga.     For  Mr.  Dittmer's  aesthetic, 

[Abstract  of  I'rocss'jr  Olnk's  ariicle,  by  Mr.  A.  Nmt. — £l#.] 

3 'So  Revierjcs. 

hoth  :iterar>'  and  pictora!,  is  something  of  a  modem  kind  which 
he  brings  from  Ear^i^ve  md  applies,  almost  fordblj,  to  his  sabject 
Tiatter;  it  is  not  a  de-.el ^pment  of  the  essential  Maori  nobons 
for  their  oim  sake.  It  is  New  Zealand  "a  travcrs  an  tempera- 
rnerit. '  The  serious  student  would  know  more  about  Mr.  Dittmer 
in  the  end  than  about  the  Maoris. 

Mr.  Dittmer's  style  of  dicnon  is  turgid  and  verbose,  filled  out 
with  endless  Ah's  and  His  and  Oh  my  listener's;  and  not  chastened 
'jv  any  sense  of  humour.  Maori  diction,  on  the  other  hand,  is 
severely  economical.  **  So  also  these  saj-ings  of  old,"  one  of 
them  told  Sir  George  Grey:  "*The  multitude,  the  length,' 
signified  the  multitude  of  the  thoughts  of  the  children  of  Heaven 
and  Earth  and  the  length  oi  time  they  considered  whether  they 
should  slay  their  parents,  that  human  beings  might  be  called 
into  existence,  for  it  was  in  this  manner  that  they  talked  and 
consulted  among  themselves."  This  is  an  extreme  case;  we 
should  be  nowhere  without  the  commentary ;  but  it  is  better  in 
many  ways  than  Mr.  bittmer's  cosmogony.  The  dry  metaphysics 
of  the  Maori  creation  consort  ill  with  our  author's  poetical 
♦  ntliusiasm.  "  Ha,  my  listener,  then  was  it  that  the  Atua  com- 
menced his  great  son^  of  creation,  and  out  of  the  Darkness 
.'.pran;^  forth  Life  !  And  out  of  the  Darkness  sprang  forth  Hine- 
niii-ic-i)0 !  etc."  This  represents  the  beginning  of  things  in  a 
lni,tlin;<  concern,  quite  unlike  the  slow  processes  of  evolution 
laid  down  by  Maori  {philosophy;  the  "springing  forth"  smacks 
of  tr.msforrnation  scenes ;  and  the  Atua's  "  great  song  of 
'  reation "  seems  to  be  a  misunderstanding  of  John  V\Tiite*s : 
"The  Atua  began  his  chant  of  creation  at  Te  Po  and  sang: 
i'o  begat  Te-ao,"  etc.,  where  the  Atua  is  the  inspirer,  not  the 
i:iaker,  and  the  singing  is  of  a  purely  unproductive  kind  Mr. 
Dittrner's  account  of  the  affair  is  further  complicated  by  his  trans- 
:  >rrnntion  of  lo,  the  creative  energy  into  Jo,  which  gives  it  a 
ixjlitical  aspect,  out  of  place  in  a  mythological  work. 

G.  Calderon. 

Reviews.  36 1 

The  Power  of  Gems  and  Charms.      By  Geo.  H.   Bratley. 
London:  Gay   &   Bird,  1907.      Pp.  xi  +  198.     16x13  cm. 

In  this  little  book  a  claim  to  our  favour  is  made  in  behalf  of 
amulets,  the  writer  basing  this  partly  upon  the  romance  often 
connected  with  their  use,  but  mainly,  as  is  said  in  the  preface, 
on  "the  reason  and  logic  of  the  power  claimed  for  these  things." 
As  the  book  appears  to  have  been  written  from  the  point  of  view 
of  a  believer  in  most  of  the  mystic  virtues  claimed  for  every 
object  used  as  an  amulet  at  any  period,  it  is,  of  course,  lacking 
entirely  in  whatever  of  critical  value  it  might  naturally  have  been 
presumed  to  hold.  It  seems  to  have  been  written  for  the  casual, 
and  not  too  intelligent,  reader  interested  superficially  in  mysti- 
cism, but  it  may  prove  to  be  of  some  assistance  to  the  folk-lorist 
as  a  reminder  of  matter  connected  with  amulets,  and  it  should 
be  of  service  to  the  investigator  of  the  psychology  underlying 
the  employment  of  amulets,  especially  the  employment  of  the 
amulets  in  use  and  coming  into  use  at  the  present  day. 

About  half  the  book  is  taken  up  by  Section  I.,  "Historical 
Charms,"  wherein,  as  illustrating  the  employment  of  amulets,  a 
considerable  number  of  examples  are  given,  particularly  of  sup- 
posedly luck-bringing  objects  connected  with  well-known  persons, 
most  of  which  have  been  taken,  apparently,  from  sources  neither 
usually  consulted  by  the  student  of  amulets,  nor  noted  for  their 
accuracy.  The  usefulness  of  the  illustrations  taken  from  the 
older  writers  is  seriously  imj)aired  by  the  superficial  manner  of 
their  setting  forth,  and,  in  almost  all  cases,  by  the  lack  of  any 
references  through  which  missing  details  might  be  found.  It  is 
unpleasant  for  tiie  student  of  folk-lore  to  find  the  material  pre- 
sented throuijihout  the  book  chiefly  in  the  "snippet"  form  of 
anec<lote  afl'ecicd  so  largely  by  some  of  the  cheaper  weeklies, 
nncc  some  ot  the  chapter  headings,  particularly  in  the  first 
section,  might  have  been  applied  to  extremely  interesting  and 
useful  collectiiins  of  material,  such  as  those,  for  example,  on  the 
use  of  jewellery,  of  gems  and  coins,  of  stones,  of  charmed  wells 
and  holy  water,  oi  the  horseshoe,  of  curative  charms,  and  of 
written  charms. 

In   Section   II.,  which  is  devoted  to  "Occult  Jewellery  and 

362  Reviews. 

Gems :  When,  Where,  and  How  to  Use  These,"  the  first  chapter 
(xv.)  gives  examples  of  a  number  of  the  charms  commonly  worn 
at  present.  In  the  following  chapters  there  are  brief  descrii>tioiis 
of  various  precious  stones,  some  of  the  m3rstical  virtues  attributed, 
anciently  and  in  modem  times,  to  these  stones,  and  lists  of  the 
stones  peculiar  to  the  planets  and  suitable  for  wear  on  each  of  the 
days  of  the  week,  and  of  those  to  be  worn  by  various  persons  bom 
under  the  different  signs  of  the  zodiac.  Chapter  xz.  is  devoted 
to  jewels  engraved  with  magical  names  and  designs,  or  with  the 
symbols  of  the  zodiacal  signs,  and  set  in  suitable  metals.  A  list 
in  chapter  xxi.  gives,  under  those  sections  of  the  year  in  which 
the  wearers'  birthdays  have  happened  to  fall,  the  ornaments  which, 
if  carried,  will  bring  them  good  fortune.  Beyond  its  compre- 
hensiveness, the  chief  feature  of  this  list,  which  has  been  formed 
"according  to  the  law  of  correspondence  and  other  laws  little 
recognised  by  the  majority,"  is  its  "up-to-dateness,"  a  quality 
which  may  be  gauged  by  its  inclusion  of  such  charms  as,  for 
example,  the  mummy  and  case,  the  Lincoln  imp,  the  Buddhist 
prayer- wheel,  the  dancer,  the  motor-car,  the  juggler,  the  Mikko 
(Xikko?)  monkey,  the  ship,  the  playing-card,  the  jockey,  many 
animals  and  many  other  objects  familiar,  until  lately,  to  the 
unversed  only  as  things  without  mystic  properties,  together  with 
such  old  favourites  as  the  horseshoe,  the  fish,  the  arrow,  the 
serpent,  the  shell  and  the  heart  But  it  is  not,  as  the  author 
says,  always  necessary  to  select  a  mascot  fi*om  amongst  those 
commonly  used,  for  one  may,  having  had  a  sudden  stroke  of 
good-luck,  "cast  around  for  the  compelling  cause,"  and  find  it 
in  "  having  that  morning  picked  up  a  peculiar  stone,  having 
received  in  changing  money  a  lion  shilling,  a  farthing,  or  a 
crooked  sixpence,"  objects  which  being  "a  trifle  out  of  the 
common"  may  be  "regarded  as  the  cause  and  looked  to  for 
luck  in  the  future." 

Section  III.  is  concerned  vinth  "Their  Efficacy:  Ancient  and 
Modern  Theories."  After  some  brief  quotations,  principally  from 
ancient  works  as  to  the  nature  of  magic,  the  medium  (identified 
here  with  the  luminiferous  ether)  through  which  "spiritual  efforts 
can  be  exerted  upon  nature,"  and  the  sympathetic  relations 
between  persons  and  animate  and  inanimate  things,  some  of  the 

Reviews.  363 

resemblances,  as  they  appear  to  the  author,  between  certain 
discoveries  of  modem  physical  science  and  those  of  the  occultists 
are  very  briefly  pointed  out.  Experiments  are  cited,  as  a  proof 
of  the  existence  of  a  force  resembling  **  the  evil  eye,"  in  which 
two  similar  sets  of  plants,  tended  and  watered  in  the  same 
manner,  but  the  one  regarded  continually  with  affection,  the 
other  continually  with  hatred,  thrived  most  unequally.  In 
accordance  with  the  ideas  thus  set  forth  the  source  of  the 
power  of  religious  relics  and  charms  is  ascribed  by  the  author 
to  the  reverence  with  which  they  have  been  looked  upon  by 
countless  devotees,  and  through  whose  agency  they  "have 
become  soaked  with  human  magnetism  of  a  devotional  nature." 
Holy  water,  "which  has  been  magnetised  by  the  priests,"  and 
thus  *'  impregnated  by  the  good  thoughts  of  a  man  ...  is  very 
potent  for  good";  water,  it  seems,  is  especially  sensitive  to 
impressions  of  this  kind,  and  water  thus  "magnetised"  may  be 
distinguished  by  sensitive  persons  from  the  ordinary  variety.  It 
is  to  similar  actions  that  a  part  of  the  efficacy  of  amulets,  which 
have  been  properly  prepared  by  persons  skilled  in  the  art,  is 
ascribed.  Again,  something  worn  by  a  fortunate  man,  having 
taken  on  his  "  magnetism  "  and  become  tuned  to  his  "  rate  of 
vibration,"  may  bring  luck  to  a  new  owner  whose  "vibrations" 
are  weaker  than  those  of  the  charm — it  is  because  of  this  action 
that  the  belief  in  the  fortune-bringing  virtue  of  things  which 
have  been  worn  by  hicky  ])ersons  has  arisen. 

Natural   charms — virgin   metals,   minerals,  stones,  plants,  and 
animals — '*  appear  to  possess  a  magical  power  of  their  o\      \     1 
probably  they  owe  this  to  the  elements  of  which  they  are  c 
posed  and  to  the  nature  spirits  ensouling  or  watchi      O'       I 
growth.     Their  efficacy  depends  chiefly  on  the  sym 
l>etween  them  and  the  wearer  or  possessor.  ...     F 
it  is  recommended  that  the  gem  belonging  to  a  pe 
of  birth  should  be  worn.'     In  the  talisman  the  i 
behmd  nature  are  constrained  to  aid  the  pos  ^' y 

charms    are   those   to   which,  by  some  chan        a 
human    spirit,   has    become    attached — a   si  i  • 

haunting    of  a   house,   or  a  weapon   with  \        i  bo 

occupied  by  the  "  obsessing  "  spirit  has  c  1 

364  Reviews. 

example.  As  to  the  source  of  the  power  of  gems  the  author, 
after  rejecting  various  theories  of  the  ancients,  arrives  (by  a 
series  of  steps,  the  premises  of  whose  logic  leave  much  to  be 
desired)  at  a  theory  that  each  gem  has  been  formed  under  the 
influence  of  a  "  ray  "  of  one  of  the  seven  planets,  and  that  "  the 
vibrations  of  the  ray  were  caught  [during  the  crystallisation]  and 
fastened  in  the  rock  or  precious  stone,  there  to  lie  latent  until 
roused  by  vibrations  of  a  like  nature  playing  upon  them,"  con- 
cluding with  the  suggestion  that  "  the  vibration  of  a  human  will, 
keyed  to  the  same  ray  as  the  precious  stone,  can  call  into  action 
the  hidden  virtue  and  ensouling  elemental  of  that  stone." 

W.    L.    HiLDBURGH. 

Precious  Stones  :  for  Curative  Wear  and  other  Remedial 
Uses  ;  likewise  the  Nobler  Metals.  By  W.  T.  Fernie, 
M.D.  Bristol :  John  Wright  &  Co. ;  and  London  :  Simpkin, 
Marshall,  Hamilton,  Kent  &  Co.,  Ltd.,  1907.  Pp.  xviii  +  486. 
19  X  13  cm. 

We  have  in  this  book  a  considerable  collection  of  material  relating 
to  the  virtues  of  precious  and  semi-precious  stones  and  of  certain 
of  the  commoner  metals.  The  author,  who  is  evidently  familiar 
with  much  that  has  been  written  on  the  subject,  quotes  largely 
from  the  works  of  the  principal  writers,  ancient,  medieval,  and 
modern,  upon  it,  as  well  as  from  many  in  whose  pages  but  little 
is  to  be  found,  and  has,  although  writing  primarily  as  a  medical 
man,  brought  together  a  great  deal  of  matter  interesting  to  the 
student  of  charms,  and  many  bits  of  folk-lore  not  connected 
directly  with  his  subject.  While  he  sometimes  strays  far  from  a 
topic,  as  when,  under  "Jasper,"  he  goes  to  the  medicinal  uses 
of  blood,  thence  to  black  puddings,  next  to  butter,  and  finally 
to  a  discourse  on  cheese  before  returning  to  the  bloodstone,  he 
is  almost  always  entertaining,  and  he  has  generally  something  to 
say  worth  the  recording.  And  while  the  arrangement  of  the  matter 
under  the  various  headings  is  occasionally  rather  inconsequent. 

Reviews.  ^       365 

md  neither  so  orderly  nor  so  compact  as  might  be  desired,  this 
s  in  part  compensated  for  by  the  fair,  but  not  always  accurate, 
ndex  which  is  pfovided. 

As  the  book  is  written  for  the  educated  general  reader,  who 
iocs  not  require  to  verify  quotations,  the  author  frequently  merely 
lames  and  dates  his  authority,  without  giving  the  title  of  the 
urork,  or  from  what  part  of  it  he  has  taken  his  statement.  For 
:he  student  this  is  unfortunate — although  the  principal  authorities 
:ited  have  left  not  very  voluminous  works  on  the  subject — 
because  the  book,  though  in  the  main  appearing  to  be  carefully 
written,  yet  contains  a  sufficient  number  of  errors  to  make 
idvisable  the  checking  of  quotations  from  it  by  reference  to  the 
original  authorities.  It  is,  however,  a  refreshing  variation  from 
:he  general  run  of  "  popular "  compilations  dealing  with  folk-lore 

It  is  well,  I  think,  to  point  out  here  that  much  of  what  is 
recorded  in  the  older  books  dealing  with  gems  and  stones, 
Uthough  interesting  to  the  folk-lorist,  is,  strictly  speaking,  not 
folk-lore,  but  is  what  some  learned  man  gathered  from  others, 
equally  learned,  about  him,  or  from  books,  or  reasoned  out  for 
himself.  On  the  other  hand,  much  is  folk-lore,  as  is  proved  by 
our  finding  still,  amongst  the  peasantry,  especially  in  countries 
cop(iucred  and  civilised  by  the  Romans,  many  of  the  beliefs  con- 
cerning; the  virtues  of  stones,  more  particularly  the  less  valuable 
varieties,  which  were  recorded  by  Pliny  or  by  the  medieval 

About  three-fourths  of  the  book  are  devoted  to  stones : — the 
princii  a)  gems,  such  as  the  diamond,  the  emerald,  the  ruby, 
the  su|-piiirc,  the  turc|uoise,  etc.  ;  semi-precious  stones  like  the 
amethyst,  the  garnet,  the  moonstone,  agate,  and  jasper;  and 
misceihmecHis  stones  and  stony  substances,  such  as  pearls, 
corals,  amber,  jet,  the  toadstone,  the  eagle  stone,  and  the  adder 
stone.  These  stones  are  treated  principally  in  their  aspects  as 
amulets,  and  (lescrii>tions  of  the  virtues  ascribed  to  them  by  the 
Older  writers  are  given,  but  m  many  instances  accounts  of  their 
u>es  in  pills,  draughts,  salves,  and  other  ordinarily  recognised 
medicinal  terms  are  mcluded.  In  many  cases  the  occult  virtues 
A  the  stones  are  added,  such  as  their  effects  in  preserving  from 

366  Reviews. 

the  results  of  envy  or  fascination,  or  from  the  attacks  of  demons  ; 
the  sympathetic  relations  between  certain  gems  and  their  wearersi 
whereby  the  stones  change  in  colour  or  lustre,  according  to  the 
healths  or  temperaments  of  those  persons,  are  also  described. 
Dr.  Fernie  is  a  believer  in  the  curative  virtues  of  many  stones 
when  worn,  ascribing  these  usually  to  the  same  actions  as  those 
which  are  (or  are  claimed  to  be)  produced  when  the  stones  are 
finely  subdivided  and  taken  internally.  With  his  theories,  which 
seem  to  be  largely,  though  not  entirely,  based  upon  material 
(as  opposed  to  spiritual  or  occult)  conceptions,  but  with  which 
few  of  us  can,  probably,  at  present  agree,  we  need  not  concern 
ourselves ;  it  is  worthy  of  note,  however,  that  he  denies  (p.  56)  to 
gems  artificially  prepared,  though  these  be  identical  in  com- 
position and  structure  with  those  naturally  produced,  the  curative 
virtues  of  the  latter. 

In  the  section  of  the  book  devoted  to  metals  the  treatment 
is  more  from  the  medical  side,  and  less  from  that  of  folk-lore, 
than  in  the  part  dealing  with  stones. 

W.    L.    HiLDBURGH. 

Le    Paganisme    Contemporain    CHEZ    LES    Peuples    Celtg- 
Latins.      Par  Paul  S^billot.     Paris:  Octave  Doin,  1908. 

The  task  undertaken  by  M.  S^billot  in  this  little  volume  is 
expressed  in  its  title.  The  volume  itself  forms  part  of  a  larger 
scheme  of  a  scientific  encyclopaedia,  the  general  editor  of  which 
is  Dr.  Toulouse,  and  belongs  in  that  scheme  to  the  department 
of  anthropology  edited  by  Dr.  G.  Papillault,  professor  of  anthro- 
pology in  the  Ecole  des  Hautes  Etudes  at  Paris.  The  dis- 
tinguished author  has  here  brought  together  into  a  small  compass, 
provided  with  ample  and  exact  references,  a  wealth  of  examples 
of  those  special  survivals  of  earlier  stages  of  civilisation  which 
constitute  together  what  he  has  aptly  denominated  Contemporary 
Paganism.  They  are  the  remains,  that  is  to  say,  of  belief  and 
practice  distinctively  non-Christian  and  presumably  pre-Christian 

Reviews,  367 

in  origin,  though  often  modified  not  merely  by  a  general  advance 
in  culture  but  by  the  specific  influence  of  Christian  environment 

M.  S^billot  has  not  always  confined  himself  strictly  within 
these  limits.  Indeed  he  notes  this.  The  fact  is  it  is  extremely 
difficult  to  know  where  to  draw  the  line.  As  a  rule,  at 
least  where  popular  devotions  are  concerned,  he  seeks  to 
draw  it  by  leaving  aside  those  which  are  collective  and  public, 
because,  as  he  rightly  observes,  their  pagan  character  is  much 
more  attenuated  than  that  of  private  and  individual  rites.  The 
latter  may  in  some  cases  be  the  relics,  worn  and  faded,  of  a  cult 
once  collective  and  public ;  in  a  much  larger  number  of  instances 
they  are  magical  and  frequently  anti-social.  But  what  shall  we 
say  of  such  practices  as  that  of  lovers  sealing  their  pledge  to 
marry  by  spitting  on  one  another?  Or  of  mere  presages  of  good 
or  ill  fortune  drawn  from  the  weather  on  the  wedding-day  or 
some  other  important  occasion?  The  specifically  pagan  element 
here  as  distinguished  from  that  which  is  dependent  merely  on 
coarser  and  more  primitive  manners,  or  a  greater  sensitiveness 
to  the  subtle  effect  of  meteorological  conditions  upon  human 
beings,  particularly  in  certain  mental  states,  is  not  very  obvious. 
In  all  such  cases  M.  S^billot  has  erred,  if  at  all,  on  the  right  side 
by  including  too  much  rather  than  too  little. 

In  the  same  spirit  is  the  interpretation  he  has  given  to  his 
phrase  '*  Celto-Latin  Peoples/'  I  cannot  venture  to  offer  an 
opinion  *as  to  the  exact  meaning  of  a  phrase  that  appears  to 
include  the  British  Isles,  Norway  and  the  United  States  with 
all  the  western  part  of  continental  Europe  and  some  of  the 
Mediterranean  islands.  One  thing  is  certain  :  the  core  of  the 
book  is  naturally  and  rightly  the  iolk-lore  of  France  gathered  in 
the  course  of  M.  Scbillot's  great  and  life-long  labours  on  that 
subject.  The  rest  is  grouped  around  it.  Much  of  it,  however, 
is  so  important  that  it  can  hardly  be  described  as  merely 
illustrative  matter  ;  and  the  whole  forms  an  impressive  picture 
of  rites  and  beliefs  extending  to  every  phase  of  human  life  and 
mtercourse,  in  their  origin  dating  back  to  prehistoric  antiquity 
and  still  surviving  in  the  midst  ot  an  alien  religion  and  a  society 
whose  institutions  and  aspirations  are  the  exponents  of  an  utterly 
different   and   incompatible  ideal.     The  work    is  thus  useftd  to 

368  Reviews. 

more  than  one  class  of  student.  Statesmen,  historians  and 
sociologists,  as  well  as  those  whose  attention  is  concentrated 
on  the  problems  offered  by  folklore,  may  learn  lessons  of  value 

The  book  is  divided  into  three  parts.  The  first  is  concerned 
with  the  course  of  human  life.  It  commences  prior  to  birth 
with  the  rites  to  promote  or  retard  fecundity  and  the  treatment  of 
pregnant  women,  including  a  paragraph  on  the  taboos  incident 
to  pregnancy.  Birth-ceremonies,  the  protection  of  mother  and 
infant  during  the  time  of  special  danger  from  invisible  foes,  which 
extends  until  after  churching  and  baptism,  the  diseases  of  earliest 
childhood  and  the  means  to  promote  the  growth  and  well-being 
of  the  offspring,  youth,  love,  marriage,  the  treatment  of  disease 
in  general,  magical  practices  to  cause  sickness  and  death, 
presages,  dying  and  all  the  mournful  and  precautionary  rites 
performed  by  the  survivors,  and  lastly,  the  beliefs  concerning 
the  journey  of  the  departed  soul,  the  life  after  death  and  the 
periodical  return  of  the  dead  are  exhibited  in  detail.  The  second 
part  deals  with  human  occupations  and  labour.  The  building 
of  a  new  dwellinghouse  and  removal  to  it,  the  dangers  to  be 
apprehended,  the  vestiges  of  a  fire-cult,  the  building  and 
use  of  boats,  the  protection  of  the  stable  and  the  poultry,  and 
their  management,  the  cultivation  of  the  land,  the  protection 
of  the  crops,  first-fruits,  rain-making,  the  plantation  of  trees, 
rites  of  fructification  and  the  sacredness  of  trees  are  all  treated 
under  this  head.  The  forces  of  nature  occupy  the  third  and 
last  part.  Among  them  may  be  enumerated  the  heavenly  bodies 
and  the  vestiges  of  their  worship,  traditional  meteorology, 
fountains,  rivers,  lakes  and  the  sea,  the  earth,  the  mountains, 
rocks  and  megalithic  monuments  and  the  acts  performed  in 
connection  with  them,  which  appear  to  be  relics  of  a  cult  that 
has  never  been  wholly  abandoned  through  all  the  changes  since 
the  dawn  of  history.  An  appendix  discloses  a  variety  of  practices 
in  relation  to  the  churches  which  are  either  non-Christian  in 
character  or  spring  from  a  confusion  or  combination  of  ideas  in 
which  other  influences  than  those  of  Christianity  are  unmis- 

From   this  rough   catalogue  some    notion  may  be    obtained 

Reviews,  369 

the  stores  of  information  compressed  by  M.  S^illot  into 
comparatively  few  pages.  But  our  debt  to  him  does  not  end 
re.  He  has  added  a  final  chapter  modestly  entitled  ''Notes 
Iditionnelles/'  in  which  he  sums  up  the  results  of  the  enquiry, 
le  practices  treated  are  not  the  remains  of  a  highly  organized 
iigion  such  as  is  dominant  in  Christendom,  though  there  are 
re  and  there  signs  of  the  survival  of  a  priesthood.  They 
I  exhibit  the  frame  of  mind  found  in  peoples  beyond  the  range 

European  culture  wHom  we  compendiously  call  animistic. 
'  all  the  ancient  cults  that  which   is   best  preserved  is  that 

water.     Some  of  the  observances  have  a  form  purely  pagan  ; 

others    primitive    practices   and    those    of  Christianity  are 

ingled  together,  while  some  are  pagan  simply  varnished  with 

iristianity.     Almost  equally  strong  and  certain  are  the  relics 

the  worship  of  megalithic  monuments.  Naturally,  however, 
ey  are  confined  to  the  districts  where  such  monuments  exist, 
le  author  speaks  doubtfully  of  the  hypothesis  that  in  some 

the  superstitions  he  has  touched  we  have  relics  of  totemism. 
e  points  out  that  though  many  of  the  taboos  and  belief  do 
^k  like  totemism  there  are  others  susceptible  of  quite  a 
Qferent   explanation.     His   caution   is   wise;    and  the  opinion 

such  an  authority  must  weigh  in  the  decision  of  the  question. 
;t  it  may  be  urged  that  Mr.  Gomme  has  recently  shown  a 
obability  that  certain  institutions,  customs  and  beliefs  in  the 
itish  Isles  are  only  to  be  explained  as  the  remains  of 
temism.  If  this  be  so  the  probability  of  totemism  in  the 
itish  Isles  enhances  the  probability  of  totemism  among  a 
iiilar  population  on  the  other  side  of  the  Channel. 
A  bibliographical  list  of  the  authorities  made  use  of  is  always 
rlconie  to  students.  M.  Scbillot  has  added  such  a  list  as 
rll  as  an  index.  He  is  one  of  the  most  accurate  of  men ; 
d  in  case  he  have  occasion  to  revise  the  book  for  a  second 
ition,  as  I  hope  he  may,  he  will  be  glad  to  be  reminded 
at  Galloway  (p.  132)  is  not  in  Ireland,  nor  the  Rollright 
ones   (p.    313)   in    Cornwall.       Ever>'one   knows   how  easy   it 

to  make  such  tnflmg  slips. 

£.  Sidney  Hartland. 

370  Reviews. 

Primitive  Secret  Societies.  A  Study  in  Early  Politics  and 
Religion.     By  Hutton  Webster.     Macmillan  Co.,  1908. 

Les  Societ^s  Secri^tes  au  Bas-Congo.  Par  Ed.  de  Jonghe. 
(Extrait  de  la  Revtu  des  Questions  scientifiques^  Oct  1907.) 
Bruxelles:  PoUeunis,  1907. 

Dr.  Webster's  account,  in  eleven  chapters,  of  the  initiation 
rites  and  secret  societies  of  barbarous  communities  is  of  great 
value  as  a  collection  of  references  to  most  of  the  literature  on 
the  subject,  independently  of  its  importance  as  a  study,  although 
one  could  wish  sometimes,  in  reading  it,  that  consideration  of 
the  author's  deductions  and  opinions  were  facilitated  by  their 
clearer  separation  or  summary  apart  from  the  great  mass  of 
references.  The  first  chapter  discusses  the  various  forms  of 
"men's  house"  used  by  primitive  tribes  as  a  means  of  sexual 
separation,  and  suggests  that  its  presence  anywhere  points  to 
the  previous  existence  of  secret  initiation  ceremonies.  The 
men's  house  is  sometimes  used  for  puberty  initiations,  and  is 
also  sometimes  the  seat  of  secret  societies  regarded  as  successors 
of  earlier  puberty  institutions.  The  second  chapter  deals  with 
the  puberty  institution  which  furnishes  the  most  important  of 
the  various  ceremonies  by  which  males  pass  from  class  to  class 
of  the  early  age-classification  system.  These  classes  and 
ceremonies  are  held  to  be  the  origin  of  the  degrees  and 
initiations  of  the  later  secret  societies.  The  effect  of  the 
puberty  ceremonies  on  tribal  solidarity  and  evolution  is 
emphasised.  The  next  two  chapters  deal  with  the  secret 
puberty  rites  and  the  training  of  the  novice.  The  ordeals 
intended  to  render  indelible  the  instruction  given,  and  the 
mutilations  which  are  a  sign  of  the  reception  of  a  male  into 
full  tribal  life,  are  discussed  in  detail  with  a  great  wealth  of 
illustration.  The  puberty  ceremonies  for  girls,  naturally  less 
important,  are  also  very  fully  dealt  with,  and  the  theories  of 
Dr.  Frazer  and  others  as  to  the  origin  of  puberty  rites  in 
general  are  touched  upon.  The  fifth  chapter  discusses  the 
power  of  the  elders  which  arises  from  their  control  of  the 
initiation  ceremonies  and  which  is  utilised  for  selfish  purposes 
by  imposing   food   taboos   and   marriage   restrictions  upon  the 

Reviews.  371 

vices.  The  next  chapter  attempts  to  establish  that,  upon 
;  shifting  of  social  control  from  the  elders  to  tribal  chiefs, 
I  initiation  rites  and  organization  become  unnecessary  for 
bal  purposes,  and  limitation  of  membership  gives  rise  to 
:ret  societies  with  grades  based  upon  the  earlier  age  groups, 
is  argued  that  this  conversion  of  mysteries,  concealing  the 
bal  religious  beliefs,  into   political    secret   societies   governing 

fraudulent  pretences  of  connection  with  the  dead  and  either 
^ggling  for  power  against  the  chiefs  or  serving  as  tools  of 
e  tribal  leaders,  has  proceeded  from  the  tendency  of  the 
lers  to  use  the  initiation  ceremonies  for  their  personal 
vancement  and  for  the  terrorising  of  the  women  and  un- 
tiated.  Many  examples  of  puberty  institutions  in  apparent 
cay  or  transition  are  cited.  In  Africa  and  Melanesia  the 
>wer  of  the  chiefs  is  still  limited  by  the  secret  societies 
lich  have  arisen  on  the  earlier  initiation  basis  and  have 
come  located  in  definite  places  as  "lodges"  with  a  series  of 
grees  and  limited  membership,  especially  in  the  upper  ranks. 

Polynesia  and  North  America  the  power  of  the  chiefs  is 
lly  developed,  and  the  tribal  secret  societies  have  become 
ligious  and  dramatic  fraternities  of  priests  or  shamans. 
lapter  VII.  is  devoted  to  the  functions  of  the  tribal  societies, 
d  ihf  relations  ol  the  societies  and  tribal  chiefs  are  examined. 
ic  tollowinL;  chapter  deals  with  the  decline  of  tribal  societies, 
uch  with  tribal  progress  ii»a\  either  collapse,  become  social 
.il)s,   or   develop   into   magical    Iraternities.     One   characteristic 

the  disintegration  ot  the  six  leties  is  the  admission  of  women, 
d  the  niosi  etiedive  cause  ol  their  decline  is  the  civilising 
eiK  V  I't  traders  and  missionaries.  Cha[)ter  IX.  deals  with 
;he  clan  ceremonies,"  atul  tries  to  prove  that  the  origin  of 
I  tlie  Nccrct  or-amsaiions  wlietiier  puberty  institutions,  secret 
cieties.  or  ma^iial  Iraternities  -is  in  the  "primitive  totemic 
in.  '  This  !s  arL;ued  chutly  from  instances  in  Australia, 
Drres  Straits,  and  Noriii  America.  Chapter  X.  deals  with 
a-u  al  Iraternities,  and  contends  that  the  primitive  clan  rites 
i\e  i>  iciural  characicnstics  dramatic  and  magical  features, 
\\k\\  re  emerge  when  the  social  and  law-god  functions  of  the 
cret  society  decline.     The  nnal  chapter  deals  with  the  diffusion 

2  A  2 

jy']2  Reviews. 

of  initiation  ceremonies,  and  in  the  form  of  footnotes  supplies 
a  bibliography. 

It  would  be  impossible  within  the  limits  of  a  review  to  deal 
with  the  many  interesting  and  disputable  points  raised  by  Dr. 
Webster's  argument.  It  will  be  seen  that  they  range  fh)m  native 
conceptions  of  "high  gods"  to  Spartan  military  training,  and 
full  use  is  made  of  the  investigations  of  Messrs.  Spencer,  Gillen, 
and  Howitt  in  Australia,  of  Dr.  Haddon  in  Torres  Straits, 
and  of  many  others.  The  vital  chapters,  on  the  development 
of  secret  societies  from  puberty  institutions,  and  of  both  from 
the  totemic  clan,  are  hardly  convincing,  but  the  re-examination 
of  the  evidence  presented  would  require  considerable  space, 
and  it  has  seemed  more  profitable  to  supply  a  rough  sketch 
of  the  ground  covered,  and  to  leave  folklorists  to  buy  the 
book  and  give  it  the  very  careful  study  it  deserves. 

Such  a  study  would  have  been  made  easier  and  the  value  of 
the  book  greatly  enhanced  by  a  full  index,  but  Dr.  Webster,  or  his 
publisher,  has  provided  only  an  "  Index  to  Native  Terms."  This 
index,  instead  of  enabling  the  information  collected  to  be  referred 
to  by  tribes  and  localities,  merely  covers  native  names  of  cere- 
monies and  grades,  and  such  terms  as  kraal,  kava,  nullah-nullah, 
wurley,  etc.,  which  are  often  so  familiar  as  to  be  used  in  the  text 
without  any  explanation.  Moreover,  the  proof-reading  of  the 
index  seems  to  have  been  done  much  less  carefully  than  that  of 
the  text  and  footnotes,  for,  whereas  we  have  noticed  in  the  body 
of  the  book  very  few  and  unimportant  errors — t,g,  "red  flute"  for 
"reed  flute"  on  p.  38,  Wendi  for  Mendi  on  p.  120  (note),  Yassi 
twice  for  Yasi  (a  different  society)  on  p.  173,  and  Medewiwin  for 
Midewiwin  on  [).  179 — a  cursory  examination  has  shown  numerous 
irritating  little  errors  in  the  index  of  about  4^  pages — t.g,  Mide 
178  for  179,  //^  for  w-  under  Powainu,  ti^  for  «•  under  Wowochim 
and  Wowochinitu,  Telpuchah  for  Telpuchcali,  Asa  29  for  2f^t^ 
and  53  for  52,  Pabufunan  for  Pabafunan,  Wysoccan  33/1*  for  ^yi 
and  57 — besides  a  number  of  omissions,  such  as  Yasi  173^^  the 
Whares  mentioned  in  i2//3,  Saniakiakwe  43,  Semese  86,  Tianguez 
1 6,  I'indalo  63  and  63/7^  Ari  89,  Baito  14,  Clo'ct*n  70,  Unyaro  88, 
etc.,  etc.  It  is  to  be  hoped  that  the  demand  for  a  second  edition 
will  soon  afford  an  onportunity  for  this  defect  to  be  remedied. 

Reviews.  373 

Dr.  De  Jonghe's  pamphlet  of  74  pages  considers  the  secret 
societies  of  the  Lower  Congo  chiefly  from  the  religious  stand- 
point. He  criticises  the  ideas  of  Schurtz  and  Frobenius  as  to  the 
Drigin  of  secret  societies  and  their  close  relations  with  puberty 
rites  and  the  religious  education  given  in  the  fetish  schools,  but 
his  main  object  is  to  summarise  the  information  available  as 
regards  the  two  principal  societies  of  Lower  Congo,  the  nksmba 
md  the  ndembo.  The  former  appears  to  be  a  puberty  institution, 
uid  is  confined  to  males,  although  a  feeble  imitation  of  it  exists 
in  some  places  for  the  other  sex.  The  ndembo  admits  both  sexes 
and  all  ages,  but  the  information  available  about  it  is  very  scanty. 
Rev.  J.  H.  Weeks  informed  me  that  in  the  Wathen  district  the 
ndembo  appeared  to  be  very  degenerate,  there  being  no  trace  of 
any  training  given  by  it,  and  neophytes  remaining  in  the  ndembo 
bush  as  long  as  food  was  provided  by  their  relatives.  The 
entrants  are  supposed  to  die,  and  the  food  is  explained  as 
necessary  to  strengthen  the  nganga  and  his  assistants  to  turn  over 
the  bodies  and  so  prevent  their  decay.  Dr.  De  Jonghe  arranges 
his  evidence  under  various  heads,  such  as  area  and  names  of 
societies,  age  of  initiation,  selection  of  novices,  length  of  tests, 
etc.,  and  concludes  that  one  object  of  the  nkimba  may  be  sexual 
separation  at  pul)eriy  (a  view  adopted  by  Dr.  Webster  as  regards 
the  i)iii>eriy  insiitiition),  while  its  main  end  is  civil  and  religious 
training.  Ti.e  tukml'o  lie  regards  as  a  magical  society.  His 
[)am|>hlei  ends  wuh  a  small  l)ul  valual)le  bibliography  of  58  books 
incl  ariu  ics,  with    iiiiiotaimns  as  to  the  nature  and  source  of  each 

iiilhor's   inlorrnaljiHL  .      .^     ,,, 

A.  R.  Wright. 

Lkcend  in  Japank^f:  Art.  A  description  of  historical  episodes, 
legendary  cii aiac  ters,  folk  lore  myths,  religious  symbolism 
illustr.iied   in    the   arts   of  old  Japan.     By    Hknri  L.  Jolv. 

llliisirate(J.     John  Lane,  190S. 

So  numerous  ii avc  been  the  l>aoks  on  things  Ja{>anese  during  the 
asi  tew  \Lars  that  it  seems  ditiicult  to  justify  a  fresh  one.  But 
M.  j./.v  ha-,  found  a  comparatively  little  known  region  where  his 

374  Reviews. 

offer  of  help  as  a  guide  will  be  hailed  with  enthusiasm  by  the 
student.  Every  collector  of  folklore  objects,  and  every  folk- 
lorist  anxious  to  know  the  legends  or  symbolism  embodied  in  the 
beautiful  or  grotesque  Japanese  netsuke,  sword  furniture,  inro, 
prints,  etc.,  which  he  meets,  will  often  have  had  great  difficulty 
in  satisfying  the  curiosity  aroused.  Even  Japanese  acquaintances 
cannot  explain  the  meaning  of  all  the  objects  shown  to  them, 
and  there  is  no  "  Smith's  dictionary  "  of  Japanese  biography  and 
mythology.  If  one  can  learn  the  name  of  a  character  or  incident 
depicted,  it  may  still  require  considerable  labour  to  obtain  further 
particulars,  and  objects  evidently  of  high  interest  to  the  student 
of  custom  and  religion  have  to  be  put  in  the  cabinet  unexplained. 
Anderson's  valuable  Descriptive  Catalogue  of  a  collection  of 
Japanese  and  Chinese  paintings  in  the  British  Museum  was  pub- 
lished in  1886,  and  Brockhaus's  magnificent  Netsuke  is  limited  to 
those  objects  and  is  out  of  print. 

M.  Joly  has  amassed  from  Japanese  books  and  friends,  and 
from  other  collectors,  etc.,  a  great  quantity  of  notes  and  illus- 
trations relating  to  the  legendary  subjects  of  Japanese  art,  and 
gives  the  result,  as  a  dictionary  arranged  alphabetically  under 
names  chiefly  of  historical  persons  and  mythical  beings,  in  this 
bulky  quarto  volume  of  453  pages,  with  upwards  of  700  beauti- 
fully clear  illustrations  and  16  colour  reproductions.  He  has 
added  a  Japanese  index  under  radicals,  and  a  bibliography  which 
is  specially  valuable  for  containing  a  large  number  of  illustrated 
Japanese  works  with  their  native  titles,  translations  of  the  same, 
and  some  annotations.  The  European  portion  of  the  biblio- 
graphy is  very  far  from  complete,  but  does  not  profess  to  be  more 
than  a  useful  list  for  general  reference.  A  number  of  the  articles 
in  the  body  of  the  work  are  very  useful,  e.g.  on  masks^  giving  an 
account  of  138  forms,  with  118  illustrations,  a  list  of  Japanese 
names,  and  a  bibliography ;  on  the  sennins  (but  for  some  reason 
not  obvious  under  the  Indian  term  rishis  instead  of  sennins)  ; 
and  a  table  showing  the  relations  of  the  Japanese  zodiacal  signs 
and  years  and  horary  characters.  The  last  might  with  advantage 
be  explained  in  detail.  Some  other  articles,  which  are  perhaps 
less  concerned  with  art,  are  very  incomplete,  such  as  those  on 
charms  and  games.      The  latter  article  does  not  include  in  its 

Reviews.  375 

bibliography  either  Culin's  Korean  Games  with  notes  on  the  corre- 
sponding games  of  China  and  Japan ^  or  Falkener's  Games  Ancient 
and  Oriental  and  Haiv  to  Hay  them  (in  which  there  are  accounts 
of  Japanese  chess  games  and  Go).  There  are  a  few  comparative 
notes  on  the  folktales  cited,  several  being  taken  from  Dr.  Lang's  1 

Custom  and  Myth^   and   these   might   well    be  omitted,   or,   if  ! 

retained,  should  l>e  made  a  real  contribution  to  comparative 
storyolopy.  Other  comparative  notes  are  not  very  valuable.  For 
example,  Mitsume,  the  three-eyed  goblin,  is  compared  with  a 
description  of  the  three-eyed,  but  otherwise  quite  different, 
Tibetan  deity  Palden  Lhamo,  cited  from  Perceval  Landon's 
Lhasa  (which  is  referred  to  as  Perc/Val  Landon's  Lha&ra).  M. 
Joly  appears  to  rely  greatly  upon  the  works  of  Lafcadio  Heam, 
who  is  now,  however,  regarded  as  a  somewhat  doubtful  authority. 
The  opening  chapter  on  '*  Emblems  and  attributes "  contains  a 
good  deal  of  miscellaneous  folklore  under  such  headings  as 
mirror  (predicts  future  at  2  a.m.),  nails  (finger)  (white  spots  for 
gifts),  seals  (must  be  affixed  an  odd  number  of  times  or  the 
document  is  unlucky),  star  (shooting)  (soul  of  person  just  dead), 
and  string  (hair  string  breaking  foretells  a  death).  The  note  on 
sneezint;  is  '*  Sneezing,  has  ominous  meanings :  if  once,  the 
affected  person  is  praised  son)ewhere ;  if  twice,  reviled ;  if  three 
tmiLS,  it  is  a  sure  i)r()()t  that  he  has  *  Kaze  wo  Totta '  (caught  the 
wind  I,  /Y  ,  a  '  <<)icl.'  "  I  he  three  times  omen  has  a  flavour  about 
It  rather  ot  individual  than  ol  folk  humour,  and  according  to 
another  authority  the  nrdiniry  Japanese  belief  is  that  three  sneezes 
ukIm  ate  thai  s<jine()n(    is  in  have  with  the  sneezer. 

Having'  noted  >o  many  ( au-es  tor  gratitude,  and  added  a  word 
«j|  praise  for  the  wide  r ani^e  and  beautiful  reproduction  of  the 
ilkibtraiions,  it  is  \try  i(Liretta])]e  to  be  obliged  to  accept  M. 
Jt»ly's  mvii.ition  in  his  lutrodiiciion  to  cc^rrecl  his  pages,  and  to 
complain  oi  the  d«  te<  t^  ot  h  isic  and  carelessness  which  render 
the  lMa>k  so  mu(  \^  less  oi  a  treasure  than  it  might  have  been.  To 
I'e^in  with,  I  petty  ann  'vnKe  is  that  the  author  has  been  badly 
served  l.y  Ills  proi.t  reader.  The  edible  seaweed  kobu  USed  in 
ti.L  New  \'ear  te  iival  is  referred  to  on  p.  xxiv.  under  a  heading 
Al.;uti(,  's  I  (If  //, /M  (Dot  fHius)  vcsicu/osus^  and  aiguae  for  alget 
app^  i.^     i^aii;   on   p    r ss.     Chariui  ap|>ears  thrice  in  four  lines 

376  Reviews. 

on  p.  xxvii.  as  charriot,  and  there  are  many  other  misspellings, 
such  as  pawlonnia,  goblings,  murdured,  place  (for  palace),  Toaist 
(for  Taoist),  Tibethan  (for  Tibetans),  customs  (for  costumes), 
Araithaba  (for  Amitabha),  etc.  Such  sentences  as  the  following 
should  not  have  evaded  correction, — (p.  i6)  '^  Mikoshi  Niudo, 
bald  headed,  pulls  its  tongue  and  lolling  it  about,  looks  over 
screens " ;  (p.  240)  "  his  would-be  murderer,  who  achieved  him 
with  his  kotsuka";  (p.  88)  "The  Japanese  top  differs  from  the 
European  one,  but  is  very  similar  to  the  Sabot  of  the  French 
boys";  (p.  107)  "the  Norse  myth  of  the  white  swan,  or  some- 
times seal,  which  married  a  fisherman  and  gave  him  three 
children  before  leaving  him,  finally,  in  Siberian  and  South 
African  folklore" ;  (p.  331)  "unfortunately  for  the  peasants  living 
on  his  estate,  he  was  of  fastuous  disposition."  A  more  serious 
defect  is  that  the  scrappiness  and  inaccuracy  natural  to  note- 
book jottings  has  not  been  remedied  by  careful  revision  and 
checking.  Even  in  the  bibliography,  besides  such  shps  as  Anec- 
iodes  Japonaises  and  Folk-lore  Records^  1878-9  (instead  of  Folk- 
Lore  Record,  1878),  such  errors  occur  as  "  Brinkley,  Capt  China 
and  Japan...  10  vols.",  instead  of  Japan  and  China,  12  vols. 
Citations,  too,  are  not  carefully  made.  For  example,  the  tale  of 
the  monkey  and  the  lizard  cited  from  Landon's  Lhasa  ends  thus 
on  p.  237  :  "The  lizard  .  .  .  was  roundly  reviled  by  the  monkey, 
and  flew  away  .  .  .  bat  the  story  does  not  say  whether  he  went 
home."  If  we  turn  to  Landon's  original  story,  we  read :  "So  the 
Monkey  knew  that  the  Lizard  was  layimr  a  trap  for  him,  and  he 
ran  away  jeering  at  the  silly  Lizard.  So  the  Lizard  returned  to 
Mrs.  Lizard  in  the  lake"!  Other  ciiaticms  appear  to  be  equally 
impressionist  in  style ;  Saruta  Hiko  no  Mikoto,  a  Shinto  deity, 
is  said  to  have  a  nasal  appendage  7  atbits  long,  but  the  original 
Nihongi  tjives  it  as  7  hands  long.  In  fact  the  whole  book  appears 
to  require  a  thorough  revision.  The  dictionary  headings  arc 
often  out  of  alphabetical  order,  and  in  a  long  list  of  rases  do  not 
correspond  with  the  names  given  under  the  illustrations.  It 
would  be  a  great  improvement  if  the  illustrations  were  numbered, 
and  referred  to  by  numbers  in  the  articles.  It  is  never  certain 
at  present  that  an  article  is  not  illustrated  somewhere  ;  Hattara 
Sonja  on   p.    114    is   illustrated   opposite   j>.    276,  and   Handaka 

Reviews.  377 

Sonja  on  p.  109  is  illustrated  opposite  p.  278.  Moreover,  it  is 
not  certain  whether  every  illustration  is  explained  in  the  text; 
sometimes  its  subject  does  not  appear  in  the  dictionary, — e,g, 
Niunria  Kosonsho,  Kakudaitsu,  Monju  Bosatsu  (Manjusri),  etc  ; 
or  is  dealt  with  under  a  different  name, — t.g,  Rokusonno  in  the 
plate  opposite  p.  374  is  dealt  with  under  Tsunemoto  in  the  text, 
and  the  explanation  of  two  illustrations  of  a  deer  and  maple  in 
the  plate  opposite  p.  226  must  be  looked  for  under  the  Japanese 
name  for  the  maple,  momiji,  on  p.  233.  In  the  article  on  the 
rakans  or  arhats,  a  list  of  16  is  given,  and  the  reader  is  referred 
to  the  names  of  the  separate  worthies  for  their  attributes ;  only 
4  of  the  16  names,  however,  appear  in  the  dictionary.  In  short, 
all  the  references  need  checking,  and  in  many  places  different 
bits  of  notebook  information  need  to  be  harmonised.  The 
above  discrepancies  are  only  a  few  of  a  long  list  noted  in 
reading,  which  it  would  be  wearisome  to  set  out  in  full  Were 
not  the  book  one  necessary  to  the  student,  it  would  not  have 
been  worth  while  pointing  out  its  numerous  small  errors.  A  new 
edition,  cleared  of  the  present  disfiguring  blemishes,  would  indeed 
be  a  joy  and  a  worthy  result  of  the  labour  expended. 

A.  R.  Wright. 

Ta/uyAoi  l»/i/ioA(i.     jVo  N.   V.  IToAiToi'.     Athens: 
S.ikcllanus,    1906. 

If  i>  «iuiic  s.Uc  to  recommend  any  book  by  Polites,  who  was 
one  if  the  hrsi  (irtck  scholars,  as  he  is  one  of  the  ablest,  to 
(lircci  lUention  lo  the  survivals  of  ancient  life  in  modem.  This 
|jam|'lilci  (lisciis^Ls  the  marriage  rites  and  symbols  in  the 
(,'':nsii,in  church  :  the  betrothal  ring,  the  crowns,  the  loving  cup, 
the  ( in  hn-  daiK  c,  wuli  sii^'gestions  as  to  their  origin.  A  number 
of  notes  describe  local  pecuharities  of  custom. 

W.  H.  D.  R. 

378  Reviews. 

Athens:  Sakellarios,  1906. 

This  speech,  delivered  in  the  National  Univereity  on  14  Jan., 
1907,  has  by  some  miracle  not  explained  been  published  in 
1906.  The  learned  author  sketches  the  impulse  towards  epic 
poetry  in  Europe  in  the  12th  century,  with  special  reference  to 
the  Greek  epic  of  Digenis  Akritas.  After  s<ime  critical  remarks 
on  the  various  known  recensions,  he  discusses  the  date,  apparently 
that  of  the  first  struggles  with  Islam.  Large  numbers  of  episodes 
from  this  epic  are  still  recited,  and  only  a  part  have  been 
recorded  in  writing  or  in  print  It  may  be  worth  while  adding 
that  Mr.  Dawkins,  Director  of  the  British  School  at  Athens,  is 
engaged  in  collecting  the  disiecta  membra, 

W.  H.  D.  IL 

Books  for  Rc^new  slwuUi  be  addressed  to 

The  Editor  of  Foik-I.u>re, 

c/o  David  Nutt, 

57-59  Long  Acre,  London,  W.C. 



Vol.  XIX.]  DECEMBER,  1908.  [No.  IV. 


(With  Plates  VIII.  and  IX.) 


{Read  at  Meeting,  1 5 /A  April,  1908.) 

On  the  second  Fridav  in  August  the  annual  fair  is  held  at 
Soutli  Quecnsfcrry,  a  small  burgh  of  great  antiquity,  just 
below  the  I^'orth  Bridge.  The  fair  takes  place  in  a  field 
within  a  convenient  distance  (the  burgh  has  now  no 
ccunmon  land  of  its  own)  and  consists  of  the  usual  shows 
and  iiierr\-go-rounds  with  the  recent  addition  of  pipc- 
playin;;  and  reel-dancing.  On  the  day  before  the  fair,  a 
house-to-house  visitation  is  made  by  the  Burry-man,  a 
character  who  has  existed  from  time  immemorial.  The 
ceremony  is  now  left  to  the  boys  of  the  place,  who  make 
their  rounds  to  collect  money  to  be  spent  at  the  fair 
next  day. 

The  Hurry-man  is  a  boy  dressed  in  a  tight-fitting 
i>uit  of  white  flannel  covered  entirely  with  burrs  stuck 
:)n.  The  covering  goes  over  his  whole  body  and  partly 
:)ver   his   face,   so   as   to   form    a   more    or    less   efficient 

VOL.    XIX.  2  B 

380  The  Burry-Man. 

disguise.  He  is  also  adorned  with  flowers  and  ribbons, 
wears  a  head-dress  of  flowers,  and  carries  in  each  hand 
a  stafl*  decorated  with  flowers  and  leaves.  He  is  accom- 
panied by  two  other  boys  in  ordinary  dress,  who  stand 
one  on  each  side  of  him,  supporting  his  outstretched 
arms  and  apparently  guiding  his  movements.  An  in- 
terested group  of  children  follow  at  a  respectful  distance, 
but  only  the  Burry-man  and  his  attendants  come  to 
the  house.  The  asking  is  done  by  the  attendants,  the 
Burry-man  maintaining  a  dignified  silence.  None  of  the 
attendants  are  decorated.  I  was  informed  that  sometimes 
two  Burry-men  were  led  about  and  called  the  King 
and  Queen,  but  this  seems  to  be  regarded  as  an  un* 
important  variation. 

In  the  photographs  (1908)  (Plates  VIII.  and  IX.),  the 
head-dress  is  a  good  deal  larger  and  heavier  than  my 
recollection  of  it  two  years  before,  so  that  it  coverB 
more  of  the  face. 

As  I  learn  by  the  courtesy  of  the  Town-Clerk  of 
South  Queensferry,  there  are  no  documents  or  records 
bearing  on  the  subject,  but  a  description  of  the  custom 
is  given  in  the  following  quotations : 

Fyfe,  Sumvicr  Life  on  Land  and  Water}  p.  48, 
published  185 1. 

''A  strange  custom  perpetuated  to  the  present  day 
among  the  youth  of  Queensferry,  has  been  supposed  to 
commemorate  at  once  the  passage  of  the  King  and 
Queen  to  and  from  Edinbut^h  and  Dunfermline,  and  to 
indicate  the  civic  origin  of  the  place.  We  refer  to  the 
annual  procession  of  the  Burry-man,  got  up  on  the  day 
preceding  the  Annual  Fair  amongst  the  boys  of  Queens- 
ferry,   and    traced    back    for    time    immemorial    to    the 

^  Mention  is  also  made  of  (he  custom  in  SincUir*s  SttUisticai  A€tmmi 
(Linlithgow),  1S45,  and  in  Porteouii'  T<ni/n  ComtuU  Semis  of  SeHlamd, 

PLATK     VIll. 

The  Burry-Man.  383 

may  be  true  of  the  Fair,  the  Burryman  procession  belongs 
to  a  stage  of  belief  much  older  than  Queen  Margaret 
(eleventh  century).  The  derivation  from  burgh  may  cer- 
tainly be  dismissed  as  arising  out  of  the  connection  with 
Queen  Margaret. 

For  other  possible  derivations,  we  have  the  following: 
Burs,  burns  is  Scots  for  fir-cones,  and  in  this  sense  is 
still  used. 

Burra  is  the  name  given  in  Orkney  and  Shetland  to  the 
common  kind  of  rush — used  for  feeding  sheep.^ 

Connected  with  this  is  Bear  (Lancashire),  name  of  a 
door-mat  made  of  the  peeling  of  rushes.  Perhaps  formerly 
these  mats  were  made  of  bear-skin.  The  rough  rope  mat 
resembles  one.* 

Burry,  or  burrie,  is  an  old  Scots  word  used  as  an  epithet 
of  a  dog,  meaning  rough,  shaggy,  and  generally  derived 
from  the  French  ^e?ttrrM  =  flockie,  hairie.' 

There  is  also  a  noun  burris^  meaning  flocks  or  locks 
of  wool,  which  is  used  in  an  Act  of  James  VI.* 

The  green  appearance  of  the  Burryman  and  the  bunches 
of  leaves  and  flowers  he  carries  are  at  once  recognisable 
as  sicrns  of  some  nature  cult  connected  with  summer  and 
the  season  of  green  and  flowering  things.  Lammas*  has 
always  been  a  very  important  season  in  Scotland,  especi- 
ally in  country  districts.  It  is,  of  course,  the  thanksgiving 
(the  Loaf-mass),  made  from  the  fruits  of  the  earth ;  but 

'Jam.,   />/V/.   S.ot.   Ldtt^,^  aJ  he.  'Wright,  Dialect  Diet.,  ad  loc, 

'  lani.,    />/./.    SiOt.^.^   ad  Itx.  *  Id. 

^  MiN>  Hurnc  icll>  mc  that  **  Hur "  in  Shropshire  means  a  rough  anhewn 
sl'>nc.  A  "bur"  wall  is  built  of  rounded  unhewn  stones.  It  is  a  sand* 
stone  (iiNlrict. 

[In  >.K.  Kn^'land  pcnerally  the  word  *  burr  *  means  a  lump  of  fused 
biKK    fr.-tn  a  kjln.      (L<1.)] 

*  I:  is  ;K.rJi.if:>>  necessary  to  explain  thai  though  Lammas-day  is  Aug.  I,  the 
term  Lamni.ts  is  u>cl  -  L-unmas-tidc.  Cf.  Christmas  =  Christmas-tide.  Cf. 
the  pr..\Lrl>ial  I^immas  fLxxis  which  are  expected  in  the  first  half  of 

384  The  Burry-Man. 

probably  the  special  popularity  of  Lammas  is  due  to  its 
having  coincided  with  or  partially  taken  the  place  of 
an  older  nature  festival,  e.g.  in  Ireland  and  Wales  the 
great  festival  of  the  God  Lug  took  place  on  or  about 
August  ist.^ 

In  southern  climates  it  would  doubtless  be  quite  pos- 
sible to  have  a  harvest  thanksgiving  on  Lammas  Sunday, 
but  further  north  the  harvest  is  much  later,  and  at  South 
Queensferry,  for  example,  the  corn  might  often  not  be 
cut  before  the  end  of  August,  so  that  to  offer  on  Aug.  ist 
a  loaf  made  from  the  new  corn  would  be  an  absolute 
impossibility.  Harvest  thanksgiving,  as  generally  under- 
stood now,  is  the  Harvest  Home,  a  thanksgiving  for  perils 
past)  but  there  is  another  possible  aspect  of  harvest 
sacrifice,  that  of  propitiating  a  higher  power,  in  order  that 
no  disaster  may  overtake  the  growing  corn  before  it  is 
ripened  and  harvested.  This  view  would  appeal  at  least 
as  forcibly  to  the  primitive  agricultural  mind  as  the  other, 
though  it  is  not  one  which  could  be  recognised  by  the 
Christian  Church.  It  would  be  in  accordance  with  the 
ordinary  spirit  of  compromise*  for  the  Christian  festival 
of  Lammas,  harvest  thanksgiving,  officially  to  take  the 
place  of  harvest  propitiation,  though  the  older  custom, 
shorn  of  its  real  meaning,  still  flourished  among  the 

The  flowers  and  leaves  which  decorate  the  Burryman 
are  rather  a  symbol  of  the  luxuriant  growth  of  summer 
than  of  harvest  thanksgiving.  There  are  numerous  in- 
stances of  such  summer  figures,  e.g,  near  Willings-Hausen, 
Lower  Hesse,  a  boy  is  covered  over  and  over  with  leaves, 
green  branches  are  fastened  to  his  body:  other  boys 
lead  him  by  a  rope  and  make  him  dance  as  a  bear, 
for  doing  which  a  present  is  given.* 

'  Rhys,  Hibbc-rt  Uctures^  p.  410  ;  id.    Welsh  Folklore^  i.  31a. 

-Gregory  lo  Abl>ot   Meletus,  601  <i. 

^  Grimm,    Tfut.   Myth.  ii.  784;  cf.  id,  764,  776,  783. 

The  Burry-Man.  385 

Curiously  enough,  the  first  glance  at  the  South  Queens- 
ferry  Burryman,  without  any  idea  of  comparison,  made 
one  think  of  a  bear  walking  on  its  hind  legs.  This 
impression  was  strengthened  by  the  fact  that  the  burry 
covering  coming  down  over  the  forehead  and  between  the 
eyes  practically  concealed  the  upper  part  of  the  face. 
This  resemblance  may  be  only  a  coincidence  (it  is  much 
less  evident  in  the  photograph),  but  it  suggests  the  direction 
in  which  the  explanation  lies. 

Burry  then  would  be  the  old  Scots  word  meaning 
shaggy  or  hairy,  as  given  above.  There  seems  no  legend 
to  explain  the  symbolic  use  of  ordinary  burs.  Bur^  in 
the  sense  of  fir-cones,  would  have  a  reasonable  connection 
with  wood  spirits,  but  this  is  still  a  common  meaning  of 
the  word,  and  fir-cones  have  apparently  never  been  part 
of  the  costume.  But  ^«r/7  =  shaggy  is  an  old  word,  rare, 
and  long  out  of  use.  The  transference  would  not  be 
unnatural,  especially  if  the  idea  were  to  get  a  rough  cover- 
ing. At  a  distance,  closely-set  burs  have  somewhat  the 
effect  of  locks  of  wool,  in  the  same  primitive  fashion  in 
which  the  stiff  circles  and  holes  of  the  pre-Pheidian  Greek 
sculptors  represent  locks  of  hair.  Similarly  moss  is  used 
instead  of  fur  in  the  dress  of  winter  (Middle  Rhine).*  In 
the  same  way  the  burry  covering  may  be  the  survival  of 
the  fur  dress,  just  as  the  Lancashire  bear-mat  may  once 
have  been  a  bear-skin. 

There  is  little  difficulty  in  finding  instances  of  shaggy 
figures,  either  men  or  animals,  possessing  the  power  to 
work   evil. 

W'iien  Wolf  Dieterich^  sets  forth  to  ask  the  help  of 
Ortnit  of  Lombardy,  he  is  warned  to  beware  in  crossing 
the  deserts  of  Koumelia,  lest  he  be  caught  by  Ranch  Else. 
Losinj^'  his  way  in  the  forest,  he  is  found  by  a  dark  and 
terrible  monster  of  appalling  height,  black  and  shaggy 
like  a  bear,  with  a  voice  like  a  bears  growl.     The  hero's 

'  Gruinn,    />;/.'.   Myth.   ii.   764.  'Wagner,  legends  of  the  A  mulungs. 

386  The  Burry^Man. 

promise  to  marry  her  breaks  the  spell,  and  the  dark  fleece 
falling  off  reveals  the  lovely  princess.  Cf.  also  the  story 
of  "  Beauty  and  the  Beast." 

The  same  idea  of  a  black  shaggy  horror  appears  in 
many  old  stories  of  haunting.^  Most  people's  childish 
recollections  will  bear  witness  to  a  shadowy  bugbear,  which 
was  generally  shaggy,  sometimes  black,  sometimes  both. 
As  hobgoblins  haunt  dark  corners,  so  shaggy  monsters 
frequent  forests  and  moors.  The  tradition  is  that  Dal- 
meny^  means  Black  heaths  or  gloomy  spots. 

Mr.  Frazer  has  shown  that  the  com  spirit  has  many 
and  varied  animal  forms,  and  there  are  many  sayings  to 
show  its  kindly  fertilising  action,  e.g,  "  The  steer  is  running 
in  the  corn,"  ^  when  it  is  stirred  by  a  gentle  breeze.  There 
are  other  proverbs  showing  the  evil  effect,  e^.  when  the 
wind  has  laid  the  growing  com  :  "  See  the  wolf  slept  there 
last  night."* 

It  is  worth  comparing  with  these  a  curious  expression 
"to  play  the  bear  "  =  to  damage,  spoil,  ruin.  A  market 
gardener  in  Northamptonshire^  says:  "A  wet  Saturday 
plays  the  bear  with  us."  In  Warwickshire*  they  say: 
**The  pigs  have  been  in  the  garden  and  played  the  bear 
with  it." 

Every  farmer  knows  that  the  really  fatal  time  "  to  play 
the  bear  with  "  the  standing  crop  is  after  the  com  is  fully 
in  the  ear,  and  before  it  is  ripened.  After  a  rain  or  wind 
storm  the  heavier  the  crop  the  more  difficult  it  is  for  the 
bent  stalks  to  straighten  themselves,  and  lying  on  the 
ground  the  ears  ripen  very  imperfectly.  It  is  therefore 
very  important  to  make  sure  of  divine  protection  at  this 
stage,  rather  than  to  wait  and  offer  thanksgiving  after 
the  dangerous  time  is  over. 

^  Cf  Maulhe  Dog  in  the  Isle  of  Man. 
'Till  1636  Queensferry  was  part  of  the  parish  of  Dalmeny. 
^Golden  Bough,  277,  284.  *  AfamtJkardt,  \L  J2t, 

»  Wright,  Dta/.  Diet.,  ad  loc.  *  Id. 

The  Burry-Man.  387 

In  the  legends  of  the  Calydonian  Boar,*  of  Adonis, 
f  Iphigenia,  the  untimely  death,  the  destruction  of  the 
nripe  is  insisted  on,  clearly  because  propitiation  for  the 
ifety  of  the  growing  crops  of  the  young  enterprise  had 
een  neglected.  Later  ethical  development  may  make 
ropitiation  and  thanksgiving  into  one  festival,*  but  untimely 
eath  could  never  apply  to  ripened  corn. 

In  the  case  of  Scotland,  climate  and  circumstances 
ould  tend  to  give  even  longer  life  to  the  propitiatory 
lea.*  If  the  orthodox  date  for  offering  first  fruits  is  a 
lonth  before  the  corn  can  be  gathered  in,  it  is  a  little 
ifficult  for  the  ignorant  mind  to  distinguish  such  a 
arvest  thanksgiving  from  a  placating  sacrifice  to  ensure 

good  harvest. 

I  would  therefore  suggest  that  the  ceremony  of  the 
lurryman  is  a  relic  of  an  early  propitiatory  harvest 
te.  The  Burryman  himself  represents  an  indeterminate 
eing,  possibly  the  wild  man  of  the  woods,  possibly  the 
ngry  spirit  in  the  form  of  wolf,  bear  or  boar,  whose 
riginal  hairy  shaggy  covering  has,  by  corruption  or  mis- 
nderstanding  of  the  word  burrie,  degenerated  into  a 
overing  of  burrs.  His  procession  and  collection  of  money 
om  door  to  door  are  the  modern  form  of  the  sacrifice 
Inquired  to  ensure  a  fruitful  season. 

Isabel  A.  Dickson. 

"  Horn.    //.   ix.   534. 

'  H.irriMHi,    I'^omfUiiy    79. 

^  There  arc  :il  lca>i  iwo  instances  of  openly  propitiatory  rites  in  Fife  and    in    the    thirteenth    century,    one   conducted    by   the    Parish    Priest. 

.cmMf.   i.    350. 

AV.v.  [It  m.iy  also  }>c  suL^^este<i  that  the  actual  use  of  the  burrs  to  form 
:e  ^ha^'^y  c-vcrin^  may  J)c  due  to  a  piece  of  popular  etymology,  an 
tempi  to  j;ivc  a  hvm^  meaning  to  the  obsolete   word  *burrie.*     Ed.] 



It  has  been  generally  recognised  that  the  Australian 
blacks  are  a  mixed  race,  and  the  most  commonly  accepted 
theory  as  to  their  origin  sees  in  them  a  cross  between  a 
Melanesian  stock,  perhaps  that  of  which  the  Tasmanians 
were  the  remnant,  and  a  straight-haired  people,  identified, 
though  for  no  valid  reason,  with  the  Dravidians  of  South 
India.  Although  the  shape  of  the  skull  and  the  character 
of  the  hair  vary  to  some  extent  in  different  areas,  and 
though  there  are  well-marked  facial  types  associated 
with  certain  areas,  neither  somatological  nor  cultural 
evidence  pointed  to  any  well-marked  racial  differences 
between  the  populations  of  different  areas,  such  as  would 
lead  us  to  infer  the  predominance  of  one  stock  in  one 
region,  and  of  another  stock  in  another  region. 

There  are,  of  course,  well-marked  cultural  areas,  but 
the  conclusions  drawn  from  the  distribution  of  spear  types 
are  overthrown  by  the  evidence  derived  from  types  of 
initiation  ceremonies;  and  social  organisation  gives  us  a 
map  whose  forms  differ  from  both  the  others.  How  far 
this  is  due  to  transmission  rather  than  tribal  migration 
need  not  occupy  us  here;  for,  at  any  rate  in  Australia, 
language  is  a  more  reliable  test  of  race,  and  the  great 
number  of  independent  languages  makes  it  improbable 
that  they  have  been  spread  by  other  means  than  the  actual 
expansion  of  the  stock  that  speaks  them. 

It    has    often    been    assumed,    though    on    insufficient 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia.    389 

rounds,  that  all  Australian  languages  are  of  the  same 
ype.  Recent  researches,  however,  by  P.  W.  Schmidt,^ 
lave  shown  that  so  far  from  this  being  the  case,  they  fall 
nto  two  large  groups,  only  one  of  which — that  occupying 
he  southern  half  of  the  continent  together  with  portions 
►f  the  northern  half  in  the  neighbourhood  of  the  Gulf  of 
Carpentaria — is  apparently  really  indigenous;  the  northern 
^roup,  which  Schmidt  is  inclined  to  regard  as  immigrant 
'apuan  languages,  seldom  extends  further  south  than 
\d*  S.,  and  in  addition  to  the  Gulf  extension  of  Australian 
anguages  already  mentioned  as  encroaching  upon  the 
erritory  of  this  group,  we  find  on  the  east  coast  another 
irm  stretching  up  to  15®  S. 

The  Australian  languages  proper  fall  into  two  sub- 
groups, the  old  and  the  new,  distinguishable  by  the 
>osition  of  the  dependent  genitive.  The  old  group 
)ccupies  the  south  of  Victoria  and  is  found  sporadically 
>n  the  east  coast. 

The  present  paper  is  devoted  in  the  main  to  the 
examination  of  the  light  thrown  on  racial  problems  by 
he  funeral  customs  of  the  Australians. 

Before  proceeding  to  examine  in  detail  the  Australian 
ites  of  disposal  of  the  dead  and  their  distribution,  it  may 
DC  well  to  call  attention  to  certain  general  facts.  In  the 
irst  place,  there  are  certain  areas  in  which  the  method  of 
disposal  varies  accord ini^  to  the  age,  sex,  or  status  of  the 
icccascd  ;  they  include  the  greater  part  of  Queensland, 
\  part  of  the  central  area,  the  coastal  region  from  the 
Daly  River  to  the  Coburg  Peninsula,  the  district  im- 
Ticdiatcly  north  of  the  mouth  of  the  Murray,  and  part  of 
Acstcrn  Victoria.  In  the  remainder  of  the  continent,  so 
far  as  we  are  aware,  the  rites  are  more  simple,  though 
here  too  the  status  of  the  deceased  may  make  it  incumbent 
Dn  the  survivors  to  mourn  him  with  more  ceremony.  As 
\  rule,  where  only  one  method  of  dealing  with  the  body 

^  Man,    1908,    No.    104. 

390    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia. 

is  practised,  it  consists  in  simple  burial  beneath  the  surface 
of  the  ground ;  occasionally  the  trunk  of  a  hollow  tree 
is  selected  as  the  last  resting-place  of  the  remains,  and 
still  more  rarely  cremation,  anthropophagy  or  exposure 
is  the  recognised  method  of  disposing  of  the  body. 

The  main  feature  of  all  these  customs  is  that  the  body 
is  dealt  with  once  for  all,  mourning  rites  apart.  It  is 
quite  exceptional  for  the  widow  to  carry  the  ashes  of 
the  husband's  corpse,  as  she  does,  according  to  Dawson, 
in  the  western  districts  of  Victoria,  and  it  is  worthy  of 
remark  that  even  the  custom  of  putting  the  body  on  a 
platform,  in  the  form  in  which  it  is  practised  among  the 
Narrinyeri  and  neighbouring  tribes,  is  really  much  more 
akin  to  the  simple  burial  than  to  the  more  complex  types 
of  ritual  found  in  Queensland  and  other  areas.  For  the 
main  purpose  of  drying  the  corpse  on  the  platform  may 
have  been  no  more  than  to  preserve  it  until  the  mourning 
rites  had  all  been  performed  ;  in  the  central  area,  of  course, 
the  corpse  is  left  undisturbed  for  a  whole  year  after  the 
rites  are  concluded.  At  the  same  time  it  must  not  be 
forgotten  that  there  are  linguistic  relations  between  the 
lower  Murray  area  and  the  extreme  north,  and  that  the 
custom  of  removing  the  scarf  skin  practised  by  the  Narrin- 
yeri is  also  a  feature  of  the  rites  of  south  Queensland, 
where  the  complex  ritual  is  in  force.  In  this  connection 
I  may  mention  that  there  is  in  the  part  of  south 
Australia  near  the  mouth  of  the  Murray  a  well-marked 
type  of  skull.  It  is  possible,  therefore,  that  the  tribes  of 
this  area  which  practise  the  more  complex  ritual  are  in 
reality  offshoots  of  stocks  whose  main  habitat  is  far 
removed  from  them. 

Whether  that  is  so  or  not,  it  may  be  said  that,  broadly 
speaking,  the  simple  ritual  is  not  found  outside  the  area 
of  the  Australian  languages ;  there  is  a  tendency  to 
greater  complication  in  the  area  of  the  old  Australian 
group;    on  the   other  hand,   many  of  the  tribes   in  the 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia,    391 

leo-Australian  area  of  Queensland  practise  the  complex 
itual,  notably  those  of  the  south  centre,  of  the  coast 
lorth  of  Cape  Grafton  and  of  the  district  round  Brisbane. 
Jut  there  is  some  evidence,  linguistic  and  otherwise,  for 
L  foreign  element  in  both  these  latter  areas,  and  the  only 
eal  exception  to  the  rule  that  the  simple  ritual  is 
Lssociated  with  the  neo- Australian  languages  is  there- 
ore  the  south-central  Queensland  area,  the  home  of  the 
o-called  ^wrn-tribes,  the  intrusive  character  of  which 
Dr.  Graebner  has  endeavoured  to  prove.*  The  evidence 
learly  makes  it  possible  to  hold  either  of  two  tlieories — 
hat  an  invading  stock,  retaining  in  the  main  their  own 
ulture,  took  over  the  language  of  the  indigenous  inhabi* 
ants,  or  that  the  latter  took  over  the  customs  of  the 
ilien  tribes  with  which  they  came  in  contact  without 
ufTering  any  marked  alien  immigration. 

It  is  perhaps  of  interest  to  point  out  that  in  the  case 
)f  the  Arunta  we  find  precisely  the  opposite  phenomenon; 
heir  language  does  not  belong  to  either  of  the  Australian 
groups ;  but  it  is  their  custom  to  bury  the  body  within 
I  very  short  time  of  death  instead  of  practising  the 
elaborate  ceremonies  of  their  northern  neighbours.  Not 
mly  so,  but  there  is  another  link  between  their  customs 
md  tliat  of  the  neo-Australian  tribes,  in  that  they  leave 
in  aperture  in  the  c:;rave  mound,  to  permit  the  spirit 
)f  the  dead  to  escape,  precisely  as  do  some  of  their 
leo-Au-tralian  speaking  nci<;hbours  on  the  west.*  I 
annot  but  think  that  this  adds  force  to  the  arguments 
)f  tho^c  who  rei;ard  the  Arunta  as  abnormal  rather  than 
)rimitive.  If  tlie)*  .ire  primarily  an  Australian  tribe,  they 
lave  taken  over  a  forei^^n  language,  and  obviously  this 
mplics  deep  modifications ;  if  they  are  immigrants,  per- 
haps from  New  Guinea,  there  can  hardly  be  any  question 
.s  to  their  non-primitive  character. 

•>;^i,ccr  n:,'i  (,.llcn,  AVr.    />.,  506  ;   Trs.  A,S.S,A,,  28,  35. 

392    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia. 

Broadly  speaking,  the  object  of  the  ceremonies  of  the 
southern  tribes  seems  to  be  to  placate  the  deceased  by 
adequate  rites  of  mourning ;  certain  of  the  fire  customs 
seem  to  be  intended  to  drive  away  the  ghost  But  on 
the  whole  there  is  no  well-marked  evidence  of  such  an 
intention,  and  so  far  as  can  be  seen  the  spirit  of  the 
dead  person  is  supposed  to  remain  for  ever  in  the  neigh- 
bourhood of  the  corpse.  In  the  northern  area,  on  the 
other  hand,  though  mourning  rites  are  also  performed, 
the  exposure  of  the  body  on  a  stage  is  intended  to  cause 
the  flesh  to  come  away  from  the  bones;  as  in  other 
parts  of  the  world,  the  final  burial  or  disposal  of  the 
latter  is  regarded  as  the  signal  for  the  spirit  to  quit 
the  neighbourhood  of  its  earthly  remains.  Though  the 
dead  are  feared  in  this  area  too,  the  feeling  seems  to  be 
less  strong,  and  in  the  Binbinga  tribe  the  father  and 
mother  approach  the  fire  near  which  the  spirit  hovers 
at  times.^ 

We  may  now  proceed  to  a  more  detailed  account  of 
Australian  funeral  customs.  As  a  typical  example  of 
West  Australian  burial  ceremonies  may  be  taken  the 
rites  in  the  neighbourhood  of  Perth  described  by  Moore.* 
A  clear  spot  was  selected  near  some  mahogany  trees, 
and  a  grave  dug  in  a  north  and  south  direction,  four 
feet  long,  three  feet  broad,  and  eighteen  inches  deep,  the 
clay  being  heaped  up  in  crescent  form  on  the  west.  The 
body  was  doubled  up  so  that  the  heels  touched  the  thighs, 
the  hair  and  beard  were  cut  and  singed  smooth ;  another 
account  says  that  this  was  done  by  throwing  wood  and 
brush  into  the  grave  and  setting  fire  to  it  Moore  states 
that  the  nail  of  the  little  finger  of  the  right  hand  is 
burnt  off,  and  the  finger  and  thumb  tied  together.  The 
detail  as  to  the  nail  is  curious,  as  elsewhere  it  is  the 
thumb-nail  that  is  burnt  off  and  the  reason  given — to 
prevent   the   dead   man  from   using   the   mero   or   spear- 

^\Vr.    Tr.,  549.  ^J,mmal,  pp.  345-7. 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia.    393 

hrower  could  obviously  not  apply  to  the  little  finger 
lail ;  however,  another  authority  says  that  the  nails 
ire  burnt  off  to  prevent  the  dead  from  escaping  from 
he  grave;  the  reason  for  the  custom  is  therefore  some- 
vhat  uncertain. 

After  the  removal  of  the  nail  a  woman  covered  the 
brehead  of  the  corpse  with  white  earth  and  kissed  it, 
irhile  others  put  brushwood  on  the  grave  and  fired  It. 
Then  followed  what  seems  to  have  been  a  rite  of 
livination  ;  the  ashes  were  brushed  out,  probably  in  order 
o  discover  by  the  marks  who  was  responsible  for  the 
leath  of  the  deceased ;  Moore  mentions  that  all  seemed 
o  fear  the  smoke  and  ashes. 

The  body  was  put  in  the  grave  on  its  right  side,  so 
hat  it  faced  the  east  (neighbouring  tribes  to  the  east  and 
vest  made  corpses  face  the  south)  and  a  discussion  arose 
IS  to  whether  the  thumb  nail  should  also  be  removed. 
Roughs  were  thrown  on  the  body  and  pieces  of  wood 
ind  all  pressed  down.  With  it  were  put  in  the  grave 
he  man's  cloak,  his  broken  spear  and  mero,  etc;  his 
)ag  was  torn  and  the  contents  strewn  about.  The  grave 
las  then  filled  in,  and  at  Kojonup  the  earth  originally 
akcn  from  the  ^rave  might  on  no  account  be  put  back 
nto  it^  The  grave  is  covered  with  a  mound  and  a 
creen  of  boughs  erected  ;  a  fire  is  lighted  in  front  of 
he  mound  and  the  trees  are  marked  with  rings  and 

Another  account-  adds  that  the  dead  are  feared,  and 
o  keep  their  spirits  from  visiting  their  friends  at  night 
.  small  buiulle  of  sticks  and  leaves  is  made  and  carried 
or  two  or  three  months  by  one  of  the  women;  bundles 
►f  this  sort  are  believed  to  be  very  attractive  to  the 
lead  and  they  are  placed  at  night  near  a  fire  made 
part  for  the  purpose,  and  generally  keep  the  ghosts 
rom  annoying  their  friends.     A    later    account   describes 

'Curr,   I,  348.  *ib,  33a 

394    ^^^  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia. 

the  burial  of  a  murdered  man  at  Perth.  His  body, 
decorated  with  paint  and  feathers,  lay  in  a  sandy  river 
bed,  boys  and  men  squatting  round,  the  women  some 
distance  away.  Five  men  took  the  body  on  their  heads 
transversely  and  men  and  women  followed  in  separate 
parties.     The  grave  was  dug  in  the  river  bed  with  shells.^ 

Fear  of  the  dead  seems  to  be  the  characteristic 
attitude  of  the  natives  of  West  Australia ;  but  a  custom  at 
Boston  Point  near  Point  Lincoln  suggests  that  this 
attitude  cannot  be  universal,  as  is  commonly  supposed. 
For  the  burial  ground  was  in  the  centre  of  the  encamp- 
ment— a  high  mound  of  earth  in  which  they  excavated 

Certain  customs,  such  as  the  use  of  the  "  Fadenkreuz " 
{ue.  crossed  sticks  wound  with  hairstring  in  such  a  way 
that  a  square  is  formed  with  the  angles  on  the  cross- 
sticks)  are  practised  over  an  area  which  extends  diagon- 
ally over  the  continent  from  north-west  to  south-east. 
Another  custom  of  this  area  is  the  placing  of  stones 
upon  the  grave,  reported  from  Roebuck  Bay,*  the 
Victoria  River,*  parts  of  New  South  Wales,*  and  also 
from  Angipena,  South  Australia.^  At  the  latter  place 
the  stones  are  arranged  in  a  circle  five  feet  in  diameter; 
most  of  them  are  only  a  few  inches  in  diameter,  but  at 
the  head,  where  they  are  covered,  hut-fashion,  by 
branches,  there  are  two  or  three  large  stones.  .A  fire 
was  kept  burning  at  the  foot  for  several  days  and  the 
ground  was  swept  repeatedly  for  some  time  after  burial, 
probably  for  divinatory  purposes.  The  mourners  walked 
in  procession  round  the  grave  and  each  threw  a  large 
stone  with  sufficient  force  to  mark  a  neighbouring  tree. 

The  Adelaide  tribes  also  placed  stones  upon  the  grave, 
but  in  this  case  in  semi-circular  form.^     Here,  however,  we 

^Mission  Field,  24,  310.         'Cruttwell,  Sketches^  74. 

3  MS.  notes.  *  Proc,  Linn.  Soc.  N,S,  ^.,  23,  420 ;  26,  238. 

*  Austin,  Mines,  66.  «  Howitt,  N,T,S,E,A.^  451. 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Austraiia.    395 

ach  the  borders  of  the  small  southern  area  already 
luded  to  where  the  rites  of  disposal  of  the  dead  are 
lore  complex.  It  does  not  appear  exactly  who  were 
uried,  but  the  chiefs  underwent  more  elaborate  cere- 
lonies.*  The  corpse  was  first  disembowelled — a  procedure 
ractised  also  at  Natal  Downs,  Queensland' — and  then 
ried  ;  the  fat  was  caught  in  shells,  and  put  on  the  tip 
r  the  tongue,  and  here  the  link  is  with  the  Pieri  tribe, 
here  certain  relatives,  usually  those  in  the  female  lin^ 
ait  the  fat  of  the  dead,  which  is  in  this  case  cut  off*  froa\ 
le  body  after  it  has  been  placed  in  the  grave.'  After 
le  drying  of  the  body,  the  Adelaide  tribe  put  it  in  the 
>rk  of  a  gum  tree ;  but  it  does  not  appear  whether  it 
^mained  there  permanently,  or  whether  it  was,  as  in  the 
larrinyeri  tribe,*  subsequently  buried. 

In  this  district  we  find  another  class  of  divinatory 
eremonies;  the  body  is  not,  as  is  usually  the  case,  put 
pon  a  stage  or  buried,  and  the  murderer  divined  from 
le  character  of  the  tracks  subsequently  found  near  the 
rave  (the  assumption  being  that  the  man  of  a  giveq 
>tem  leaves  behind  him  the  track  of  his  totem  animal) ; 
le  body  is  put  upon  a  bier,  sitting  up  and  lashed  together 
11  it  is  almost  like  a  ball.  One  or  two  people  precede 
ie  body  ;  men,  women  and  children  followed,  howling  a 
irge.  The  bearers  walked  slowly  at  first,  and  then 
icreased  their  speed ;  suddenly  a  yell  was  heard,  and  all 
Topped  on  one  knee,  and  shuffled  along  some  distance 
;i  it,  then  on  both  knees.  Another  shout,  and  they  rise 
J  their  feet  to  beat  the  surrounding  bushes  with  sticks 
nd  tear  their  hair  till  quite  exhausted.  Then  they 
rought  the  body  back  to  its  shelter,  and  separated  after 

general  howl.  The  corpse  was  said  to  impel  its  bearers 
J  touch  the  murderer  with  one  of  the  branches  which 
>rmccl  the  bier,  if  by  any  chance  they  came  near  him. 

'  lov.p,   Iluvinsland,   247.  •  Curr,  2,  476. 

MIovMtt,  447  si\.  *Taplin,  FolkUrt^  37. 

2  C 

396    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia, 

Finally,  the  burial  took  place  in  a  grave  from  four  to  six 
feet  deep.  Children,  however,  were  not  buried  for  some 
months,  but  carried  on  the  mother's  back,  and  formed  her 
pillow  at  night,  clearly  in  the  hope  that  they  might  re- 
incarnate themselves.^ 

Several  other  methods  of  divination  were  known  in 
Australia  and  two  were  practised  at  no  great  distance 
from  Adelaide ;  it  may  be  well  to  describe  them  at  once. 
Near  Adelaide  the  body  was  placed  naked  in  the  grave 
and  wailed  over  by  women.  An  insect  was  then  taken 
from  the  grave  and  set  free;  from  the  direction  which  it 
took  was  inferred  the  direction  in  which  the  avengers  of 
blood  had  to  go ;  in  this  case,  however,  there  was  no 
attempt  to  discover  the  totem  of  the  evil-doer,  still  less 
the  exact  person  to  be  saddled  with  responsibility;  for 
the  avenging  party  simply  killed  the  first  stranger  whom 
they  met  and  were  held  to  have  done  all  that  was 

At  Moorundie,  near  Overland  Corner  on  the  Murray, 
a  post-mortem  was  held  on  the  body ;  an  incision  was 
made  in  the  right  hypogastrium  and  if  an  enemy  were 
responsible  a  cicatrix  was  supposed  to  be  found  in  the 
omentum.  The  divination  over,  the  intestines  were  re- 
placed and  the  body  buried  head  to  west;  two  relatives 
jumped  into  the  grave  and  pulled  each  other's  hair.' 

Among  the  Narrinyeri,*  whose  territory  was  not  far 
south  of  Adelaide,  the  method  of  divination  did  not 
differ  in  principle  from  that  in  use  to  the  north  of  them. 
The  corpse  was  put  on  a  bier,  face  upwards  with  its 
thighs  spread  out  and  its  arms  crossed.  In  this  position 
it  was  carried  on  three  men's  heads  and  the  friends  and 
relatives  stood  round.  Various  spots  were  visited,  as  at 
Adelaide,  but  the  divination  depended  upon  an  impulse 

*  Wilkinson,  ^S".  Aust,^  325;  Pari.  Papers^  1S44,  34,  357. 

^Symons,  Life  of  Draper^  361. 

^Parl.  Papers,  loc,  cit.,  cf.  Eyre,  2,  347.  ^Taplin,  loc,  cit. 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia.    397 

which  seized  the  bearers  to  rush  towards  the  person  who 
uttered  the  name  of  the  murderer ;  they  professed  to  be 
controlled  by  the  dead  man's  spirit  Sometimes,  in  order 
to  discover  the  guilty  sorcerer,  a  relative  would  sleep 
with  his  head  on  the  corpse,  and  was  expected  to  dream 
of  the  culprit 

Either  before  or  after  this  ceremony  the  body,  its  aper- 
tures having  been  sewn  up,  was  placed  over  a  slow  fire  till 
the  scarf  skin,  and  with  it  the  pigmentum  nigrum,  was 
removed.  The  next  operation  was  to  bake  it  for  some 
weeks  over  a  slow  fire  and  baste  it  with  grease  and  red 
ochre.  The  liquid  which  ran  from  it  was  used  for  magical 
purposes  to  inflict  death  on  an  enemy  by  means  of  the 
"  death  bone."  Regular  times  of  wailing  and  lamentation 
were  observed.  When  the  body  was  dried,  it  was  carried 
from  place  to  place  to  be  mourned  over,  and  when  their 
grief  was  assuaged,  the  body  was  put  on  a  st^e  in  a  tree, 
and  after  a  time  buried.  The  body  of  an  old  person  was 
wrapped  up  and  put  in  a  tree  without  ceremony,  and  young 
children  were  burned  as  a  rule. 

Like  the  Narrinyeri,  the  tribes  in  the  west  of  Victoria 
had  more  than  one  form  of  disposal  of  the  dead.^  The 
body  of  an  ordinary  person  was  corded,  the  knees  upon  the 
chest,  in  an  opossum  rug.  Two  sheets  of  bark  served  as  a 
coffin,  and  it  was  buried  head  to  the  east  If,  however, 
there  was  no  time  to  dig  a  grave,  a  funeral  pyre  was 
prepared  and  the  body  laid  on  it,  head  to  the  east ;  any 
bones  which  remained  were  pulverised  and  scattered  about. 
If,  however,  it  were  the  body  of  a  married  woman,  her 
husband  put  the  calcined  bones  in  a  little  ba^  and  carried 
them  till  the  bag  was  worn  out  or  he  married  2^ain,  when 
it  was  burned.  Persons  of  either  sex  who  died  by  violence 
were  eaten  by  their  adult  relatives;  the  bones  and  intestines, 
however,  were  burnt  This  custom  they  declared  to  be  a 
mark  of  respect  to  the  dead. 

*  Howitt,  4SS  aq." 

398    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia, 

If,  however,  the  deceased  were  a  chief,  the  bones  of  the 
leg  and  forearm  were  extracted  and  put  in  a  basket ;  they 
were  subsequently  carried  by  the  widow.  The  body  itself 
was  placed  in  a  hut  filled  with  smoke,  and  the  friends  drove 
the  flies  away.  When  the  mourners  arrived,  the  corpse 
was  placed  in  the  fork  of  a  tree  and  every  one  then  went 
home ;  every  few  days,  however,  the  adult  relatives  and 
friends  visited  the  spot  to  weep  in  silence.  At  the  end  of  a 
lunar  month  the  body  was  burned,  and  the  fragments  of 
bone  remaining  in  the  funeral  pyre  were  carried  by  the 

Among  the  tribes  of  the  interior  whose  customs  demand 
mention  were  the  Wotjoballuk,  who  buried  their  dead  with 
their  heads  in  a  certain  direction,  determined  by  phratry 
and  totem.^  On  the  London  River  a  chief  was  wrapped  in 
an  opossum  rug  and  placed  in  a  hut,  thenceforth  deserted, 
A  grave  was  dug  upon  a  knoll,  at  one  end  a  hole  large 
enough  to  contain  the  head  of  the  corpse.  The  body  was 
carried  to  the  grave  on  a  bier,  and,  after  it  was  laid  in  it, 
everyone  brandished  axes  and  flresticks.  Saplings  six 
inches  thick  were  laid  on  the  body,  then  layers  of  bark,  and 
finally  earth,  well  stamped  down.  There  was  no  mound, 
but  at  the  comers  were  four  forked  sticks,  over  which  bark 
was  laid,  forming  a  sort  of  hut.  A  few  days  later  a  sapling 
fence  was  put  up,  with  a  gate  at  each  end.* 

Further  to  the  east,  on  the  Gippsland  coast,  the  Kurna^i 
corded  the  corpse  tightly  in  a  sheet  of  bark,  and  built  over 
it  a  hut,  in  which  the  mourning  relatives  collected.  A  few 
days  later  the  bundle  was  opened  and  the  hair  plucked  off 
the  whole  body,  to  be  preserved  by  the  father,  mother,  or 
sisters;  then  it  was  again  rolled  up,  and  only  unrolled 
when  decomposition  was  so  far  advanced  that  the  survivors 
could  anoint  themselves  with  the  fluid  trickling  from  the 
body.     Sometimes  the  intestines  were  removed  to  make  it 

*  Howitt,  452 ;  cf.  Mathews,  Ethnel  Notes^  85. 
'Resident,  Glimpses^  199-201. 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia.    399 

dry  more  rapidly.  The  mummified  corpse  was  carried  by 
the  family  on  its  wanderings,  and  specially  tended  by  the 
wife  or  some  other  near  relative.  Finally,  after  several 
y^ears,  when  it  was  no  more  than  a  bag  of  bones,  the  body 
was  buried  or  put  into  a  tree.^  This  custom  of  tree-burial, 
without  previous  mummification  of  the  body. 

The  Theddora  of  Omeo  believed  that  the  grave  was  the 
normal  abode  of  the  spirit  of  the  dead,  and  perhaps  for 
this  reason  they  built  a  side  chamber  to  the  grave,  like  the 
London  River  tribe.  The  same  custom  was  also  practised 
at  Hermannsburg  among  a  section  of  the  Aninta.' 

We  have  few  records  of  any  but  simple  burial  in  the 
greater  part  of  New  South  Wales.  An  exception  to  this 
rule  is  Port  Jackson,  for  which  we  have  the  elaborate  and 
valuable  records  of  Collins'  published  in  1796.  It  appears 
that  the  Katungal  buried,  the  bodies  of  the  young,  some- 
times in  a  canoe,  as  was  also  the  case  in  east  central 
Victoria ;  the  old  were  burned  and  a  mound  raised  over 
the  ashes.  Further  north  at  Port  Stephens*  burial  was  Ae 
rule,  and  here  again  the  method  of  divination  was  slightly 
difTercnt ;  the  corpse  was  held  on  two  men's  shoulders  and 
struck  lightly  with  a  rod  by  a  third  man.  It  was  believed 
that  if  the  names  of  acquaintances  were  called  out  loudly 
at  the  same  time,  the  corpse  would  move  when  the  name  of 
the  murderer  was  mentioned. 

Among  the  Wiradhuri,  who  occupied  the  greater  part  of 
the  interior  of  the  colony,  burial  was  the  rule,  and  here  the 
method  of  divination,  if  so  it  may  be  called,  was  to  ank  the 
dying  man  to  say  whose  phantasm  he  could  see;  for  the 
belief  was  that  the  murderer  had  to  appear  to  his  victim, 
just  as  in  Queensland  it  is  held  that  he  must  revisit  the 
body  of  the  dead   man.'' 

'  n  uif,  4^9. 

Mi  w:tt.4fK;;  Jr..  h'.S.S.A.,  U,  238;/^.  Ver.  ErdJk.  HalU,  1883,  55; 
yv..     I  inn.  A..  N.S..  10,  399 

I. '-  I  ^.j.  MIowitt,  465.  *HowiU,466. 

400    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia. 

On  the  Lachlan  River  the  body  was  doubled  up  before  it 
became  stiff,  and  the  legs  broken  ;  after  it  had  been  brought 
to  the  grave  side  women  lighted  fires  and  produced  a  dense 
smoke  by  throwing  green  boughs  on  the  flames.  The 
blacks  painted  themselves  and  took  up  their  weapons  ;  then 
they  jumped  howling  through  the  smoke  to  drive  off 
we-okuy  the  "evil  spirit"  Sometimes  they  would  rush 
away  and  then  rush  back  again.  Then  the  body  was  put 
in  the  grave,  face  to  the  east,  and  roasted  opossum,  old 
weapons,  pipeclay  were  put  in  the  grave  with  it,  and 
nicely  fitting  logs  put  on  the  top  so  that  no  earth  could 
touch  the  body ;  over  the  grave  was  a  mound,  half  way 
round  which  ran  two  raised  banks  half  a  yard  high  on 
the  western  side.  The  trees  were  barked  on  the  side  next 
the  grave  and  various  marks  cut  on  them.^  According  to 
Mitchell  one  of  the  relatives  had  to  watch  at  the  grave  and 
sleep  on  it  till  the  body  was  gone.* 

The  same  custom  seems  to  have  prevailed  on  the 
Darling ;  for  there  he  found  grave  huts  in  a  boat-shaped 
enclosure,*  and  inside  them  bark  or  material  of  some  sort 
to  serve  as  bedding;  the  hut  was  covered  with  a  net — a 
sign  that  it  was  the  grave  of  a  fisherman.  Further  west 
the  Bahkunji  buried  their  dead,  and  on  the  grave  were 
placed  stones  or  kopai  concretions.*  It  was  a  common 
practice  in  parts  of  New  South  Wales  for  the  widows, 
adorned  with  kopai  caps  weighing  eight  or  ten  pounds,  to 
sit  in  the  grave  hut  during  their  period  of  mourning,  and  to 
leave  the  caps  on  the  grave  when  it  was  finished. 

With  the  Queensland  tribes,  and  indeed  the  northern 
tribes  of  N.S.  Wales,  we  pass  into  a  different  stratum  of 
belief.  Simple  burial  is  known;  in  fact,  in  certain  areas 
it  is  the  only  mode  of  disposal  of  the  dead.  But,  whereas 
in  the  south  and  west  the  putting  away  of  the  body  is 
the  central  point  of  the  rites,  exhumation  and  subsequent 

^  Aust.  Anth,Jl,,  2,  19.  'Mitchell,  E,  Australia^  2,  71,  105. 

»Curr,  2,  203. 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia.    401 

reburial  of  the  bones  is  a  frequent  feature  of  Queensland 
funeral  ceremonies,  and  if  it  is  sometimes  replaced  by 
exposure  on  a  platform,  with  later  burial  of  the  bones, 
the  difference  is  in  form  rather  than  substance;  for  the 
platform  ceremony  may  well  have  taken  the  place  of 
earth  burial  simply  as  a  labour-saving  expedient 

The  somewhat  exceptional  customs  of  the  Brisbane 
and  Maryborough  tribes  has  recently  been  studied  in 
detail  by  Dr.  Roth,^  and  they  may  be  briefly  dismissed 
here.  The  character  of  the  rites  was  regulated  by  the 
sex,  status,  and  importance  of  the  deceased  If  it  was 
decided  to  eat  the  body,  all  partook  without  limitation; 
it  was  eaten  in  the  case  of  well-known  warriors,  magicians, 
people  killed  in  battle,  or  women  dying  suddenly  in  good 
condition  ;  and  the  purpose  of  the  rite  is  said  to  be  to 
prevent  the  spirit  from  annoying  the  living  and  to  dispose 
of  the  corpse,  so  that  survivors  were  not  troubled  by  its 
decomposition.  The  murderer  was  divined  by  hammering 
the  bones,  which  were  burnt  later,  and  when  they  cracked 
at  the  mention  of  a  name,  it  was  that  of  the  guilty 

Exposure  on  a  platform  was  the  rite  in  the  case  of 
women,  save  those  mentioned  above  and  of  ordinary 
males.  The  reason  given  was  that  the  spirit  could  go 
hunting,  cook  its  food,  etc.,  without  let  or  hindrance. 
When  decomposition  was  far  advanced,  the  body  was 
tnken  down,  the  skull,  jaw,  pelvis,  and  limb  bones  removed, 
cleaned,  and  rubbed  with  charcoal,  and  the  remainder 

Infants  and  very  young  children  were  eaten  whole  by 
old  women  alone.  Deformed  people  were  pushed  into  a 
lo^.  It  is  worthy  of  note  that  in  the  Maryborough  tribes 
the  object  of  the  fire,  whether  the  body  was  buried  or 
placed  on  a  stage,  was  stated  to  be  (i)  to  let  the  spirit 
w.irm  Itself  and  (2)  to  keep  off  hostile  spirits  of  all  sorts. 

'  AVri^./j  of  the  Auitralian  Musrum^  6,  365-403. 

402    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia. 

This  is  only  one  among  many  cases  which  suggest  that 
fear  and  not  love  may  have  been  the  prime  motive  in 
the  original  lighting  of  the  fire. 

In  Central  Queensland  the  rites  are,  as  we  have  already 
seen,  complex  compared  with  those  of  more  southern 
tribes.  On  Natal  Downs  the  body  is  buried,  then  exhumed, 
the  skull,  etc.,  cleaned,  put  on  a  platform,  and  then 
carried  by  women  till  their  mourning  is  over.  On  the 
Main  Range  old  men  are  put  on  a  platform,  then  buried, 
exhumed,  carried,  and  finally  the  bones  are  deposited  in 
a  tree  trunk.^ 

Further  north,  at  Napoon  on  the  Batavia  River,  the 
body  is  hung  on  two  posts  and  remains  there  two  months; 
then  the  skeleton  is  sewn  up  in  bark  and  carried  about 
for  months ;  next  the  camp  is  moved  and  the  friends  of 
the  deceased  disperse  to  avoid  the  spirit  of  the  dead 
man,  which  wanders  about  in  the  bush ;  finally  the 
skeleton  is  burnt  and  only  a  few  bones  kept*  At 
Somerset^  in  the  extreme  north  unmarried  people  are 
buried  in  shallow  graves  with  four  stout  posts  at  the 
corners  adorned  with  shells  and  dingo  skulls.  The  hair 
of  married  persons  is  cut  off  and  distributed,  their  eyes 
closed  and  the  body  put  on  a  platform  where  it  remains 
till  the  head  comes  off;  it  is  carried  in  a  basket  for 
months,  while  the  bones  are  rolled  in  bark  and  put  on 
an  isolated  rock,  where  the  skull  eventually  joins  them. 

On  the  other  side  of  the  Gulf  the  coastal  tribes  eat 
their  dead  and  often  hang  the  bones  on  a  post  in  the 
camp ;  there  they  remain  for  some  time  till  they  are 
deposited  in  a  hollow  log,  which  is  lodged  in  a  tree ; 
where  it  remains  till  it  rots  and  falls  into  the  water 
beneath.  Further  inland  the  Gnanji  eat  the  corpse 
occasionally,  but  more  often  place  it  in  a  tree,  the  final 

iCurr,  2,  476. 

^Period.  Accts.^  N.S.,  3,  236;    Rowan,  Fl^fwer hunter,  139. 

^Mission  Fields  14,  129. 

The  Disposal  of  the  Deeul  in  Australia.    403 

resting-place  of  the  bones  being  the  side  of  a  watcrhole. 
The  Umbaia  bury  their  dead,  while  the  main  group  of 
the  central  tribes  expose  the  corpse  on  a  tree  and  at 
the  end  of  a  twelvemonth  recover  the  bones  and  bury 
them.  South  of  them  the  Arunta  practise  simple  burial, 
as  we  have  already  seen.* 

North-west  of  the  tribes  just  dealt  with  on  the  Daly 
River  children  are  eaten  by  their  friends;  but  the  head 
is  buried,  for  there  is  a  ghost  in  it  ;*  for  the  same  reason 
the  Kwearr-ibura  of  the  Lynd  River,  who  bury  thte  body, 
burn  the  head  and  break  up  the  bones.*  On  the  Daly 
older  people  are  buried,  burned,  put  in  trees  and  the 
bones  buried.*  At  Raffles  Bay  women  and  children  are 
buried  without  ceremony ;  the  ^dult  male  is  wrapped  in 
grass  and  hung  in  a  tree  till  the  bones  can  be  collected  ; 
they  are  painted  red  and  carried  in  a  bundle  till  the 
relatives  are  tired  of  them,  when  they  are  taken  to  the 
birthplace  of  the  deceased  and  buried.  The  belief  is  that 
when  the  flesh  comes  off  the  bones  the  spirit  joins  its 
dead  tribesmen  in  the  bush.* 

At  Port  Darwin  children  up  to  two  are  eaten  ;  from 
two  to  ten  they  are  buried  and  a  decorated  post  put 
lip ;  youn^  men  or  women  are  rolled  in  bark  and  their 
bodies  put  in  trees ;  old  people  are  exposed  on  the 
fjround  and  then  buried.  After  two  months  the  bones 
are  exhumed  and  put  in  a  tree,  and  finally  buried  in 
a  small  hole  about  two  feet  deep.* 

The  salient  points  of  Australian  customs  relating  to  the 
dead  have  now  been  briefly  surveyed,  and  in  the  process 
attention  has  been  called  to  various  questions,  such  as  the 
real  sii^niftcance  of  the  fire  at  the  grave.  It  seems  certain 
that  the  fire  is  kept  uj)  in  some  cases  for  the  benefit  of  the 
dead    man ;    but  it   is  equally   certain   that   in  others  the 

».\cv.    />..  /.i  .  '  l.K.S.S.A.,   17,  258^. 

-j.A.I  ,    14,   ^S.  ■•Curr.   1,   272. 

^  /  A..S.S..7.,  31,  67;    cf.   K.G.S.,  S.A.  Br.  2,  iii.   14. 

404    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia. 

protection  of  the  living  is  the  object  in  view;  if  fear  of 
the  dead  is  more  primitive  than  care  for  their  comfort, 
we  may  perhaps  surmise  that  the  fire  at  the  grave  was 
originally  for  the  benefit  of  the  survivors,  as  it  is  among 
the  Euahlayi,  so  well  described  by  Mrs.  Langloh  Parker. 
This  tribe  heaped  up  Eremophila  twigs  and  set  fire  to 
them  so  that  dense  smoke  enveloped  the  grave.  In  this 
the  mourners  stood  for  a  time,  professedly  to  keep  the 
spirits  away  and  to  disinfect  the  living  from  any  disease 
that  the  dead  might  have  had.^ 

Further  east  the  Waw-Wyper  of  the  Manning  River  had 
a  similar  practice.  Burial  took  place  at  sundown,  and  the 
corpse,  wrapped  in  sheets  of  bark,  was  carried  by  men. 
Others  carried  large  bowls  of  burning  fungus  of  strong 
but  not  unpleasant  odour ;  a  fire  of  the  same  material  was 
kept  up  at  the  grave  side  by  women,  and  its  object  was 
said  to  be  to  prevent  the  souls  of  women  whose  children 
had  died  before  them  following  other  children  or  carrying 
off  the  body  before  burial.  Eventually  the  fungus  fire 
was  scattered  over  the  grave  and  all  hastily  retired.* 
Perhaps  in  this  last  rite  we  may  see  the  link,  if  there  is 
one,  between  an  original  practice  of  driving  away  the 
spirit  of  the  dead  man  and  that  of  lighting  a  fire  at  his 
grave  for  his  benefit.  Among  the  Waw-Wyper  the  living 
still  fear  the  ghost,  as  is  clear  from  their  hasty  retirement 
from  the  grave ;  but  they  also  light  the  fungus  fire  for  the 
benefit  of  the  dead  person. 

The  custom  of  building  a  hut  upon  the  grave  is  con- 
nected with  rites  of  divination  and  with  the  initiation  of 
magicians,  but  seems  in  many  cases  to  be  independent  of 
both  these  ideas,  and  to  fulfil  a  function  in  the  mourning 
ceremonies.  On  the  Darling  it  is  common  for  the  widow 
to  sit  in  the  grave  hut  with  her  kopai  cap,  but  whether  the 
hut  is  always  inhabited  is  not  clear.  The  custom  of 
building    a   hut   on   the    grave    is   found    in   Queensland 

^Euahlayi  Tribe,  88.  ^ Aust,  Antk,  JL,  6,  125. 

The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia.    405 

on  the  Herbert  River  ;^  in  the  Mackay  district  the  bones 
are  ultimately  placed  in  a  hut*  The  main  area,  however, 
in  which  this  custom  is  observed  is  the  south-east  It  is 
practised  north  of  Sydney,  on  the  Lower  Murray,  on  the 
upper  waters  of  the  same  river,  in  Gippsland,  on  the 
London  River,  and  possibly  among  the  Wathi-WathL* 
Whatever  the  precise  interpretation  of  the  custom,  it 
points  to  care  for  the  dead,  or  at  least  absence  of  fear 
of  them. 

Cannibalism,  as  we  have  seen,  is  sometimes  inspired 
by  fear,  and  Roth  says  that  he  cannot  discover  that  the 
desire  to  acquire  the  qualities  of  the  deceased  is  anywhere 
the  object  of  the  ceremony.  Howitt,  however,  states  in 
positive  terms  that  the  young  men  of  the  Kuinmurbura 
would  stand  beneath  the  burial  stage  of  a  great  warrior, 
and  stand  underneath  in  order  to  let  the  products  of 
decomposition  fall  upon  them  and  transfer  to  them  some 
of  the  strength  and  fighting  power  of  the  dead  man.^ 

We  have  already  seen  that  a  limited  form  of  cannibalism 
is  practised  by  the  Dieri,  among  whom  certain  relatives 
eat  the  fat  of  the  deceased  ;  the  ostensible  reason  for  this 
rite  is  to  make  the  living  forget  the  dead,  but  we  may 
surmise  that  it  was  originally  intended  as  a  protection 
against  the  spirit  of  the  dead,  as  in  the  Queensland  case 
cited  by  Roth.  This  is  borne  out  by  the  fact  that  in  the 
Ikrilcnden  Ker  district  of  Queensland,  where  the  dead  are 
dried  over  a  slow  fire,  the  heads  of  the  mourners  are 
anointed  with  the  fat  that  drips  from  the  body.  The 
corpse  is  kept  nine  months,  after  which  the  mourners' 
hair  is  cut  and  burned  in  the  fire,  after  which  the  mourn- 
in  t^  ceased* 

'  Howiit,  474.  ^Qiuens lander^  March  l8,   1876. 

Mlowitt,   452.   465;   J. A. I.,   13,   136;   Start,    Expid,,  2,  74;   Resident, 
CItm/'ses,  202  \  Mitchell,  E.  Aust.,  2,  87,   105,  etc 
♦  Howiti,  471. 
^Gospel  Mtss.,   1895,  741    ^'  <*V«i,   1,  211. 

4o6    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia. 

There  are  many  other  subjects  in  connection  with  the 
disposal  of  the  dead  which  invite  discussion.  What,  for 
example,  is  the  meaning  of  the  orientation  of  the  grave 
or  of  the  body  ?  How  far  are  there  traces  of  a  real  cult 
of  the  dead  in  Australia  ?  How  far  can  we  trace  a  con- 
nection between  the  more  complex  northern  rites  and  the 
Papuan  customs?  But  our  information  is  full  rather  in 
appearance  than  in  reality,  and  to  some  of  these  questions 
no  answer  can  be  given,  to  others  at  best  tentative 

In  the  present  paper  I  have  endeavoured  to  show  the 
relation  between  linguistic  areas  and  burial  customs  in 
the  first  place;  and  in  the  second  to  point  out  the 
difference  of  attitude  displayed  by  the  tribes  which  bury 
the  body  compared  with  those  which  first  allow  the  flesh 
to  leave  the  bones  and  then  deal  with  the  latter  as  the 
real  representatives  of  the  dead  man.  This  custom  is  so 
nearly  akin  to  the  ritual  of  South-east  New  Guinea,  that 
Schmidt's  identification  of  the  northern  languages  seems 
to  be  borne  out  by  cultural  similarities. 

In  the  following  list  of  references,  on  which  my  paper 
is  based,  Nos.  i  to  83  are  in  the  main  simple  burial, 
exceptions  being  alluded  to  in  the  text;  the  remainder 
include  both  simple  burial  and  more  complex  rites: 

la.  (West  Australia),  Landor,  iff«jA-  11.  Curr,  1,  396. 

man^  213;  Trans,  Ethn.  Soc,,  12.  id,  404. 

3,  24s  sq.  13.  R,G,S.A,,  S,A,  Br.,  2,  ii.  37. 

1.  Curr,  1,  324.  14.  HalU  Verein  fUr  Erdk.,  1883, 

2.  Moore,  Journal,  345  ;  Mission  55  ;  Spencer  and  Gillen,  Nor, 

Field,  24,  310;  Curr,  1,  330.  7>.,  506. 

3.  Curr,  1,  339,  343,  348.  15.  Curr,  1,  417. 

4.  Naut,  Mag.,  1856,  359;  Resi-       16.  Howitt,  450. 

dent,  Narrative,  13.  17.  Howitt,  45a 

5.  Stokes,  Travels,  1,  115.  18.   Cruttwell,  5>&^/r>l«,  74. 

6.  MS.  notes.  19.  Howitt,  447  sq. 

7.  Trs.  R.S.,  S.A.,  16,  292.  20.  Austin,  Mines,  66. 

8.  K.G.S.A.,  S.A,  Br.,  3,  170.  21.  Jessop,  Flindersland,  209. 

9.  J.R.G.S.,  45,  271.  22.  Taplin,  Folklore,  65. 

10.   Trs.  R.S.,  S.A.,  28,  35.  23.  Jessop,  Flindersland,  52. 

PLATE    X. 


4o8    The  Disposal  of  the  Dead  in  Australia, 

no.   T.R,S.S,A.y  17,  237,  240. 

133.  Howitt,  474- 

III.  Spencer  and  Gillen,  AVr.  TV., 

134.  Curr,  2,  442. 


135.  Howitt,  474. 

112.  ib.  545. 

136.  Howitt,  472. 

113.  ib.  506. 

137.  Morrill,  Sketch,  23. 

114.  Roth,  Studies,  165. 

138.  Curr,  3,  21. 

115.  J.A.I.,  13,  298. 

139.  Curr,  3,  29. 

116.  Koth,  Studies,  163. 

140.  ib. 

117.  Roth,  Studies,  165. 

141.  Howitt,  471. 

118.  Curr,  2,  361. 

142.  Curr,  3,  79. 

119.  Curr,  2,  342. 

143.  Queenslander,  Mar.  18,  1876. 

120.  Morav,  Mission,  N.S.,  3,  236  ; 

144.  Curr,  3,  65. 

Rec,  Aust,  Mus.,  6,  368. 

145.  Hec.  Aust,  Mus,,  6,  398. 

121.  Nicols,  Li/e,  no. 

146.   Howitt,  471 ;  Rec,  Aust.  Mus,^ 

122.  Mission  Field,  14,  129. 


123.  Rowan,  Flowerhunter,  139. 

147.  Rec,  Aust,  Mus.,  6,  398. 

124.  Rec.  Aust.  Mus.,  6,  37 1. 

148.  Rec.  Aust,  Mus,,  6,  398. 

125.  ib,  384. 

149.  Curr,  3,  147. 

126.  ib.  372. 

150.  Curr,  3,  223. 

127.  ib.  384. 

151.  J.A.I.,  13,  298. 

128.  Curr,  2,  404. 

152.  Howitt,  470. 

129.  Curr,  2,  409. 

153.  ib,  469. 

130.  J. A. I.,  14,  88;   cf.    Curr,   2, 

154.  Curr,  3,  166;  Rep,  Qu,  Mus,^ 


1891,  2. 

131.  Bicknell,  Travel,  1 01  ;   Curr, 

155.  Proc,  R,S,  Qu„  8,  47- 

2,  476. 

156.  J.A.I.,  1,  215. 

132.  Curr,  2,  433- 

157.  Rec,  Aust.  Mus,,  6,  398. 

NoRTHCOTE  W.  Thomas. 


BY  JOHN    H.    WEEKS. 

{Read  at  Meeting,  \6th  December,  1908.) 

The  following  notes  refer  more  particularly  to  San  Salvador 
>nd  its  neighbourhood,  but  they  are  not  confined  solely 
o  that  district.  The  customs  here  dealt  with  will  be 
ound  in  vogue  over  the  whole  of  the  Lower  Congo,  having 
egard,  of  course,  to  local  colouring  and  conditions.  For 
xample,  the  ingredients  that  go  to  make  a  charm  in  one 
»lace  may  not  all  be  found  in  another,  as  some  ingredients 
nay  be  replaced  by  others.  In  one  part  of  the  country, 
gunpowder,  being  easily  procurable  and  being  mysterious  in 
ts  action,  is  lar^^ely  used  to  rouse  their  fetishes  to  activity, 
whereas  in  another  part  where  gunpowder  is  difficult 
o  procure  and  consequently  very  expensive,  the  rattle 
nd  whistle  used  vigorously  are  employed  as  substitutes. 
\gain,  in  the  sixteenth  century  the  Roman  Catholic 
^ortuj^uese  were  dominant  in  San  Salvador  and  its 
leighbourhood,  and  as  a  result  you  will  find  in  that  district 
he  cross  used  as  a  fetish,  and  the  sign  of  the  cross  as  a 
harm.  In  other  parts,  where  the  influence  of  the  Roman 
latliolics  never  penetrated,  the  cross  is  never  thus  used, 
nd  is  not  known. 

I  he  people  of  the  Lower  Congo  are  Bantu  and  speak, 
irh  slight  dialectical  differences,  the  same  language,  from 

4IO       Customs  of  the  Lower  Congo  People. 

Bihe  in  the  south  to  Landana  in  the  north,  and  from 
Banana  in  the  west  to  Stanley  Pool  in  the  east 

San  Salvador  is  about  80  miles  from  Ennoki,  which 
is  on  the  south  bank  of  the  Congo  River,  about  95  miles 
from  its  mouth.  It  is  a  town  situated  on  a  plateau  some 
1700  feet  above  the  sea.  It  is  known  to  the  natives 
as  Kongo,  but  to  distinguish  from  two  or  three  other 
Kongos,  e.g.  Kongo  dia  Mpalalbala  and  Kongo  di*  Elemba, 
it  is  called  Kongo  dia  Ntotela,  i,e,  the  King's  Kongo, 
as  it  has  from  time  immemorial  been  the  residence  of  the 
king  of  the  country.  Sometimes  it  is  called  Kongo  dia 
Ngunga,  ix.  the  Kongo  of  the  Bell,  probably  because  the 
Roman  Catholic  priests  had  a  large  bell  there,  which  was 
rung  in  connection  with  their  services. 

In  collecting  these  notes  I  have  been  greatly  helped  by 
Nlemvo,  an  educated  native  of  a  town  near  San  Salvador, 
who  has  paid  two  visits  to  England. 

It  is  not  a  hard  and  fast  rule,  but  it  is  a  rule  very 
generally  followed,  for  the  sons  and  daughters  of  one 
clan  to  marry  only  the  daughters  and  sons  of  one  other 
clan,  and  not  to  intermarry  with  several  different  clans» 
By  thus  intermarrying  within  the  limits  of  one  clan  they 
think  better  treatment  is  ensured  for  the  women  of  each 

A  man  must  not  marry  the  wives  of  his  father ;  or  his 
own  children ;  or  his  sister ;  or  his  cousin  on  his  mother's 
side ;  or  the  children  of  his  sister ;  or  his  grandchildren ; 
or  his  mother-in-law ;  or  his  wife's  sister,  either  before  or 
after  his  wife's  death ;  or  his  niece's  step-mother  (for  she 
has  been  called  the  niece's  mother) ;  or  his  step-sister,  for 
by  the  marriage  of  his  father  to  his  step-sister's  mother 
they  have  become  brother  and  sister.  Among  those  not 
within  the  degree  of  prohibition  are, — the  child  of  one's 
cousin,  i.e.  second  cousins,  the  daughter  of  your  daughter, 
i.e,  your  grand-daughter  (the  reason  for  this  being  that 
she  is  of  the  mother's  family  and  not  yours). 

Customs  of  the  Lower  Congo  People.       411 

Observing  the  above  limitations  a  young  man  wanting 
o  marry  is  not  restricted  in  his  choice  to  women  of 
lis  own  town  or  clan,  but  is  free  to  select  whom  he 
ikes.  Having  set  his  heart  on  a  certain  girl,  the  young 
nan  is  not  allowed  to  speak  to  her  or  make  her  any 
)resents.  To  gain  his  sweetheart  the  first  thing  he  has 
o  do  is  to  take  a  calabash  of  palm  wine  to  the  girl's 
naternal  uncle  (ngudi  a  nkazi),  and  tell  him  what  is 
n  his  heart.  If  the  uncle  listens  favourably  to  the  suit, 
le  thanks  the  young  man  for  the  wine,  and  drinks  it 
This  does  not  pledge  him  in  any  way  to  give  him  his 
liece  in  marriage,  but  is  simply  a  sign  of  good-wilL 
laving  drunk  the  wine  he  goes  into  his  house  and  brings 
)ut  food  and  drink  for  the  young  man,  and  without  giving 
lim  a  decided  answer  tells  him  to  return  on  a  certain 

On  the  appointed  day  the  young  man,  carrying  some 
)alm  wine,  revisits  the  girl's  uncle,  who  having  drunk 
he  wine  states  whether  he  is  willing  for  him  to  marry 
lis  niece  or  not.  Should  he  be  willing,  he  informs  the 
ispirant  to  his  niece's  hand  that  he  wants  lOOO,  or  2000. 
)r  5000  packets  of  blue  pipe  beads,  (in  a  packet  there 
:>c\\v^  100  strings  of  lOO  beads  each).  When  the  uncle  is 
n formed  that  the  marriage  price  is  ready,  either  in  beads 
)r  their  equivalent  in  goats,  pigs,  sheep,  etc,  he  takes 
iome  palm  wine  and  visits  the  town  of  the  young  man 
o  count  out  the  marriage  money.  That  being  done,  a 
lay  is  fixed  for  introducing  the  girl's  father  to  the 
r'oung  man,  and  on  that  day  both  uncle  and  father  take 
:. da  bashes  of  palm  wine  to  the  young  man,  who  calls 
lis  friends,  and  all  drink  first  the  uncle's  wine  an^  then 
he  father's,  after  which  they  discuss  the. main. tgc  money 
iiid  the  father  takes  the  portion  due  to  him. 

So    far    «is    tlie    uncle,    father,    and    young    man    are 

:oncerned     the     marriage     arrangements    arc     complctedg 

:)ut  they  cannot  be  consummated  until  the  motticr 

2  D 

gives  ^fl 


412       Customs  of  the  Lower  Congo  People. 

her  consent.  If  the  mother  sees  that  her  daughter's 
breasts  are  not  properly  formed,  she  withholds  her  per- 
mission. The  girl  can  cook  food  and  take  it  to  the  house 
of  the  young  man,  but  she  must  not  sit  down  in  the 
house.  When  she  arrives  at  puberty  the  marriage  is 

Generally  there  is  a  pretence  of  taking  the  wife  by 
force.  The  bridegroom,  when  all  is  settled,  will  go  on 
the  appointed  day  to  the  bride's  town  with  a  few  of  his 
friends.  As  they  draw  near  the  town  they  will  fire  guns, 
shout,  and  make  as  much  noise  as  possible.  This  is  a 
proof  of  the  bridegroom's  position  and  also  a  mode  of 
honouring  the  bride.  On  reaching  the  town  there  will 
be  a  sham  struggle,  and  at  last  the  girl  is  carried  off. 
This  is  called  "nata  nkento"  (  =  carrying  off  or  lifting 
the  woman).  On  returning  to  his  town  the  bridegroom 
tells  the  young  men  to  bring  the  drums  and  plenty  of 
palm  wine.  On  that  day  a  great  crowd  gathers,  wine 
is  drunk,  goats  and  pigs  are  killed,  and  guns  are  fired. 
Sometimes  these  festivities  last  a  whole  week.  The  bride 
goes  without  food  the  day  before  the  marriage,  and  the 
new  wife  does  not  eat  in  the  presence  of  her  husband 
for  two  or  three  months. 

When  the  crowd  has  gone,  the  elders  meet  and  give 
the  girl  into  the  hands  of  the  young  man,  and  they  teach 
them  both  in  the  presence  of  witnesses.  To  the  woman 
they  say:  "You  are  to  respect  your  husband  and  his 
family,  and  you  are  also  to  behave  yourself  properly  in 
your  house."  To  the  young  man  they  say:  "You  are 
to  respect  your  wife  and  her  family;  you  must  not  speak 
harshly  to  her,  nor  treat  her  as  a  slave,  nor  stamp  on 
her  things,  nor  tread  her  beneath  your  feet"  "And  you 
woman,  you  have  never  had  thieving  or  witchcraft  palavers 
in  the  past,  continue  without  them,  and  conduct  your- 
selves properly  towards  each  other." 

Then   the  young  man   goes   to  one  of  the  witnesses 

Customs  of  the  Lower  Congo  People.      413 

and  takes  him  by  the  wrist,  and,  rubbing  a  bullet  on  the 
palm  of  the  witness's  hand,  says :  "  I  have  heard  all  the 
words  spoken,  and  if  I  destroy  the  marriage  may  I  die 
with  this  bullet"  The  woman  also  takes  the  same  oath. 
This  ceremony  over,  the  witnesses  go  into  the  house  of  the 
newly  married  couple  to  arrange  the  hearth  stones  and 
to  instruct  the  bride  in  her  duties  as  a  wife,  and  to  see  if 
the  bridegroom  can  consummate  the  marriage.  If  through 
impotency  he  cannot,  the  marriage  is  broken  off.  Some- 
times on  account  of  shame  the  marriage  is  not  dissolved, 
but  the  husband  finds  a  suitable  young  man  and  per- 
mits him  to  have  intercourse  with  his  wife  so  that  she 
may  have  a  child  by  him.  This  child  is  treated  by  the 
husband  as  his  own.  After  this  the  girl's  relatives  are 
sent  off  with  all  due  respect  and  with  suitable  presents. 
If  the  wife  gives  birth  to  a  child,  the  father  informs  her 

When  the  wife  dies,  the  husband  takes  a  calabash  of 
palm  wine  and  goes  to  his  wife's  family,  i.€.  to  her  maternal 
uncle's  family,  and  demands  another  wife  in  place  of  the 
dead  one.  If  there  is  not  a  woman  in  the  family  free  to 
be  given  him  for  this  purpose,  then  the  marriage  money 
must  be  returned  in  full,  but  in  making  up  the  sum  the 
woman's  father  does  not  return  the  share  he  received  and 
the  amount  has  to  be  made  up  without  his  help.  There 
is  a  proverb  that  arises  out  of  this  custom,  "  Oyu  odianga 
zo  ese,  oyu  ofutanga  zo  nganga  ngudi"  (The  father  eats 
the  money,  but  the  family  pays  it,  i.e.  One  has  the  pleasure 
and  another  the  trouble). 

When  the  husband  dies  first,  his  family  takes  the  woman 
and  she  becomes  the  wife  of  one  of  his  brothers ;  if  she 
afterwards  dies  the  one  who  has  her  for  wife  takes  a 
calabash  of  palm  wine  and  goes  to  her  maternal  uncle 
and  asks  for  another  wife,  or  failing  that  the  marriage 
money  must  be  returned  to  him.  This  woman,  or  her 
marriage  money,  is  the  inheritance  he  has  received  from 

414       Customs  of  the  Lower  Congo  People. 

his  deceased  brother.  A  second  woman  can  be  demanded 
on  the  death  of  the  first,  and  a  third  woman  on  the  death 
of  the  second,  but  after  the  third  woman  dies  no  other 
can  be  demanded  and  no  money  returned.  Of  course,  if 
the  money  is  returned  on  the  death  of  the  first  wife,  the 
contract  is  finished.  The  reason  for  these  demands  is  that 
the  children  of  the  wife  do  not  belong  to  the  husband 
but  to  the  wife's  family.  He  is  breeding  children  to 
increase  another  family  than  his  own. 

A  man  may  marry  as  many  women  as  he  can  afford 
to  pay  the  marriage  money  for.  By  marrying  many 
women  they  look  to  receive  some  profit  from  their  share 
of  their  daughters'  marriage  monies.  Thus,  as  shown 
above,  the  wife  is  always  worth  either  another  woman,  if 
she  dies,  or  the  amount  paid  for  her,  and  then,  if  she  has 
daughters,  there  is  a  share  of  their  marriage  money.  So 
a  man  in  marrying  stands  to  lose  nothing,  but  to  gain 

A  man  can  have  as  many  women  as  he  likes,  but 
a  woman  can  only  have  one  man.  If  a  man  commits 
adultery  with  her,  he  has  to  pay  a  heavy  fine  to  the 
husband.  Around  San  Salvador  only  the  husband  takes 
the  fine,  but  in  other  parts  the  fine  is  shared  by  the 
husband's  relatives.  If  a  woman  bears  no  children,  the 
man  can  return  her  and  either  get  another  woman  or  his 
marriage  money  returned. 

A  woman  is  not  allowed  to  break  her  engagement  of 
marriage  with  a  man.  If,  after  she  is  betrothed,  she 
exhibits  a  strong  desire  to  resist  the  wishes  of  her  family, 
her  people  will  tie  her  up  and  send  her  bound  to  her 
husband.  If  she  wins  her  family  over,  they  can  break 
off  the  engagement  by  returning  the  marriage  money,  and 
paying  a  pig  or  two  as  a  fine.  Should  the  man  desire  to 
break  off  negotiations,  he  has  to  forfeit  what  he  has  paid 
on  account,  and  also  pay  a  fine  of  a  pig  or  goat,  accord- 
ing to  his  circumstances,  to  the  chief  of  the  girl's  town. 

Customs  of  the  Lower  Congo  People.       415 

A  girl  can  take  food  to  her  young  man,  but,  if  he 
ommits  fornication  with  her,  without  the  consent  of  the 
)arents.  he  forfeits  all  the  money  he  has  paid  for  her, 
ind  no  chief  will  take  his  side  to  justify  or  help  him. 
The  people  use  a  proverb  respecting  this  kind  of  fomica- 
ion :  **Minse  miawola  o  masina*'  (The  sugar  canes  are 
otten  at  the  roots,  i.e.  The  man  is  bad  at  heart). 

Just  before  marriage  the  man  asks  his  fiancee  how  many 
nen  she  has  slept  with  since  she  became  betrothed  to 
lim.  (The  number  of  men  before  the  betrothal  does  not 
:ount.)  She  may  deny  that  she  has  slept  with  any,  but 
lo  one  will  believe  her,  and,  if  she  persists  in  that  denial, 
hey  will  threaten  to  test  her  by  the  ordeal  of  divination 
Dy  bracelet.  She  will  then  confess  that  she  has  slept, 
lay,  with  five  men.  The  man  then  goes  to  the  girl's 
amily  and  complains  that  they  have  not  looked  after 
ler  properly,  for  their  daughter  has  slept  with  five 
Jiff*erent  men  whose  names  are  so  and  so.  The  family 
:alls  these  men,  and,  if  they  confess  to  the  truthfulness  of 
:he  girl's  statement,  they  have  to  pay  a  fine  of  from  lOOO 
:o  2000  strings  of  beads  or  their  equivalent  If  they  deny 
:lie  charge,  they  are  forced  to  drink  the  "nkasa"  ordeal 
;o  prove  their  innocency.  A  woman's  word  is  always 
;aken  before  a  man's  in  charges  of  this  kind.  There  is 
10  redress  for  a  man  under  such  an  accusation  unless  he 
:akes  the  ordeal,  and,  if  it  proves  him  guiltless,  he  can 
;lien  claim   a   heav\'   fine   from   his  accuser. 

Ii  a  child  becomes  seriously  ill,  the  father  informs  his 
life's  faniiU'  at  once,  so  that  they  may  meet  and  decide 
.vhat  to  do.  Ihe  child  belongs  to  the  wife's  family,  and, 
I  a  boy,  is  heir  to  his  mother's  eldest  brother.  In  the 
jvent  of  the  child's  death,  a  death  messenger  is  sent  by 
;he  father  to  the  wife's  family,  and  when  the  family  has 
irrived  they  bury  the  corpse.  The  father  and  mother 
remain  in  their  house  for  a  week  or  ten  days,  and,  sitting 
)\\    mats,   they    are    visited    by    their    friends    and    receive 

4i6       Customs  of  the  Lower  Congo  People. 

their  condolences.  They  are  only  allowed  to  go  out  at 

During  the  illness  of  the  child  an  "ngang'  a  moko" 
is  sent  for,  and  will  declare  that  a  witch  is  doing  the  child 
to  death.  When  the  child  is  dead,  the  father  tells  to  his 
wife's  family  all  the  news  of  the  death,  and  the  declaration 
of  the  "ngang*  a  moko."  They  then  decide  to  send  for 
an  *'  ngang'  a  ngombo."  (Later  on  in  this  series  of  papers 
I  will  explain  the  functions  and  modus  operandi  of  these 
different  ngangas.)  Five  blue  beads  are  tied  to  the 
verandah  of  the  house,  and  another  five  blue  beads  and 
a  fowl  are  sent  by  a  special  messenger  to  the  "ngang* 
a  ngombo."  On  the  nganga's  arrival  he  consults  his 
"ngombo"  charms,  and  declares  who  has  "eaten  the 
child."  It  may  be  that  one  person  is  thus  charged,  or 
it  may  be  that  two  or  three  are  declared  to  be  "ndoki" 

When  it  is  not  certain  who  of  two  or  three  suspected 
persons  is  the  witch,  but  it  is  certain  that  one  of  them 
is  the  witch,  the  nganga  takes  two  or  three  small  boys, 
each  one  representing  a  suspected  adult,  gives  a  small 
quantity  of  the  ordeal  bark  to  each  of  them,  and  watches 
the  result.  If  the  symptoms  shown  by  one  or  two  of 
the  boys  are  such  as  to  warrant  him,  he  will  then 
accuse  the  person  or  persons  they  represent  of  witchcraft. 
and  they  will  have  to  take  the  ordeal  in  the  proper 
way.  If  no  signs  are  shown  of  witchcraft,  then  some 
others  will  be  suspected,  and  their  representatives  will 
have  to  take  the  ordeal.  Only  members  of  the  same 
family  can  bewitch  one  another,  and  only  lads  of  the 
same  family  are  used  as  tests.  The  boys  are  well  paid 
for  their  trouble.  After  making  his  declaration  the 
"ngang*  a  ngombo"  receives  his  fee  and  goes  away.  It 
is  not  his  business  to  administer  the  ordeal.  The  "  ngang' 
a  ngombo"  does  not  always  declare  a  person  to  be 
guilty   of  witchcraft,  of  having  eaten   the  deceased,  but 

Customs  of  the  Lotver  Congo  People.       417 

sometimes  accuses  an  "  nkisi "  (fetish)  or  spirit  of  having 
eaten  the  dead  person.  As  the  ordeal  cannot  be  ad- 
ministered to  either  an  "  nkisi "  or  to  a  spirit,  an  "  nganga" 
whose  speciality  it  is  to  deal  with  these  ultra-human 
powers  is  sent  for,  that  he  may  appease  the  spirit  or 
remove  the  evil  influence  of  the  '*  nkisi "  from  the  family. 

A  man  called  **  ngol'  a  nkasa ''  is  sent  for  to  administer 
the  "nkasa"  ordeal,  (poisonous  bark  of  a  tree  pounded 
fine,  and  sometimes  mixed  with  water),  and  he  takes  the 
witch  to  the  bare  top  of  a  hill,  where  they  build  a  hut  of 
palm  fronds,  and  hang  fronds  in  the  doorway,  and  then 
tie  a  lath  across  the  middle  of  the  hut  The  ordeal- 
giver  pushes  a  stone  towards  the  Uritch,  and  puts  twenty- 
seven  small  heaps  of  nkasa  on  it,  grinds  each  heap  to 
powder,  and  takes  one  lot  after  the  other  and  feeds  the 
witch  with  them.  During  this  process  the  accused  person 
must  spread  out  his  hands,  and  must  not  touch  anything. 
After  eating  all  the  ordeal,  the  "ngol'  a  nkasa"  lays  on 
him  the  curse  that  if  he  is  a  witch  he  will  die  by  the 

Should  the  accused  vomit  three  times,  he  b  given  a 
fourth  dose,  and  if  he  vomits  that  he  proves  beyond  all 
doubt  that  he  is  not  a  witch.  The  people  lead  him  back 
to  the  town  singing  songs  in  his  praise,  and  dress  him 
in  fine  cloths,  showing  thus  their  gladness  that  he  has 
stood  the  test  and  is  not  a  w